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Análise de custos para reabilitação de edifícios para habitação.; Housing building rehabilitation costs analysis.

Marques de Jesus, Christiano Romanholo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2008 PT
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A reabilitação de edifícios tem sido tema recorrente junto aos setores interessados no desenvolvimento urbano das grandes metrópoles, tanto no Brasil como em países da Europa e América do Norte. Particularmente, no Brasil, o setor da construção civil vem aumentando seu interesse pela área de reabilitação, seja pelo aumento do volume de recursos aplicados pelos governos federal, estadual e municipal, como pela potencialidade econômica que se vislumbra em função do expressivo parque edificado vazio nas áreas centrais urbanas do país. Apesar deste contexto, as particularidades relativas à produção de obras de reabilitação de edifícios não têm sido objeto de estudo sistêmico. Há expressivo desconhecimento sobre a dinâmica de produção deste tipo de empreendimento, o que tem resultado, sobretudo, em obras cujos custos usualmente extrapolam as estimativas iniciais. Com o objetivo de contribuir para avançar no conhecimento da área de reabilitação, neste trabalho são analisados os custos envolvidos em cinco empreendimentos de reabilitação de edifícios para uso habitacional, identificando-se os principais fatores de produção que os condicionam. A partir da síntese dos resultados obtidos da análise, são propostos alguns parâmetros que podem servir de base para elaboração de futuros orçamentos de obras de reabilitação. Como consequência desta atividade...

Bulgaria : Improving the Quality and Relevance of Education for All

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Bulgaria has recently introduced sweeping reforms of its secondary education system to promote more autonomy and accountability of schools for better learning outcomes. Positive results are already showing but more remains to be done to reap the full benefits of the reforms. Per-student-financing and delegated budgets have led to a wave of school closures that had become essential in the wake of a dramatic decline in student numbers. As opposed to the previous centralized system, school-based management with a considerable degree of decision-making power of the school principal has set the stage for schools to better adjust to local needs and opportunities for a better education. External student assessments are now routinely conducted, which have substantially improved the evidence base for education policy-making. However, concerns remain as to the accountability of schools to the local community. While principals are accountable to the municipal authorities for the use of financial resources, parents have little formal ways of holding principals accountable for learning outcomes. The reform was launched in the face of dramatic challenges in terms of unsatisfactory learning outcomes...

Technical Assistance on Poverty Analysis and Social Statistics : Mission on the Census of Buildings and Dwellings, Volume 1. Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The World Bank is developing a project to develop the capacity of the Central Administration for Statistics (CAS) of Lebanon to produce demographic and social statistics. In the absence of population censuses, the census of buildings and dwelling is one of the few sources of comprehensive data and information at the national level. The census that CAS is planning for 2010-2011 has been identified as an initial candidate for implementation-technical assistance under the current project. The CAS has requested technical support which will run over the life of the Census, from the initiation of the census to the analysis of data, which would extend over the current and the coming fiscal years. In this context, the World Bank organized a one month mission to explore the prospects for this technical assistance. The first two weeks of the mission, Monday 23, March 2009 to Saturday 4, April 2009 focused on assessment. The second two weeks, Monday 6, April 2009 to Saturday 18, April 2009, focused on technical assistance. This note is divided into four volumes. Volume I is an assessment made during the first half of the mission. Volume II addresses the questions related to the Design and Management of the Census of Buildings and Dwellings...

Public Expenditure Tracking Survey : Afghanistan - Education Sector, Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The Public Expenditure Tracking Survey (PETS) looked at four components essential to the strengthening and development of the education sector in Afghanistan: 1) the payment of staff salaries; 2) the availability and use of an operations and maintenance (O&M) budget to support administrative teams and schools; 3) the construction of new schools through the Education Quality Improvement Program (EQUIP); and 4) the distribution of textbooks. The overall objective of the PETS is to understand the dynamics of resource flows in the education sector, to articulate a number of recommendations to improve effectiveness of this resource flow and increase the impact of reforms in the education sector in Afghanistan. This first study will focus on key aspects of resource flow: the extent to which public resources reach service-delivery points (schools); the timeliness of that delivery; the type and scale of bottlenecks and anomalies in the system that may result in delay or leakage of inputs to services; the capacity and flexibility available amongst local officials at all levels to address these bottlenecks. The report is organized as follows: section two presents an overview of the financial landscape of education in the country as well as specific profiles of the three provinces and districts where the research was carried out. Section three looks at the issues related to the payment of salaries and wages to teachers. Section four presents the factors that lead to inefficiencies in meeting the O&M needs of schools and provincial offices. Section five presents the state of completion of schools under EQUIPs and analyses the reasons that lead to these in the three provinces. Section six tracks the distribution of textbooks to provinces from the central level to the schools.

