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Estudos de etnobotânica e botânica económica no Alentejo

Carvalho, Luís Manuel Mendonça
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
As actuais circunstâncias económicas e sociais conduzem o conhecimento de matriz etnobotânica a um inexorável processo de extinção, porque são os cidadãos mais idosos os seus depositários. Com a sua eventual perda, associada ao fim das práticas agrícolas tradicionais, desaparecerão informações protocientíficas acumuladas ao longo de séculos. O objectivo primordial deste estudo foi o de valorizar esses conhecimentos e contribuir para a sua conservação, dentro de uma estratégia ecológica de gestão dos recursos naturais. O estudo foi desenvolvido com comunidades rurais do Concelho de Beja durante três anos (2003-2005). Realizaram-se entrevistas a 54 informantes, maioritariamente mulheres, com idades superiores a 60 anos, e registaram-se os conhecimentos etnobotânicos vivos e de memória viva. A informação recolhida, apresenta-se de acordo com o modelo enunciado no Economic Botany Data Collection Standard (Cook, 1995) e está distribuída por treze classes de uso. Registaram-se 1032 usos específicos, referentes a 166 espécies, 125 géneros e 53 famílias. A classe de uso com maior número de citações foi a classe 11 (usos medicinais), com 471 usos. Os resultados indicaram-nos que 58% das plantas estudadas possui entre 1 e 5 usos específicos. As espécies com maior valor social...

Especies arboreas, arbustivas e herbaceas do Parque Taquaral (Campinas, SP) : subsidios para atividades de ensino não-formal de botanica; Tree, shrub and herbaceous species of Parque Taquaral (Campinas, SP): subsidies for non-formal teaching activities of botany

Erika Ikemoto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/02/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.11%
O potencial subutilizado de muitas áreas verdes urbanas e a maneira desinteressante como a Botânica é geralmente tratada em sala de aula foram algumas das questões que motivaram a realização deste trabalho. Seus objetivos centrais foram: (1) fornecer subsídios para o estabelecimento de uma relação mais próxima entre a flora de uma área urbana e seus freqüentadores atuais e potenciais e (2) realizar uma experiência de utilização dessa área, inserindo a dimensão não formal no contexto do ensino formal, numa tentativa de tornar o aprendizado de Botânica mais prazeroso. Foi realizado o levantamento das espécies herbáceas, arbustivas e arbóreas que ocorrem em cinco subáreas da área de estudo ? o Parque Taquaral.Foram encontradas 169 espécies; dentre as 157 identificadas até o nível de espécie, 94 são nativas, 62 exóticas e uma híbrido artificial. As informações reunidas acerca das subáreas revelaram que cada uma delas possui, comparativamente, certas características que favoreceriam a realização de atividades ? alto número total de espécies, grande quantidade de espécies de pequeno porte, alta concentração de espécies em uma pequena área. Chaves de identificação (uma geral e uma para cada subárea) foram confeccionadas procurando-se utilizar uma linguagem acessível a um público não acadêmico...

Saberes escolares de botânica nos livros didácticos de Ciências da Natureza dos ensinos primário e básico (1. º ciclo) : análise ao seu estatuto curricular no último século em Portugal; School knowledge of botany in textbooks of natural sciences in primary school education : analysis of its curricular statute in Portugal in the last century

Guimarães, Fernando
Fonte: Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda. Departamento de Educação e Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação – Mestrado Publicador: Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda. Departamento de Educação e Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação – Mestrado
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2008 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.11%
Os livros didácticos têm para a escola uma importância na conformação das formas e dos conteúdos do conhecimento pedagógico. Articulando aspectos relativos à sequência e ao ritmo da transmissão de conhecimentos possuem importantes objectivos pedagógicos e didácticos concretizados através das actividades que propõem e dos modos de avaliar as aquisições realizadas. O presente estudo analisa a importância que tem sido conferida à área de Botânica nos livros de Ciências dos Ensinos Primário e Básico (1.º Ciclo) no século XX em Portugal. Na tentativa de perceber de que forma ocorreu uma evolução na abordagem de conteúdos de Botânica, apreciamos livros didácticos baseados em onze princípios. Esta apreciação, assente na análise de conteúdo e na análise de clusters, contribui para confrontar os livros didácticos quanto aos conteúdos que incluem, as orientações curriculares, pedagógicas e didácticas que traduzem, assim como os valores educativos e científicos que sugerem. Os resultados mostram que a par da variação da terminologia dos livros didácticos, surgem a descomplexificação, as relações de semelhança, especificidade entre os livros didácticos e a conservação dos conteúdos de Botânica.; Textbooks are of great importance to school and teaching especially in the conformation of forms and contents of pedagogical knowledge. Combining dimensions related to sequence and rhythm of knowledge transmission...

