Following the organization, in 2009, of the first conference on The British Empire: Ideology, Perspectives, Perception, the Research Group dedicated to Culture Studies at the University of the Lisbon Centre for English Studies organized, in 2010, a second conference under the general title Empire
Building and Modernity. This conference constitutes the second part of a three year project undertaken by the group, which will be followed, in 2011, by a third initiative, called Reviewing Imperial Conflicts.
The proceedings of the second conference are now presented in this book. Empire Building and Modernity gives a larger scope to the original project, which was developed more strictly around the British Empire, and provides the opportunity to deal with questions related to the formation of modern European empires, namely the Portuguese Colonial Empire. The different chapters in
this book reveal a variety of approaches that are very often at the cutting edge of the methodologies adopted in cultural studies, particularly in the field of post-colonial studies.
The building of new perceptions on imperial issues interpreted through literature, the visual arts, history and political science, the role of museums, questions of gender and race and the construction of identity through language constitute the guidelines of the contributions presented in this volume. I hope you will enjoy reading it as much as we enjoyed discussing the issues that contributed to its making.
O advento da telegrafia transatlântica em 1866 teve largas implicações para as reportagens noticiosas, o comércio, e a diplomacia. Curiosamente o significado estratégico desta tecnologia dominada pelos britânicos não foi plenamente apreciado até relativamente tarde no século XIX. Existiram ligações telegráficas via Portugal desde muito cedo e os Açores foram então ligados ao continente. Dado terem sido os cabos utilizados pelo seu valor estratégico, a «relação especial» com Portugal e a posição geográfica dos Açores ganharam um novo significado. Informações sobre a importância técnica, comercial. Política, militar e social dos cabos açoreanos ainda restam por explorar. Este artigo estuda o material actualmente disponível, dentro da perspectiva da rede de comunicações do Império Britânico.; ABSTRACT: The advent of trans-Atlantic telegraphy in 1866 had far reaching implications for news reporting, commerce and diplomacy. Strangely the strategic significance of this British dominated technology was not fully appreciated until relatively late in the 19th century. There were Empire links via Portugal at an early stage and the Azores was connected to the mainland. Once cables became utilised for their strategic value then the «special relationship» with Portugal and the geographic location of the Azores developed a new significance. Information on the technical...
This dissertation explores the relationship between violence and betrayal in retribution against military and police collaborators who helped maintain Japan’s wartime occupations up until its defeat in 1945. Looking at the approaches taken in the colonies of British Asia, postwar treason trials in the Philippines, and Chinese Communist approaches in wartime and postwar Shandong province, this study argues that the laws and rhetoric of treason were deeply flawed tools for confronting the atrocities of war. At the very moment that war crimes trials were defining a set of acts that constituted crimes against all humanity, around the world thousands of individuals who helped perpetrate them were treated as primarily guilty of crimes against the nation. Each of the chapters in this work examines the costs and consequences of this for postwar societies on the eve of decolonization and civil war. Throughout the territories under Japanese occupation, locally recruited military and police forces comprised the largest category of individuals to face accusations of treason in the aftermath of war, but were also those most likely to be complicit in atrocities. Among the ranks of the disloyal, they were both the most useful as well as the most dangerous to postwar regimes and almost always separated out from other accused collaborators. Their treason was often treated as a disease of the heart which...
The era between the close of the nineteenth century and the onset of the First World War witnessed a marked increase in radical agitation among Indian and Irish nationalists. The most outspoken political leaders of the day founded a series of widely circulated newspapers in India and Ireland, placing these editors in the enviable position of both reporting and creating the news. Nationalist journalists were in the vanguard of those pressing vocally for an independent India and Ireland, and together constituted an increasingly problematic contingent for the British Empire. The advanced-nationalist press in Ireland and the nationalist press in India took the lead in facilitating the exchange of provocative ideas—raising awareness of perceived imperial injustices, offering strategic advice, and cementing international solidarity.