Indonesia - Spending More or Spending Better : Improving Education Financing in Indonesia

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
EN_US
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The report is divided into two parts. The first three chapters show that the vast increase in education resources has not been accompanied by a similar increase in learning outcomes, and thus highlight the urgent need to improve the quality of spending. Chapter one starts by describing the complex financing and governance systems. With this policy framework in mind, Chapter two focuses on the 20 percent rule, analyzing its consequences for budget planning and management and examining where resources went after this vast increase in spending. The chapter also provides some estimates of the cost of meeting future government objectives, in the context of discussions on expanding compulsory education, and broadening teacher certification. Chapter three looks at education outcomes, reviewing the significant improvements in access and equity, as well as the worrisome trends in learning outcomes. It points to improving the quality of education and expanding access to secondary and above (especially for the poor) as the main challenges in the sector. Given the cost of achieving these goals...

Georgia Public Expenditure Review : Diagnostics of Public Investment Management System

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Generating growth and creating jobs within a sustainable fiscal framework is Georgia s biggest macroeconomic challenge. Although Georgia registered rapid growth of 5.7 percent a year during 2010-13, unemployment remains high at 15 percent. New growth companies, especially in tourism and other service sectors, did not generate enough formal or even informal employment. Fiscal policy played a crucial role in Georgia s recent growth performance with a fiscal stimulus driven post-crisis recovery which increased deficit and debt levels followed by fiscal consolidation during 2010-12 when recovery took hold. The weak execution of the budget in 2013 and policy uncertainty were largely responsible for the growth slowdown during the year. Tackling the growth and jobs agenda in Georgia will require significant investment in human and physical capital and the government has a large role to play here. Additional spending, where it is needed, should be undertaken within the fiscal consolidation agenda of the government, designed to help restore the macroeconomic buffers needed to secure stability and sustain confidence in the future. The change in government in 2012 marked a shift in fiscal policy with prioritization of recurrent social expenditures over capital spending...

Timor-Leste : Public Investment Management from Post-Conflict Reconstruction to the 2011-2020 Strategic Development Plan

Rab, Habib; Petrie, Murray
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This chapter captures some of the Public Investment Management (PIM) lessons and experiences from Timor-Leste as it tried to meet urgent infrastructure demands in a post-conflict environment, which benefited from a surge in petroleum receipts. It looks at institutional changes using standard features of Public Investment Management systems starting from the immediate post-independence period in 1999 right up to the launch of Timor-Leste s Strategic Development Plan in July 2011. Increased control over domestic resources over this period, thanks to the onset of natural resource rents, gave the government more autonomy over prioritization and management of capital expenditure. It also enabled use of the Capital Budget to pursue multiple objectives including consolidating social stability, stimulating economic activity outside Dili, delivering quick results to address urgent infrastructure needs, and growth of the domestic private sector. The chapter tries to highlight some of the trade-offs that the PIM system faced in trying to meet these different objectives. It finally looks at some of the institutional reforms that the government embarked on in 2011 when the focus was shifting to large investments for long-term growth. This included centralizing selected PIM functions for large projects and decentralizing those functions for smaller projects.

Financing Municipal Energy Efficiency Projects

Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Improving the energy efficiency (EE) of municipally owned buildings, such as schools and hospitals, and municipal infrastructure, such as public lighting, water supply, and district heating, offers budgetary savings on energy bills and a wide range of environmental and socioeconomic benefits. But relatively few municipal EE projects have been developed and implemented successfully. The challenges that limit EE investments in municipal buildings and facilities can be grouped into three broad areas: (i) a lack of awareness and incentives; (ii) insufficient implementation capacity; and (iii) limited access to financing. All three sets of challenges need to be addressed to scale up successful implementation of municipal EE projects. This Guidance Note focuses on the key issues faced by municipalities in accessing financing for EE investments, particularly for projects in the following four areas: indoor lighting, building retrofits, public lighting, and municipal utilities. The guidance note discusses the following potential financing mechanisms that can be used by municipalities to finance EE measures: budget financing...

