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The power of the purse : what do the data say on US federal budget allocation to the states?

Testa, Cecilia
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
This paper provides new evidence on the determinants of the allocation of the US federal budget to the states and tests the capability of congressional, electoral and partisan theories to explain such allocation. We find that socio-economic characteristics are important explanatory variables but are not sufficient to explain the disparities in the distribution of federal monies. First, prestige committee membership is not conducive to pork-barrelling. We do not find any evidence that marginal states receive more funding; on the opposite, safe states tend to be rewarded. Also, states that are historically "swing" in presidential elections tend to receive more funds. Finally, we find strong evidence supporting partisan theories of budget allocation. States whose governor has the same political affiliation of the President receive more federal funds; while states whose representatives belong to a majority opposing the president party receive less funds.

New Casemix Classification as an Alternative Method for Budget Allocation in Thai Oral Healthcare Service: A Pilot Study

Wisaijohn, Thunthita; Pimkhaokham, Atiphan; Lapying, Phenkhae; Itthichaisri, Chumpot; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Igarashi, Isao; Kawabuchi, Koichi
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
This study aimed to develop a new casemix classification system as an alternative method for the budget allocation of oral healthcare service (OHCS). Initially, the International Statistical of Diseases and Related Health Problem, 10th revision, Thai Modification (ICD-10-TM) related to OHCS was used for developing the software “Grouper”. This model was designed to allow the translation of dental procedures into eight-digit codes. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the factors used for developing the model and the resource consumption. Furthermore, the coefficient of variance, reduction in variance, and relative weight (RW) were applied to test the validity. The results demonstrated that 1,624 OHCS classifications, according to the diagnoses and the procedures performed, showed high homogeneity within groups and heterogeneity between groups. Moreover, the RW of the OHCS could be used to predict and control the production costs. In conclusion, this new OHCS casemix classification has a potential use in a global decision making.

Efficient Computing Budget Allocation for Finding Simplest Good Designs

Jia, Qing-Shan; Zhou, Enlu; Chen, Chun-Hung
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
In many applications some designs are easier to implement, require less training data and shorter training time, and consume less storage than the others. Such designs are called simple designs, and are usually preferred over complex ones when they all have good performance. Despite the abundant existing studies on how to find good designs in simulation-based optimization (SBO), there exist few studies on finding simplest good designs. We consider this important problem in this paper, and make the following contributions. First, we provide lower bounds for the probabilities of correctly selecting the m simplest designs with top performance, and selecting the best m such simplest good designs, respectively. Second, we develop two efficient computing budget allocation methods to find m simplest good designs and to find the best m such designs, respectively; and show their asymptotic optimalities. Third, we compare the performance of the two methods with equal allocations over 6 academic examples and a smoke detection problem in wireless sensor networks. We hope that this work brings insight to finding the simplest good designs in general.

Managing Resources for Better Outcomes in a Special Autonomy Region : Aceh Public Expenditure Analysis Update 2008

World Bank; Syiah Kuala University
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
This public expenditure analysis for Aceh in 2008 states that the Government of Aceh has received a Special Autonomy Fund to give greater opportunities to build infrastructure and public services and promote economic development. Budget allocation for the provincial government and district went to the main sectors such as infrastructure, health and agriculture. Indicators of social output also show the improvement in the provision of public services. However, major challenges still remain. For one thing, progress in social outcomes in many cases was still below the national average. Furthermore, provincial governments and districts still can not confirm the budget in accordance with the schedule set by the regulations, or spend the budget fully in each budget year. In addition, several important issues related to the implementation of special autonomy funds are still to be defined clearly. In line with this, this report sets out the challenges and obstacles faced by the provincial government and districts in dealing with the allocation of the budget and financial management in Aceh. This report also provides recommendations to help resolve these challenges...