Irish and Indian press coverage of Britain’s imperial wars constituted one of the premier weapons in the nationalists’ arsenal, permitting them to build support for their ideology and forward their agenda in a manner both rapid and definitive. Directing their readers’ attention to conflicts overseas proved instructive in how the Empire dealt with those who resisted its policies, and also showcased how it conducted its affairs with its allies. As such...
Australian cinema has played and continues to play an important part in the formation and formulation of Australia. This article explores the relation between Australia and empire through the analysis of three iconic cinematic characters: Barry McKenzie, Mick Dundee and Kenny Smyth. The point of departure is the notion that Australianness has been constructed as an identity caught between empires, between the old (British) empire and the new (American) empire. Australian cinema itself has been for most (if not all) of its history caught between the British Empire and the American Empire. Yet, recently there are signs that Australian films are repositioning Australia as part of the Global Village, suggesting that Australian national identity might be moving beyond the imperial articulations of Australianness. The evolution of the relation between Australia and Anglo-Empire symbolized by the three characters studied here hints at the possibility of a twenty-first century post-imperial Australianness.; Cao, Benito
The Landscape of Empire, London, 1870-1939
Pamela J. Francis
While many historians of the British Empire have dismissed the presence of imperial motifs and themes in Britain in the early twentieth century, this dissertation identifies and analyzes two discourses of Empire that shaped the material and cultural landscape of London during that period. Chapter one establishes several contexts relating to this period, including New Imperialism, as outlined by Disraeli and later, Joseph Chamberlain. As Disraeli?s New Imperialism evolved, it incorporated the national efficiency movement as a way to make the Empire modern and relevant while maintaining traditional social and political hierarchies, resulting in a cultural milieu of ?conservative modernity.? While uncovering these ideas in the imperial spectacle of the first four decades of the twentieth century, I employ aspects of critical human geography to demonstrate how those ideas inscribed themselves onto the urban landscape of London.
Chapter two describes three royal Jubilees in terms of imperial spectacle. These events reflect an imperial ethos built on the concept of the Empire as modern, prosperous, healthy, and tasked by Providence with a civilizing mission. Once identified...
The United States of America is for all practical purposes, an empire. It has territories separated by bodies of water that are under its control, has the world's largest economy, and it has the ability to project its force with a large and powerful military. Like other empires, the U.S. is prone to follow the historical model of an imperial rise to power and a later fall from power. I hypothesize that the United States is on the verge of a fall from preeminence. By comparing the United States with the Roman and British Empires, I intend to research the economic causes behind the collapse of these two empires and see if the United States is in a comparable situation. If the United States is falling from power, then it has two options, accept its fate, or like the Romans and British, change course and try to continue to hold onto power as long as possible. The United States can learn something by studying the successes and mistakes made by previous world powers. By studying older world powers, this thesis will attempt to compare current problems the U.S. faces to those problems that Rome and Great Britain faced in their respective eras. This thesis will use these two historical case studies to find solutions to some of the problems that the U.S. faces today...
During the early 20th century, the British Empire held a prominent place within Australian society and politics. At this time Australian parliamentarians discussed the need to assert a distinctive Australian presence in London, the heart of the Empire.
The desire to secure a pennanent and official representation of Australian interests prompted numerous debates during the first decade of the 1900s about the most appropriate form of such representation, its role and purpose, and what type of image it should offer of the new Commonwealth. The outcome, after much deliberation, was the establishment of the position of an Australian high commissioner in 1909 to officially represent the Commonwealth's interests in Great Britain.
It was also proposed that new Commonwealth offices be built in London to support the unified representation of state and federal interests and to illustrate the
Commonwealth's progress in tenns of wealth, growth, and stability. Discussion about the site of the proposed offices led in turn to consideration of building plans. With the outbreak of the First World War on 4 August 1914, the high commission and Australia House, established at the Strand, carried out functions and responsibilities that were essential to the administration of the Australian Imperial
Force in Great Britain. The dispatch of war intelligence to Australia and the welfare
of Australian servicemen were two key tasks performed.