Government of Republic of South Sudan Public Finance Management Assessment : Northern Bahr el Ghazal State

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The purpose of this assessment is to assess the public finance management (PFM) system performance of the Northern Bahr el Ghazal State Government (NBGSG). The assessment is one of a number of public expenditure and financial accountability (PEFA) assessments being conducted in South Sudan. The PEFA assessment is focused on the PFM systems of NBGSG in South Sudan and the county of Aweil West, one of NBGS's six counties. The state governments are implementing the same PFM reform programs as at the central government level, with the help of Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MoFEP) and key spending agencies (for example, health), supported by technical assistance from donors, particularly United Nations Development Programme (UNDP): economic planning project, local government and recovery project, and rapid capacity placement initiative. The sequence is similar to that of the central government PFM reform program, with initial strong emphasis on strengthening planning and budgeting systems and using the same techniques. Reforms in budget execution are also similar...

Romania - Reining in Local Government Spending

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study
ENGLISH
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Sub-national Governments play an important role in the Romanian public sector. In 2009, sub-national spending was equivalent to 8.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). Romania has frequently adjusted its system for financing sub-national government over the last decade. These changes reflect ongoing Government concerns over the performance of local governments as well as attempts to increase the transparency and stability of the intergovernmental fiscal relationship. The most recent reform proposals reflect a more immediate concern: the government deficit. In an effort to meet aggregate targets for cuts in spending, the Government has been debating measures to reduce the local wage bill, cut transfers to local governments, and restrain local arrears. The principal objective of this technical assistance has been to advise the Government on the design and implementation of such efforts, and to suggest directions for longer-term structural reforms. Romania has a two-tier structure of local government. The national territory is divided into 41 counties (judets) and the city of Bucharest. These are then divided into various categories of second-tier local governments...

Kosovo - Public Expenditure Review; Kosova - Rishikim i shpenzimeve publike

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH
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During most of the 2000s, Kosovo has pursued a highly conservative fiscal policy, restraining expenditures as revenues continued to climb. The Government has now shifted toward an expansionary expenditure policy. In the short term, the Government intends to finance the resulting budget deficits from accumulated savings and borrowing, as well as through the sale of assets and donor budget support. Neither solution is sustainable. In principle, there is room to increase revenues Kosovo's tax burden is low by regional standards. But the weakness of domestic tax instruments makes this difficult. Restraint on the expenditure side will be required. Given the well-documented shortcomings of public services in Kosovo, this will require an improvement in the quality of public expenditure an improvement in the efficiency of public service delivery rather than a reduction in the quantity or quality of services. This report looks for such opportunities in the major programs of Government expenditure. Overall, Kosovo is in a position to maintain a sustainable fiscal stance while continuing to improve the quality of public services. The public sector is small...

The Greening of Macedonia's Public Buildings : Financing Options for the National Program for Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 2012-18

Limaye, Dilip; Meyer, Anke
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The Government of Macedonia (GOM) plans to launch a National Program for Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings (NPEEPB, or "the program") to achieve energy efficiency (EE) improvements in the buildings sector and meet the strategic targets outlined in the energy development strategy of the Republic of Macedonia until 2030, the EE strategy until 2020, and the national EE action plan in 2010-18. The NPEEPB, coordinated by the Ministry of Economy (MOE), aims to retrofit existing public buildings and to lead by example in the implementation of EE measures. Its targets are public buildings that are used for administrative and other activities of public interest and that are fully owned by government institutions or municipalities. This report focuses on the financing mechanisms that are considered the best fit with the institutional environment to achieve the goals of the NPEEPB, and describes in detail the implementation of the proposed financing mechanisms: a full-service EE fund, a dedicated EE credit line...