Density versus Quality in Health Care Provision : Using Household Data to Make Budgetary Choices in Ethiopia

Collier, Paul; Dercon, Stefan; Mackinnon, John
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
Usage of health facilities in Ethiopia is among the lowest in the world; raising usage rates is probably critical for improving health outcomes. The government has diagnosed the principal problem as the lack of primary health facilities and is devoting a large share of the health budget to building more facilities. But household data suggest that usage of health facilities is sensitive not just to the distance to the nearest facility but also to the quality of health care provided. If the quality of weak facilities were raised to that currently provided by the majority of facilities in Ethiopia, usage would rise significantly. National data suggest that given the current density and quality of service provision, additional expenditure on improving the quality of service delivery will be more cost-effective than increasing the density of service provision. The budget allocation rule presented in the article can help local policymakers make decisions about how to allocate funds between improving the quality of care and decreasing the distance to the nearest health care facility.

Subnational Budget Process and Practices in Nepal : Findings and Observations from an Assessment in Three Pilot Districts

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.6%
Nepal embarked on a process of decentralization, first through the 1999 Local Self Governance Act, which introduced major policy reforms to devolve decision-making power to local bodies, and later through its 2007 interim constitution, which abol¬ished a feudal state structure and established a federal system of governance that prioritized local government. These reforms presented an important opportunity to not only improve efficiency but also engage citizens at the subnational level. However, they have not yet translated into a more efficient use of budget resources at the subnational level or enhanced citizen under¬standing of budget processes. It was in this context that the Budget Transparency Initiative (BTI) piloted an innovative approach in 2011 to simplify, analyze, and disclose budgets at the subnational level and to build awareness and capacity among government officials and citizens that could promote a public dialogue around public expenditures through social accountability approaches. In this context...

Valuing customer portfolios with endogenous mass-and-direct-marketing interventions using a stochastic dynamic programming decomposition

Esteban-Bravo, Mercedes; Vidal-Sanz, Jose M.; Yildirim, Gökhan
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
Customer Relationship Management generally uses the value of customers to allocate marketing budget. But marketing interventions generally change the customer behavior, turning upside-down the customers ranking based on their initial valuations and making the budget allocation suboptimal. Rational Managers should allocate the marketing budget to maximize the expected net present value of future profits drawn from each customer, simultaneously planning mass marketing interventions and direct marketing effort on each individual. This is a large dimensional Stochastic Dynamic Program, which cannot be easily solved due to the curse of dimensionality. This paper propose a new decomposition algorithm to alleviate the curse of dimensionality in SDP problems, which allows forward-looking firms to allocate the marketing budget optimizing the CLV of their customer base, simultaneously using customized and mass marketing interventions; Research funded by two research projects, S-0505/TIC-0230 by the Comunidad de Madrid and ECO20011-30198 by MICINN agency of Spanish Government

Enhancing Northern Australia's tropical health and medical research capacity -a role for foreign aid

Liu, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.69%
The purpose of this report is to examine the viability of funding an increase in Northern Australia's tropical health and medical research capacity through a foreign aid budget allocation. The report reviewed the scope for increasing medical research funding and improving aid effectiveness. It also entailed a case study of the Australian Centre of International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) that could form a model for supporting an increased medical research capability. Further, the report analysed the existing foreign aid budget allocation and the proposed future increases. Australian Centre of International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) pose a significant public health challenge to Northern Australia. These challenges are primarily attributable to Northern Australia's geographical location, climate, rapid population growth, and tropical health threats from the neighbouring countries with underdeveloped health capacity. To mitigate these health threats, Australian governments should consider providing more funding support to increase the tropical health and medical research capacity in Northern Australia. Australia's foreign aid budget could be an important funding source. In the context of a relatively large and rapidly increasing aid budget...