Similarity in school textbooks on natural sciences for the primary school level : an analysis of teaching and apprenticeship of botany in the last century in Portugal (1900-2000)

Guimarães, Fernando
Fonte: International Association of Technology, Education and Development Publicador: International Association of Technology, Education and Development
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.18%
By analyzing school textbooks, we evidenced that Botany contents used for the teaching of Sciences cannot be isolated from both educational and curricular policies adopted in Portugal during the 20th century. Within schools, textbooks are important tools to conform shapes and contents applied in the pedagogical knowledge. The articulation of aspects related to the sequence and pace of knowledge transmission has momentous pedagogical and didactic objectives, which are made possible through properly devised activities and evaluation mechanisms for such acquisitions. With this perspective in mind, such objectives can allow us to know the subjacent pedagogical and curricular ideology, as well as the way through which the learning and apprenticeship process is understood. Such process takes place within classrooms and plays an important role for teachers and students. The present study, based upon the PhD thesis on Children Studies (Botany within school textbooks for Primary and Basic teaching levels [1st cycle] in the 20th century in Portugal), aims to analyze the importance Botany is given in Portugal in school textbooks that cover Natural Sciences for Primary School students in the last century. Our attempt to know how botanical topics were differently adopted throughout time in the school textbooks relied on 11 principles: Shape; Kingdoms; Classification; Organs; Root; Stem; Leaf; Flower; Fruit; Reproduction; and Dimension. Such appreciation...

Botany teaching in Portugal and Brazil : analysis of school textbooks and their application in elementary school classes (2001- 2010)

Guimarães, Fernando; Santos, Fernando S.
Fonte: International Association of Technology, Education and Development Publicador: International Association of Technology, Education and Development
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.34%
We have privileged the study of Botany contents in our research. Such contents derive from reorganizational approaches within the teaching of Natural Sciences at the elementary level in Portugal and Brazil. Along with the development of scientific knowledge on biological classifications and attempts to solve existing weaknesses in both countries, various governments introduced, throughout the last century, new programmatic Botany contents within the teaching of Natural Sciences at the elementary school. Thus, the teaching of Botany becomes more complex with the emergence of new realities, as well as curricular and didactic changes that emphasize such dimensional metamorphoses, which can be seen within classroom contexts and during the teaching-learning process. We aim to study such complex dimensions within the teaching of Botany, which is placed into a knowledge area undergoing a re-organizational approach where historical and educational circumstances mark Portuguese and Brazilian realities. This knowledge area faces important changes and new challenges resulting from significant environmental and political modifications, new practises and programmatic speeches that have been heard throughout various national and international debates. Such scientific approach on Natural Sciences favours the questioning and conceptual role played by Botany...

Textbooks in the teaching of Botany in primary school education in Portugal : promoting critical reflection on environmental issues?

Guimarães, Fernando
Fonte: Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) Publicador: Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM)
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /05/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.18%
Textbooks are of great importance to school and teaching especially in the conformation of forms and contents of pedagogical knowledge. In what natural sciences are concerned, textbooks are aimed at promoting scientific literacy, environment education, the understanding of social and ecological reality. Textbooks develop also important pedagogical functions due to sequence and rhythm of the transmission of knowledge through, for instance, activities by which it is promoted and evaluation forms of knowledge acquired. This research has as main aim to understand the place that Botany has been given in textbooks of Natural Sciences in primary school education in the last century in Portugal. In an attempt of interpreting the shifts in Botany content approach, we have studied textbooks according to eleven principles. This study is supported by content analysis and the establishment of categories as well as cluster analysis. Dendograms built were intended to promote the confrontation of first hand sources in what contents, pedagogical and didactical orientations, educational and curricular policies recommendations are concerned as well as educational, environment and scientific values suggested. Data analysis shows that changes in naming the teaching of Natural Sciences have occurred; contents approached were given different relevance through times. Therefore...