East Timor Public Administration : Public Expenditure Management and Accountability Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This study focuses on the implications of East Timor's transitions from United Nations administration to Independence, from reconstruction to development and from aid dependence to fiscal independence for public expenditure policy and management. Following an assessment of the existing systems and their constraints, it makes recommendations for improvements in the public expenditure management system as a tool for achieving: 1) Macro-Economic Stability and Growth, by delivering a sustainable and productive application of resources; 2) Poverty Reduction, by allocating resources to programs that benefit and meet the needs of the poor; 3) Value-for-Money in the application of public funds, by focusing on economy, efficiency and effectiveness in public spending; 4) Good Governance, by ensuring transparency in decision-making and expenditure management, and accountability within the public sector, to the legislature and ultimately to the public. 2. The note is intended first as a contribution to the Government's on-going reform strategy. Summary recommendations are presented at the end of this report. The note is also intended as a contribution to independent assessments of the Government's financial management system undertaken by external partners. Six Chapters...

Russian Federation - Per Capita Financing of Education : Experience and Issues

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Country Office, Moscow Publicador: World Bank Country Office, Moscow
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This brief policy note reviews experience so far with the implementation of a new financing scheme for general education (based on the principle of 'money follows the student') in the Russian Federation. The policy note, which also briefly discusses the lessons of international experience in the field, may be relevant to other countries that are in the process of moving to a system of per capita financing of education services. Of the four major issues facing the education sector in Russia - resource mobilization and efficiency, quality and output measurement, market linkages and equity and access - the first is central: other reforms will be difficult to implement without an improvement in mobilization and allocation of resources. Two key sets of issues are discussed: 1) those issues that have affected the smooth introduction of per capita financing to date in Russia; and 2) perceived problems in relation to budget flexibility and school autonomy because of the introduction of the Treasury system and the Budget Code.

Western Balkans : Scaling Up Energy Efficiency in Buildings

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Within the six countries of the Western Balkans, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia, energy efficiency (EE) is increasingly seen as a key pillar in national energy strategies, helping to enhance energy security, contribute to economic growth, and ensure environmental sustainability. This is for several reasons. EE can reduce the region's heavy reliance on expensive imports, enhance competitiveness and job creation, and reduce the impact of widespread fossil fuel use. EE can also bring important social benefits, helping to improve local air quality (mitigating related adverse health impacts), improve indoor comfort levels through improved heating, and make energy more affordable for low-income families. Finally, EE is seen as a critical tool in helping to mitigate the effects of necessary and planned tariff reforms by offsetting the higher energy costs to the entire economy. To realize these benefits, the Western Balkans countries will have to shift from broad policies and small-scale pilots to scaled-up financing and implementation. There is an urgent need to develop viable financing models in all sectors...

Municipal Budgeting and Finance : Scaling Up Energy Efficiency in Buildings in the Western Balkans

Network of Associations of Local Authorities in South-East Europe
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Within the Western Balkans region, a secure and reliable energy supply is critical for sustainable economic growth. Expensive, imported energy and inefficient energy use place a huge burden on municipalities that require affordable and reliable infrastructure services to attract investment and provide services to their citizens. With energy prices projected to rise, service delivery costs will increase, further straining municipal budgets and disproportionally affecting poorer households. The ability of municipalities to adequately budget for and finance reductions in energy use thus will be a critical need in the years ahead. Saving energy can also help cities renew their building and infrastructure stock while helping to create employment opportunities, all paid for through the reductions in their energy bills. The municipal budget is the main financial planning document at the local level. It contains a list of municipal revenues and expenditures for the coming year, the latter of which are divided into operating and capital expenditures. Typically...

Social Audits in Nepal's Community Schools : Measuring Policy Against Practice

Prasad Kafle, Agni; Patel, Darshana; Agarwal, Sanjay
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Nepal s publicly-funded schools have been managed by community-level stakeholders since 1950 when Nepal first adopted a demo¬cratic system of government. Subsequent changes to legislation and policy have further devolved school management to the com¬munity level, including the provision of financial resources to support decision making by school-level committees. In addition to these reforms, each community school is now required to conduct an annual social audit. Community School National Network (CSNN), a national Nepali NGO with expertise in social accountability approaches, conducted a pilot of 60 schools in three districts (Kaski, Dolakha, and Nawalparasi) to assess gaps in the implementation of social audits by schools as specified in the Guidelines for the Social Auditing of the Schools issued by the Ministry of Education (MoE) of the Government of Nepal. In each of the three districts studied, 70 80 percent of the entire school budget is community-funded. Approximately 83 percent of community schools conducted social audits in the academic year 2008 09. Their implementation varied between the three districts but gaps were usu¬ally due to poor capacity and lack of information about community-level responsibilities. CSNN led a capacity-building initiative at the national...