United Republic of Tanzania - Public Expenditure Review 2011

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.74%
The 2011 Public Expenditure Review (PER) is divided into two parts. The first describes recent developments in fiscal policy, with a particular focus on the adjustment announced in November 2011 as well as short and long term prospects. The second part assesses government performance in the health sector, which accounts for about 10 percent of the total budget. The objectives of the budget analysis chapter are to: 1) document fiscal and macro developments since November 2011, after the government made adjustments to the budget under the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Policy Support Instrument (PSI). Government reduced the fiscal deficit in the budget to approximately 6.6 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) from approximately 8.0 percent of GDP in the initially approved budget for 2011/12. 2) Take stock of budget execution in 2010/11 and strategic budget allocation in 2011/12 in relation to Government strategic objectives of economic growth and poverty reduction as envisaged in MKUKUTA (Mpango wa Kukuza Uchumi na Kupunguza Umaskini Tanzania-Tanzania's National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty) and Five Year Development Plan (FYDP). 3) Highlight a number of priorities that Government needs to take into account in formulating its fiscal policy both in the short and longer terms. In 2011...

Comprehensive Public Expenditure Review 2013 : Eye on Budget - Spending for Results; Kenya - Toleo lililorahisishwa uchunguzi wa matumizi ya pesa za umma : tathmini ya bajeti - matumizi yenye matokeo bora

Ministry of Devolution and Planning
Fonte: Government of Kenya, Nairobi Publicador: Government of Kenya, Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
This public expenditure review (PER) provides an assessment of the extent to which expenditure addresses national priorities in an effort to strengthen the link between government policies, planning, and budgeting. This report is prepared to provide a critical assessment of public spending, challenges, weaknesses, and successes in the past three years (2009 to 2012). The report subsequently informs current and future expenditure through policies that influence budget decisions. It links public expenditure to performance of key sectors in the economy for the three year period; while giving policy and performance outlook focusing on the implementation of the constitution of Kenya 2010 in general and devolution in particular. This report gives an outline on sector performance of programs and reviews expenditures for the period. It provides recommendations to improve implementation of the budget in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, timeliness, and target for better service delivery. This report accentuates the institutional reforms underpinned in the constitution of Kenya 2010 and explores the opportunities to catalyze Kenya's growth as envisaged in the economic blue print...

Uganda - Public Expenditure Review 2003 : Supporting Budget Reforms at the Central and Local Government Levels

World Bank
Fonte: Washington DC Publicador: Washington DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.68%
This 2003 Public Expenditure Review (PER) report addresses budget process challenges, at both the central and local government (LG) levels, highlighting the progress made, and identifying challenges for the future. The first chapter reviews country economic performance over the previous year and its implications for fiscal performance. In addition to tracking the various macroeconomic indicator trends, the chapter highlights areas of challenge in the economy, and includes an expanded section on the challenges of managing the recent fiscal deficit trends. Chapter 2 discusses the budget process, including issues concerning the preparation of the budget, the roles of the sector working groups, and progress made in the preparation of sector budget framework papers. The chapter also comments on the quality and depth of participation of various stakeholders in the budget process. Chapter 3 addresses budget execution challenges in Uganda during the last budget cycle. Problems encountered in budget execution - non-programmed allocation of resources during the course of the year...

Democratic Republic of Congo : Public Expenditure Review; Republique Democratique du Congo - Revue des Depenses Publiques (RDP)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.81%
This public expenditure review (PER) is an important exercise for Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), because the new government is under a tremendous pressure from the population to show that it can provide a better life. The perception and anecdotal evidence that the wealth in DRC is not shared equitably among the population was a leading cause of the recent war on the DRC territory. A lack of action by the government to demonstrate its commitment to move in the right direction can translate into a renewed armed conflict. Without such a demonstration of commitment, international development partners are wary of granting aid to the country, which implies stagnating investment activities, and possible debt crises. The PER strongly advocates to break the cycle of apathy among line ministries of presenting an unrealistic wish-list of a budget proposal, receiving a budget allocation that has little to do with the proposal, enduring an erratic execution of even the diminished allocation, and not reporting back to the financial ministries of how exactly the public funds were used. Their experience of passing decades not receiving meaningful allocations of resources is an understandable reason for such apathy...