The unexpected intervention of the First World War significantly altered the role...
[Introduction]:One of Britain's obvious distinguishing characteristics in the 19th century, and for fifty or so years on either side, was her empire. Britain of course is by no means alone in having been a colonial power at one time or another. Hers however was the largest overseas empire in history, by most ways of measuring it, and also the last significant empire that admitted to the name. For most foreigners, who were generally at the receiving end of this - it was as an empire that Britain most affected them - it was her imperial status more than anything else that determined her national identity. In recent years many Britons too have come to define her in terms of her empire retrospectively. They include cultural 'theorists' who have teased imperial subtexts from the most unlikely cultural products of 19th century Britain (Jane Austen's Mansfield Park is the most famous example), in order to show how seeped in empire the country was. This is understandable. It is difficult to imagine that so huge an enterprise could not have had a profound effect on Britons' views of themselves and of their nation (or nations)while it was still going on. It may also however be misleading. If we put aside the expectation of imperialism, we find that the empire did not need to have been anything like as pervasive as this - as essential to Britons' self-perception as a nation - as might be thought. This is for three broad reasons. The first is that the empire did not materially effect Britons sufficiently to make such a cultural impact inescapable. The second is that the empirical evidence on its own does not seem to suggest that it did. Imperial meanings have to be read into the literature; they do not leap out at one. The third is that there are other 'discourses' in British national culture besides the imperial one...
The era between the close of the nineteenth century and the onset of the First World War witnessed a marked increase in radical agitation among Indian and Irish nationalists. The most outspoken political leaders of the day founded a series of widely circulated newspapers in India and Ireland, placing these editors in the enviable position of both reporting and creating the news. Nationalist journalists were in the vanguard of those pressing vocally for an independent India and Ireland, and together constituted an increasingly problematic contingent for the British Empire. The advanced-nationalist press in Ireland and the nationalist press in India took the lead in facilitating the exchange of provocative ideas--raising awareness of perceived imperial injustices, offering strategic advice, and cementing international solidarity. ^ Irish and Indian press coverage of Britain's imperial wars constituted one of the premier weapons in the nationalists' arsenal, permitting them to build support for their ideology and forward their agenda in a manner both rapid and definitive. Directing their readers' attention to conflicts overseas proved instructive in how the Empire dealt with those who resisted its policies, and also showcased how it conducted its affairs with its allies. As such...
“Red coats and wild birds: military culture and ornithology across the nineteenth-century British Empire” investigates the intersections between British military culture and the practices and ideas of ornithology, with a particular focus on the British Mediterranean. Considering that British officers often occupied several imperial sites over the course of their military careers, to what extent did their movements shape their ornithological knowledge and identities at “home” and abroad? How did British military naturalists perceive different local cultures (with different attitudes to hunting, birds, field science, etc.) and different local natures (different sets of birds and environments)? How can trans-imperial careers be written using not only textual sources (for example, biographies and personal correspondence) but also traces of material culture? In answering these questions, I centre my work on the Mediterranean region as a “colonial sea” in the production of hybrid identities and cultural practices, and the mingling of people, ideas, commodities, and migratory birds. I focus on the life geographies of four military officers: Thomas Wright Blakiston, Andrew Leith Adams, L. Howard Lloyd Irby, and Philip Savile Grey Reid. By the mid-nineteenth century...
This thesis examines the rhetoric and practice of voluntary welfare work by British women within the twentieth-century British Empire. Voluntarism was an important component of the attention to colonial welfare and development that was a dominant theme of the ideology and practice of the last decades of the British Empire. Debated and defined during the 1930s, programs to enact welfare and development were implemented after the Second World War as part of a revived empire during the 1950s. These programs remained integral to post-colonial relationships after the rapid dismantling of empire in the 1960s. Examining the welfare component of twentieth-century imperial aspirations, this study follows the informal practitioners of colonial welfare—the British women residing in empire who through voluntary work contributed to both defining and delivering colonial welfare—considering the intersection of individual lives and imperial responsibilities.