Different dimensions in teaching of botany in Portugal : analysis of texttbooks of primary school Education (1900-2000)

Guimarães, Fernando
Fonte: International Association of Technology, Education and Development Publicador: International Association of Technology, Education and Development
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.18%
Textbooks are of great importance to school and teaching especially in the conformation of forms and contents of pedagogical knowledge. In what natural sciences are concerned, textbooks are aimed at promoting scientific literacy, environment education, the understanding of social and ecological reality. Textbooks develop also important pedagogical functions due to sequence and rhythm of the transmission of knowledge through, for instance, activities by which it is promoted and evaluation forms of knowledge acquired. This research has as main aim to understand the place that Botany has been given in textbooks of Natural Sciences in primary school education in the last century in Portugal. In an attempt of interpreting the shifts in Botany content approach, we have studied textbooks according to eleven principles. Content analysis and the establishment of categories as well as cluster analysis support this study. Dendograms built were intended to promote the confrontation of first hand sources in what contents, pedagogical and didactical orientations, educational and curricular policies recommendations are concerned as well as educational, environment and scientific values suggested. Data analysis shows that the conservation of several contents of Botany distributed by different dimension of Botany namely the notional dimension...

Higher education biology students’ conceptions on botany teaching : a Brazil – Portugal case study

Silva, João Rodrigo Santos da; Guimarães, Fernando; Sano, Paulo Takeo
Fonte: ATINER – Athens Institute for Education and Research Publicador: ATINER – Athens Institute for Education and Research
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 07/09/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.23%
Generally, the teaching of botany is seen as mainly based on the transmission of knowledge and on empirical-logical thinking, in a context of scientific knowledge and with the purpose of affirming truth about the world. From this perspective, both in Brazil and in Portugal botany is usually seen as a list of scientific names remote from the daily life of students, which might make classes demotivating. This project was designed with the aim of understanding the prior conceptions of higher education students training to be biology teachers. It was based on a questionnaire that allowed open answers, completed by students in the beginning of their degree. The purpose of this questionnaire was to collect data that would show how students understood teaching in general and botany teaching in particular, and how they conceived the teachers’ role in the development of their knowledge of teaching methods. Data showed that Brazilian students considered the teaching of botany as a theoretical subject that was followed by a practical component. The practical classes were based on demonstration of what had previously been explained in theory. The Portuguese students considered the teaching to be more practical. Teaching was seen as based on practice and classes were more dynamic and fostered interaction. All students said that the teacher was a source of knowledge who also encouraged practice...

Illustrated plant identification keys: An interactive tool to learn botany

Silva, Helena; Pinho, Rosa; Lopes, Lísia; Nogueira, António J. A.; Silveira, Paulo
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.87%
An Interactive Dichotomous Key (IDK) for 390 taxa of vascular plants from the Ria de Aveiro, available on a website, was developed to help teach botany to school and universitary students. This multimedia tool includes several links to Descriptive and Illustrated Glossaries. Questionnaires answered by high-school and undergraduate students about the IDK showed that students considered it a "fully efficient" way to identify plants. Undergraduate assessment tests on plant identification, also improved after the use of IDK. The IDK is an effective multimedia tool in the teaching of botany, compared to conventional dichotomous keys (CDK). (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; AVEIRO DIGITAL 2003–2006; FEDER/FSE; PORTUGAL DIGITAL; POSI

Reflexões sobre a ciência e tecnologia e suas implicações sociais em aulas de botânica aplicada à farmacologia

Bordignon, Kione Baggio
Fonte: Ponta Grossa Publicador: Ponta Grossa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.87%
Acompanha: Reflexões sobre ciência e tecnologia e suas implicações sociais em aulas de botânica aplicada a farmacologia; The aim of this study was to propose teaching strategies that stimulate reflection on science, technology and its social implications in the classes of Botany Applied Pharmacology for the Pharmacy course. The methodological approach was qualitative interpretive in nature. The data collection techniques were used on field notes, photographs and films. Also in some instances, were used questionnaires with open questions. The study involved 23 students of the second period of the Course of Pharmacy institution of higher education Union of Education in southwestern Paraná - UNISEP, the municipality of Francisco Beltran, state of Paraná, in the discipline of Botany Applied Pharmacology. In the course of the study was the development of activities: technical visit to "The Apothecary", discussions on science and technology, reading news, production of the institutional herbarium, making folders, with final seminar presentation for the entire academic community. At the end of the study, it was noticed that the students have developed regarding their views on social issues of science and technology and the influence of science and technology in daily life. As a final product of the study has drawn from the teaching guide activities...