Budget and Procurement Monitoring in Nigeria : A Civil Society Perspective

Zovighian, Diane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Can governments be held accountable for spending by citizen organizations? In this issue the author present the experience of two civil society organizations (CSOs) engaged in budget and procurement review and monitoring in Nigeria. In the Nigerian context, the preconditions for accountable citizen-state relations are underdeveloped. In particular, some of the building blocks of transparent and accountable public financial management systems are absent or dysfunctional. Lack of information and limited opportunities for citizens' engagement in government processes have resulted in high levels of mistrust between citizens and government. Despite these challenges, there are people and groups, in both government and civil society, who have taken bold steps to ensure greater transparency and accountability in the planning and management of public resources. For example, networks of CSOs working in the area of procurement oversight have started demanding information on procurement bids. The World Bank civil society fund provides financial and technical support to CSOs aimed at improving their capacity and effectiveness to engage in reform and policy processes. Given the World Bank's broader focus on governance reforms...

Mauritania : Improving Budget Management to Promote Sustainable Development and Reduce Poverty, Public Expenditure Review Update; Mauritanie - Ameliorer la gestion budgetaire pour promouvoir une croissance durable et reduire la pauvrete : revue des depenses publiques actualisee

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
The Public Expenditure Review (PER) has provided a basis for analysis and action under the Public Sector Capacity Building Program(PRECASP), one of components is related to the improvement of public finance management and is expected to support the implementation of the measures proposed in this document. These analyses deal with issues closely related to this review, including (i) the problems faced by the financial sector and their impact on public finances; (ii) the issue of transparency with regards to the management of oil revenues, and (iii) medium-term and long-term macroeconomic projections that determine the prospects for growth and for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Its objectives are to identify ways to improve public financial management in the sector and to alleviate the constraints on agriculture development, with a view to increasing productivity and reducing poverty in rural areas. Moreover, the PRECASP will finance expenditure reviews in priority sectors. Oil-related research...

Global Stock-Take of Social Accountability Initiatives for Budget Transparency and Monitoring : Key Challenges and Lessons Learned

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Knowledge Economy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.7%
Budgets are key documents that lay out a government's economic priorities in terms of policies and programs. Budget transparency refers to the extent and ease with which citizens can access information about and provide feedback on government revenues, allocations, and expenditures. Budget monitoring entails using such information to analyze, critique, and track government finances in order to provide this feedback. Budget transparency is a prerequisite for public participation and accountability, which are instrumental for a democratic and legitimate budget process. Both budget transparency and monitoring efforts also help remove institutional bottlenecks that result in delayed budget allocations, thereby jeopardizing the delivery of vital services to people. Even though they have a far-reaching impact on the lives of people, opening up budgets beyond the exclusive domain of policy makers and administrators is a relatively recent phenomenon that has gained momentum in the last two decades. The stock taking exercise illustrates the range of mechanisms involved in Budget Transparency and Monitoring (BT&M) in different contexts and demonstrates significant promise of influencing governance processes and outcomes. Finally...

Efficient Computing Budget Allocation for Simulation-based Optimization with Stochastic Simulation Time

Jia, Qing-Shan
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/06/2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
The dynamics of many systems nowadays follow not only physical laws but also man-made rules. These systems are known as discrete event dynamic systems and their performances can be accurately evaluated only through simulations. Existing studies on simulation-based optimization (SBO) usually assume deterministic simulation time for each replication. However, in many applications such as evacuation, smoke detection, and territory exploration, the simulation time is stochastic due to the randomness in the system behavior. We consider the computing budget allocation for SBO's with stochastic simulation time in this paper, which has not been addressed in existing literatures to the author's best knowledge. We make the following major contribution. The relationship between simulation time and performance estimation accuracy is quantified. It is shown that when the asymptotic performance is of interest only the mean value of individual simulation time matters. Then based on the existing optimal computing budget allocation (OCBA) method for deterministic simulation time we develop OCBA for stochastic simulation time (OCBAS), and show that OCBAS is asymptotically optimal. Numerical experiments are used to discuss the impact of the variance of simulation time...