This study offers a comparative and trans-imperial account of individual women engaged in voluntary efforts alongside a closer analysis of the rhetoric and reality of voluntarism in colonial Kenya. White women residing in the colonies contributed voluntarily to the provision of colonial health...
The north eastern region in India represents a legacy of uneven imperial state formation inherited by the Indian nation state. My doctoral dissertation examines British imperialism in the nineteenth century, as it operated in “non-British” spaces of the north east frontier of colonial India. I focus on the historical production and cooption of the Khasi and Jaintiah hills, into a frontier space of the British Empire. I analyse the interconnections between physical transformations, colonial structures of law, and colonial knowledge that produced inhabitants of the autonomous polities, north east of Bengal into “hill tribals”.
Law provided a foundational framework through which colonial commercial and military advancement into non-British territories such as the Khasi hills was achieved. The most profound implication of colonial processes was on ruler-subject relations, which accompanied the reconstitution of space and inhabitants’ conceptions of self. The dissertation traces both spatial and imaginative transformations that stripped the groups occupying the Khasi and Jaintiah hills of a political identity. The Khasi tribal subject’s relationship to the governing structures was navigated, and negotiated using a reconstituted notion of custom.
This project is more than a history of tribal minorities in India. It addresses the crisis of colonial sovereignty in colonial frontiers...
This dissertation reintegrates the Mediterranean into the history of the development of the early modern British Empire. During the seventeenth century, the Mediterranean emerged as a distinct political, legal and commercial space within the wider currents of English expansion. The political and legal regimes of the sea shaped the evolution of the English presence there and the rulers of the Ottoman Empire, the North African regencies, and Italian states such as Tuscany and Genoa limited the expansion of English sovereignty. As a result, the sea offers a different perspective on the history of English expansion than that found in imperial histories set in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The development of the English presence in the Mediterranean highlights the relative weakness of the early modern English state and the extent to which other polities limited the expansion of its sovereign authority. However, this dissertation also aims to move beyond an imperial historiography that distinguishes the wider development of English trade and navigation from the growth of English empire. Through the latter half of the seventeenth century and first half of the eighteenth, the Crown's claims to jurisdiction over its subjects and their ships projected English authority into the Mediterranean. This dissertation examines how the English state extended its authority within a pluralistic maritime environment that lay largely beyond the reach of its claims to empire. By studying the jurisdictional contests that arose when the Crown’s claims to authority over its subjects and their ships collided with the sovereignty of Mediterranean polities...
This dissertation examines the era of slavery amelioration while situating the significance of this project to reform slavery within the longer history of the British Empire. While scholars of British slavery have long debated the causes of both the abolition of the slave trade (1807) and the abolition of slavery (1833), they have overlooked the ways that both abolitionists and politicians attempted to "reform" slavery - extending both baseline protections and a civilizing mission toward slaves - as a prelude toward broader emancipation. This attempted amelioration of slavery influenced both the timing and form that emancipation took.
By focusing on the island where metropolitan officials first attempted to exert an ameliorative agenda, this dissertation uncovers the forgotten influence of Spanish laws and practices on British abolitionism. Trinidad was captured from Spain in 1797 during the heyday of abolitionist agitation, during an era when Spanish slave codes were gaining newfound attention among British reformers for their reputed benevolence. Despite local planter opposition, metropolitan officials elected to retain the island's Spanish legal structure following the Peace of Amiens. The Trinidad template for amelioration would be framed around the island's Spanish laws...