Conversations on Botany

Elizabeth Fitton ( Author, Primary )
Fonte: Universidade da Flórida Publicador: Universidade da Flórida
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: xvi, 213 p.,20 col. pl. (1 double),18 cm.
Publicado em //1817 ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
By E. & M. Fitton? By some attributed to Mrs. Jane Marcet. cf. Guide to the literature of botany by Benjamin D. Jackson.; Hand-colored illustrations of flowers and plants. Engraved by Milton.

Tradições curriculares dos conteúdos de Botânica nos livros didáticos : em foco a década de 1960 e o início do século XXI; Curricular traditions of Botany content in textbook : focus on the 1960 s and the early twenty-firts century

Jacqueline de Oliveira Veiga Iglesias
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/08/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
Este trabalho de pesquisa aponta para possíveis tradições curriculares presente nos livros didáticos de Biologia, mais especificamente nos conteúdos de Botânica do Ensino Médio, em dois períodos distintos da educação brasileira. O primeiro representado pelo BSCS versão verde, material este utilizado como referência para o Ensino de Biologia na década de 1970, pois eram utilizados por muitos professores que buscavam abandonar a História Natural. O segundo período estudado foi o PNLD/2012, foram escolhidas as quatros obras mais adquiridas pelas escolas, de acordo com o site do FNDE. Como metodologia do trabalho nos apropriamos da Micro-história, que permitiram olhar para além da evidencias explicitas, do Paradigma indiciário que nos fornecem pistas e sinais que não foram observadas minuciosamente e das Tradições curriculares baseadas em estudos sócio-históricos, delimitando-as em função dos conflitos e das negociações que ocorrem em seu interior das comunidades disciplinares. Essas tradições presentes nos livros didáticos permitem observar que em cada período histórico há uma predominância de uma determinada tradição, porém o aparecimento de algo novo não permite o obscurecimento do que já existe...

Teacher, student and content in botany teaching; O professor, o aluno e o conteúdo no ensino de botânica

Silva, Lenir Maristela; Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica do Paraná; Cavallet, Valdo José; Universidade Federal do Paraná; Alquini, Yedo; Universidade Federal do Paraná
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; "Avaliados por pares"; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/07/2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.23%
The central aim of this research is to analyze Botany teaching. The studied data were part of the works about under graduation teaching, taken from the thematic section “Botany Teaching” at Botany National Congresses annals from 1995 to 2002, as well as from some public universities plans and programs for the discipline of Botany. The categories employed at analyses were: the student’s role; the teacher’s role: and the way content is considered. The bettering of Botany teaching, present at the analyzed documents, is mainly understood as the bettering of specific methodologies in the area or as teaching aids. The teaching conditions that make the critical and contextualized intake of knowledge possible are not considered, in spite of being indispensable for fostering students’ autonomy.; Analisar o ensino de Botânica é o objetivo central deste trabalho. O material para o estudo constou dos trabalhos direcionados ao ensino na graduação, da seção temática “Ensino de Botânica” dos anais dos Congressos Nacionais de Botânica do período de 1995 a 2002 e de planejamentos e programas de disciplinas de Botânica de algumas universidades públicas. As dimensões utilizadas na análise foram: o papel do aluno; o papel do professor; e a consideração do conteúdo. O aperfeiçoamento do ensino de Botânica...