Offline and Online Models of Budget Allocation for Maximizing Influence Spread

Avigdor-Elgrabli, Noa; Blocq, Gideon; Gamzu, Iftah
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/08/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
The research of influence propagation in social networks via word-of-mouth processes has been given considerable attention in recent years. Arguably, the most fundamental problem in this domain is the influence maximization problem, where the goal is to identify a small seed set of individuals that can trigger a large cascade of influence in the network. While there has been significant progress regarding this problem and its variants, one basic shortcoming of the underlying models is that they lack the flexibility in the way the overall budget is allocated to different individuals. Indeed, budget allocation is a critical issue in advertising and viral marketing. Taking the other point of view, known models allowing flexible budget allocation do not take into account the influence spread in social networks. We introduce a generalized model that captures both budgets and influence propagation simultaneously. For the offline setting, we identify a large family of natural budget-based propagation functions that admits a tight approximation guarantee. This family extends most of the previously studied influence models, including the well-known Triggering model. We establish that any function in this family implies an instance of a monotone submodular function maximization over the integer lattice subject to a knapsack constraint. This problem is known to admit an optimal $1-1/e \approx 0.632$-approximation. For the online setting...

Statistical Decision Making for Optimal Budget Allocation in Crowd Labeling

Chen, Xi; Lin, Qihang; Zhou, Dengyong
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
In crowd labeling, a large amount of unlabeled data instances are outsourced to a crowd of workers. Workers will be paid for each label they provide, but the labeling requester usually has only a limited amount of the budget. Since data instances have different levels of labeling difficulty and workers have different reliability, it is desirable to have an optimal policy to allocate the budget among all instance-worker pairs such that the overall labeling accuracy is maximized. We consider categorical labeling tasks and formulate the budget allocation problem as a Bayesian Markov decision process (MDP), which simultaneously conducts learning and decision making. Using the dynamic programming (DP) recurrence, one can obtain the optimal allocation policy. However, DP quickly becomes computationally intractable when the size of the problem increases. To solve this challenge, we propose a computationally efficient approximate policy, called optimistic knowledge gradient policy. Our MDP is a quite general framework, which applies to both pull crowdsourcing marketplaces with homogeneous workers and push marketplaces with heterogeneous workers. It can also incorporate the contextual information of instances when they are available. The experiments on both simulated and real data show that the proposed policy achieves a higher labeling accuracy than other existing policies at the same budget level.; Comment: 39 pages

Key drivers of EU budget allocation: Does power matter?

Zaporozhets, Vera; García-Valiñas, María; Kurz, Sascha
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/12/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
We examine the determinants of the EU budget expenditures allocation among different countries. In line with earlier literature, we consider two alternative explanations for the EU budget distribution: political power vs. needs view. Extending the original data set from Kauppi and Widgr\'en (2004), we analyze the robustness of their predictions when applying a different measure of power and more sophisticated econometric techniques. We conclude that the nucleolus is a good alternative to the Shapley-Shubik index in distributive situations such as the case of EU budget allocation. Our results also show that when explaining budget shares, the relative weight of political power based on the nucleolus is lower than the predictions of previous studies based on the Shapley-Shubik index.; Comment: 32 pages, 9 tables

Multi-Touch Attribution Based Budget Allocation in Online Advertising

Geyik, Sahin Cem; Saxena, Abhishek; Dasdan, Ali
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/02/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
Budget allocation in online advertising deals with distributing the campaign (insertion order) level budgets to different sub-campaigns which employ different targeting criteria and may perform differently in terms of return-on-investment (ROI). In this paper, we present the efforts at Turn on how to best allocate campaign budget so that the advertiser or campaign-level ROI is maximized. To do this, it is crucial to be able to correctly determine the performance of sub-campaigns. This determination is highly related to the action-attribution problem, i.e. to be able to find out the set of ads, and hence the sub-campaigns that provided them to a user, that an action should be attributed to. For this purpose, we employ both last-touch (last ad gets all credit) and multi-touch (many ads share the credit) attribution methodologies. We present the algorithms deployed at Turn for the attribution problem, as well as their parallel implementation on the large advertiser performance datasets. We conclude the paper with our empirical comparison of last-touch and multi-touch attribution-based budget allocation in a real online advertising setting.; Comment: This paper has been published in ADKDD 2014, August 24, New York City, New York, U.S.A