Fonte: Universidade DukePublicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' Thesis
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
This Project is a memoir, a collection of stories of the places I’ve been, the people that populated my life, and events both historical and personal that drew my course. I grew up in India, a child of the early 1950’s, an India fresh out of its colonial past, when the remnants of the British Empire still lingered on. My mother’s family traced their antecedents through several generations of British civil servants who lived, worked and settled in India. My father’s parents were immigrants from Russia who settled in Brooklyn, New York. My experiences led me to explore and reflect on the cultural and historical milieu I lived through, during my childhood, early adulthood, later adulthood, across continents, and through the vagaries of history that took me back to and kept me in India a while longer than expected. My stories afford amusement and have instructional value, about, among other things, life in India, its flora and fauna, the emotional life of humans, marriages good and bad, and child rearing – how not to do it, and how to attempt to do it as well as circumstances allow.; Thesis
In the mid-eighteenth century the British Crown claimed a network of territories around the globe as its "Empire." Through a close study of law and legal instutions in Bombay, Madras, Calcutta, as well as London, this dissertation examines what it meant to be a part of that Empire. These three cities on the Indian subcontinent were administered by the English East India Company and as such have often seemed abberant or unique to scholars of eighteenth-century empire and law. This dissertation argues that these Indian cities fit squarely within an imperial legal and governmental framework common to the wider British world. Using a variety of legal records and documents, generated in both India and England, the dissertation explores the ways in which local elites and on-the-ground litigants of all national, religious, and cultural backgrounds shaped the colonial legal culture of EIC India. In the process, the dissertation shows the fitful process by which litigants from India, Company officials, and London legal elites struggled over how to define the limits of Empire. The dissertation argues that it was this process of legal wrangling which both defined the mid eighteenth-century Empire and planted the seeds for the more exclusionary colonial order in nineteenth century British India.
"Par Avion" is the story of Solon Baath, a mariner in the British navy, as he travels the British Empire in the years following World War I. Partly a story of origins and identity, Par Avion seeks to confront the concept of empire by examining the motivations of those who champion it as well as the people who suffer its consequences.; A thesis submitted to the Department of English for Graduation with Distinction in
On Christmas Day in 1788, on the eve of a year which was to see the entire Atlantic world once more convulsed with revolution and war, a struggling farmer and occasional fisherman from the village of Mousehole in western Cornwall turned his back on the sea. William Carvosso had never found maritime life to his liking, and for some time been looking for an opportunity to, in his words, support himself and his family "wholly on the land." So when that opportunity finally did arise Carvosso was quick to move his young family to a rented farm near the inland village of Ponsanooth. With a little capital and zealous stewardship Carvosso began to thrive in his new home. The move, which at first glance seemed to take the family from cosmopolitan littoral to parochial isolation, was actually the first step of an intergenerational journey that saw Carvosso's children and grandchildren witness convict hangings in Van Diemen's Land, the Tai-ping Rebellion in Shanghai, Blackfoot and Plains Cree horse raids on the Great Plains, and the trafficking of indentured labor from India to the Caribbean. The vehicle which transported the Carvossos about the globe - and which facilitated their rise as a family from the laboring classes to the lower reaches of respectability and beyond - was the Wesleyan Methodist Connexion and its ancillary Missionary Society. The following dissertation is concerned with the Carvossos' movements...
The Irish born Thomas Smartt loved South Africa, and fervently believed that that his adopted country's highest destiny could only be achieved by being in the British Empire. For him the imperial connection with Britain was a "sacred tie", and he saw it as his duty as the leader of the pro-imperial Unionist Party, the official parliamentary opposition between 1912 and 1920, to protect and strengthen it. He was, however, a disastrous leader of the Unionist Party, and did much to harm the "sacred tie". His lack of self-restraint when it came to imperial interests meant that instead of controlling and guiding the attachment of South African English-speakers to Britain, he fuelled a destructive jingoism. In the process he harmed the efforts of Louis Botha and J.C. Smuts to reconcile the two white groups after the trauma of the South African War, and to create a united and loyal South Africa within the Empire.