Equipment Vibration Budget for TMT

MacMartin, Douglas G.; Thompson, Hugh
Fonte: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Publicador: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Tipo: Book Section; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/07/2014
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Vibration from equipment mounted on the telescope and in summit support buildings has been a source of performance degradation at existing observatories, for adaptive optics performance in particular. To ensure that that the total optical performance degradation due to vibration is less than the corresponding optical error budget allocation, a vibration budget has been created that specifies allowable force levels from each source of vibration in the observatory (e.g., pumps, chillers, cryocoolers, etc.). In addition to its primary purpose, the vibration budget allows us to make design trade-offs, specify isolation requirements for equipment, and tighten or widen individual equipment vibration specifications as necessary. Defining this budget relies on two types of information: (i) vibration transmission analysis that determines the optical consequences that result from forces applied at different locations in the Observatory and at different frequencies; and (ii) initial estimates for plausible source amplitudes in order to allocate force budgets to different sources in the most realistic and cost-effective manner. The transmission of vibration from sources through to their optical consequences uses the finite element model of the telescope structure...

Kosovo government buildings : a future out of City Center location 2015-2025 : [presentation given February 29, 2012]; Future out of City Center location

Alaj, Anjeza
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Capstone Project
EN
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Based on Kosovo’s Government budget, over the past ten years an average rate of 2.30 % of total capital investment went to the maintenance and renovation of government office buildings (see figure below). At this rate for the period of 2015-2025, approximately €144 Million will be budgeted for Government buildings. This capstone project has assessed long term tentative plans to accommodate government institutions. In a new site and out of city center location it considered the future planning for permanent accommodation of civil servants out of the city center. The total cost for this new site is estimated to be projected €103 Million. The new site will achieve better functioning of government institutions and will provide the best facilities for the twenty-first century. The five main recommendations in this capstone project are as follows: 1. To collect all the government institution in one place. This will improve the collaboration between institutions, saving time and decreasing the logistic expenditure. This solution will directly affect the success of institutions and the result will be visible sooner. 2. Government should make major cost savings by selecting an out of city center location for a new government complex. For the period 2015-2025 the potential capital savings could be from € 40 to 93 Million. The new out of city center site will provide superior working space and will fulfill needs of employees based on EU standards. 3. The architecture of current situation of center of Pristine is more than chaos. It was sooner built than planned. It is very hard...

Plano de Gestão da Conservação para edificações de valor cultural; Management Plan for the Conservation buildings of cultural value

Tinoco, Jorge Eduardo Lucena
Fonte: Centro de Preservação Cultural. Pró-Reitoria de Cultura e Extensão - USP. Publicador: Centro de Preservação Cultural. Pró-Reitoria de Cultura e Extensão - USP.
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Avaliado pelos pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/12/2013 POR
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Esta comunicação trata do Plano de Gestão da Conservação como instrumento de planejamento que estabelece uma política de administração para o uso adequado dos espaços e dos componentes construtivos, bem como da manutenção periódica do imóvel. Aborda a carência atual, no âmbito técnico especializado da conservação do patrimônio construído, dos procedimentos para elaboração de um documento que concilie os processos políticos e administrativos de dotações orçamentárias e de captações financeiras versus as necessidades técnico-operacionais das obras e dos serviços. O artigo apresenta o case do Plano de Gestão da Conservação da Basílica da Penha, elaborado pelo Centro de Estudos Avançados da Conservação Integrada (CECI) no ano de 2006, como uma experiência exitosa para a garantia da integridade e autenticidade de um bem cultural construído.; This paper presents the Conservation Management Plan as a planning tool that establishes a policy administration for the proper use of spaces and building components, as well as periodic maintenance of the property. Shows the current shortage within technician built heritage conservation, procedures for the preparation of a document that reconciles the political processes and administrative budget allocations and fund raising needs versus technical-operational works and services. The article presents the case of the Conservation Management Plan of the Basilica da Penha...