Professores / pesquisadores da pós-graduação em botânica no Brasil: análises métricas de produtividade

Amarante, Cristiana Maria Vasconcellos Goulart do
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro / Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia; BR; Ciência da Informação; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência da Informação; UFRJ/ECO - IBICT Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro / Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia; BR; Ciência da Informação; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência da Informação; UFRJ/ECO - IBICT
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.23%
Exploratory research of scientific productivity of professors/researchers of Botany doctorate courses in Brazil using bibliometrics methods anchored in Scientific Communication. Sixteen Botany doctorate courses were identified; retrieved data on these courses refer to promoting institutions, concentration areas, research lines, and Cape's grades all data leading to professors/researchers target of this research. Special attention was paid to productivity patterns of the elite along the time period as well as their citation numbers. Bibliometrics methods and techniques used include Elitism Law, citation analysis, impact factor and h-index. The Elite consists of 18 professors/researchers linked to the following public institutions: UFV, UFRPE, IBT, UFRJ, UNESP, USP, UEFS, UFMG, UNB, UFPE and UNICAMP in the areas of Botany, Agronomics, Ecology, Chemistry, Forestry and Engineering Resources, Pharmaceutics, Genetics, Environmental Sciences, Geosciences, Microbiology and Anthropology reflecting the interdisciplinary character of the area itself. Geographical concentration of courses points to the Southeast region, especially the state of São Paulo, which obtained the highest Cape's grades. Professors/Researchers productivity amounts to 2.489 papers...

Simulation and Analysis of Container Freight Train Operations at Port Botany

Guimarans, Daniel; Harabor, Daniel; van Hentenryck, Pascal
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/12/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
Over two million containers crossed the docks at Sydney's Port Botany in 2011/12; a figure that is forecast increase more than threefold by the end of the next decade. To cope with such large growth in volumes the NSW Government plans to double rail mode share at the port by the year 2020. Conventional wisdom from industry and the media says that existing infrastructure cannot handle such volumes. In this paper we use a combination of data analytics and simulation to examine operations at the port and evaluate the efficacy of current infrastructure to handle projected growth in volumes. Contrary to conventional wisdom we find that current rail resources appear distinctly under-utilised. Moreover: (i) the peak rail capacity of Port Botany is 1.78 million TEU per annum; over six times higher than 2011/12 rail volumes; (ii) there are no infrastructural impediments to the achievement of peak rail capacity; (iii) operational changes, not infrastructural investment, are the key to unlocking the potential of the port; (iv) Port Botany is well positioned to handle projected increases in container volumes over the next decade and beyond, including the 28% rail mode share target established by the New South Wales State Government.

Differences between epiphytic assemblages on introduced Caulerpa taxifolia and coexisting eelgrass (Zostera capricorni) in Botany Bay (NSW, Australia); Diferencias entre la composición epifítica de Caulerpa taxifolia y la de la fanerógama Zostera capricorni en Botany Bay (NSW, Australia)

Prado, Patricia; Thibaut, Thierry
Fonte: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España) Publicador: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España)
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 387343 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
[EN] A preliminary study was conducted to assess the potential effects of introduced Caulerpa taxifolia (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) on the biodiversity and trophic functioning of seagrass systems in New South Wales, Australia. Epiphytic assemblages growing on fronds of C. taxifolia were compared to those on eelgrass Zostera capricorni (Aschers.) leaves in zones where both species were coexisting. The study was conducted at three shallow sites (ca. 1 m depth) in Botany Bay during austral spring. Assemblages on both C. taxifolia and Z. capricorni were dominated by epiphytic algae (ca. 65% of the total taxa) but results showed significantly greater numbers on C. taxifolia compared to Z. capricorni as well as important differences among study sites. n-MDS ordinations and PERMANOVA analyses confirmed the existence of significant differences in the assemblage compositions of C. taxifolia and Z. capricorni as well as differences between times and sites. SIMPER analysis showed that animal composition made a higher contribution to dissimilarities between habitats compared to epiphytic algae (36% vs. 23% respectively). In particular, filter-feeding organisms, associated with surfaces such as ascidians (5 taxa) and bryozoans (2 taxa) emerged as important contributing taxa. Hence...

Sixty Years in Marine Botany (1946-2006): Informational Criteria and Suggestions; Sesenta años de botánica marina (1946-2006) : criterios informacionales y sugerencias

Wulff, Enrique
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Pre-print Formato: 60809 bytes; 64920 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
SPA; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
English (12 pages) and Spanish version (13) attached.; [EN] Marine botany appears to contribute to the marine ecological publication system early on the XXth Century. But a pattern of continuance in bibliographical occurrence can be discerned only from 1946. The original aim of this contribution is to determine the significance of the collection 1946-2006 (61 years) of the published material in marine botany, by analysing: (i) the rates of publication, from a cumulative point of view, and after the coverage of sources in the databases scrutinized; (ii) the number of contributions on each ecosystem type and the geographic location of study sites; (iii) the authors scientific community by ranking their countries and institutions after the number of publications produced and citations received and by discriminating low, middle and high incomes; (iv) the aging of the literature throughout indicating its utility and fitting the data to the Weibull distribution; (v) the number and imbalances of the journals employed. The US contribution was below its mean for the complete set of disciplines in marine sciences. The EU affords with 36% of the publication area. The obsolescence is visible in particular in the European case by the explicit visualization of the half-life of this literature.; [ES] La botánica marina contribuye al sistema de publicaciones de la ecología marina desde principios del siglo XX. Aunque sólo cabe discernir desde 1946 una pauta de continuidad en la ocurrencia bibliográfica. El objetivo original de ésta contribución es el de determinar el significado de la colección 1946-2006 (61 años) del material publicado en la botánica marina...

Training links and transmission of knowledge in 18th Century botany : a social network analysis

Sigrist, René; Widmer, Eric D.
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
This contribution develops a social network approach to the training of European botanists in the 18th century. In a period when the study of plants increasingly became an autonomous field of research, the practice of botany and related sciences mobilized a very diverse group of actors. For many of them, initiation to the science of plants was part of their medical studies. Others were trained as collaborators with an outstanding scholar in the context of a royal garden or elsewhere, sometimes also in philosophy colleges or faculties. Still others were self-taught. To the extent that biographical data were available, we made a systematic census of the masters and disciples of a set of 928 Western botanists active between 1700 and 1830. Three subsets were thus identified, each of them showing distinct characteristics and developmental patterns. The specific features of these subsets are discussed in a historical perspective, with a particular attention to the various institutional contexts which produced them. The data analysis basically shows the growing autonomy of botany with regard to medical training, as well as the increasingly national character of the dominant schools, at least in France.; En esta contribución se desarrolla un enfoque de redes sociales sobre la formación de los botánicos europeos en el siglo XVIII. En un período en el que el estudio de las plantas se estaba convirtiendo en un campo autónomo de investigación...

In the zoological garden- understanding botany in zoo education

Conley, Julie
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.11%
Lyons, Robert E.; Botany, which is the study of plants and associated knowledge, forms one of the foundations of life, yet it has lagged behind other academic disciplines in prominence. In fact, it is unfamiliar to the average citizen (Bozniak, 1994) and has lagged behind in venues of education in mainstream culture. This research sought to uncover if a bias existed in zoo education programs. Anecdotal evidence from botanists suggested a paucity of botany included in biology classes. Evidence to suggest the bias has been documented at all levels of education. Even the term „botany‟ is unfamiliar and used to convey a scientific approach to the topic. The term „horticulture‟, however, has a more common and approachable usage, and has a broader appeal to people outside of the scientific community. This research also sought to document the level that horticultural topics were integrated into zoo educational programs via an original survey instrument administered to educators within zoos. Of the survey respondents, eighty-seven percent indicated that it was present in some form in their respective zoo education programs, which is encouragingly high. A conclusion that arose from the survey was that education staff is primarily responsible for the creation of education classes. An additional conclusion was that lack of interest in plants...

A molecular identification system for grasses: a novel technology for forensic botany

Ward, Jodie; Peakall, Rodney; Gilmore, Scott; Robertson, James
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
Our present inability to rapidly, accurately and cost-effectively identify trace botanical evidence remains the major impediment to the routine application of forensic botany. Grasses are amongst the most likely plant species encountered as forensic trace evidence and have the potential to provide links between crime scenes and individuals or other vital crime scene information. We are designing a molecular DNA-based identification system for grasses consisting of several PCR assays that, like a traditional morphological taxonomic key, provide criteria that progressively identify an unknown grass sample to a given taxonomic rank. In a prior study of DNA sequences across 20 phylogenetically representative grass species, we identified a series of potentially informative indels in the grass mitochondrial genome. In this study we designed and tested five PCR assays spanning these indels and assessed the feasibility of these assays to aid identification of unknown grass samples. We confirmed that for our control set of 20 samples, on which the design of the PCR assays was based, the five primer combinations produced the expected results. Using these PCR assays in a 'blind test', we were able to identify 25 unknown grass samples with some restrictions. Species belonging to genera represented in our control set were all correctly identified to genus with one exception. Similarly...