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O papel do Conselho de Segurança da ONU na construção de estado na Bósnia Herzegovina

Guimarães, Bruno Gomes
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
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O presente trabalho tem como tema a iniciativa internacional de (re)construção de Estado na Bósnia Herzegovina após o final da Guerra da Bósnia através do Acordo-Quadro Geral para a Paz, também conhecido por Acordo de Paz de Dayton. O objetivo central é descobrir o papel desempenhado pelo Conselho de Segurança das Nações Unidas (CSNU). Partindo da hipótese de que o Conselho tem relativa autonomia frente aos seus membros, a análise se divide em dois níveis, um internacional e o outro local. O primeiro trata do contexto geral das relações entre as grandes potências mundiais em que o Conselho de Segurança se encontrou durante as operações na Bósnia. Já o segundo lida com as estratégias executadas pela Missão das Nações Unidas na Bósnia Herzegovina (MINUBH) para a construção de Estado naquele país. O trabalho, então, divide-se em três momentos. Primeiramente, faz-se um levantamento do marco teórico acerca da construção de Estados, incluindo-se as suas principais estratégias e problemas, bem como o debate a respeito do tema. Depois é realizado um pano de fundo histórico para a contextualização do surgimento da Bósnia Herzegovina e do envolvimento internacional, especialmente o do CSNU. Nele, explica-se o processo de desmembramento da Iugoslávia...

The Scientific Conferences Organized During War Time (1992-1995) in Sarajevo

Masic, Izet
Fonte: AVICENA, d.o.o., Sarajevo Publicador: AVICENA, d.o.o., Sarajevo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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Author of this paper spent 1479 days in the siege of Sarajevo, during the period of war time in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). This siege, lasting from 1992 to 1995 (e.g. Dayton Piece agreement was signed in November, 1995) represents the longest siege in the history of the world. Besides usual daily work, as the associate professor of Health education, Medical deontology and Medical informatics for the students of the Faculty of medicine, Faculty of dental medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy and Nursing college of University of Sarajevo, the author organized by himself and contributors, 10 scientific conferences in a sieged Sarajevo. All presented papers at those conferences are published in Proceedings abstract books, as the proof of continuing scientific work, in Sarajevo and other cities in B&H. Additionally, the author continued to publish, in that time, unique PubMed/MedLine indexed journal, - Medical Archives, (i.e. established in 1947) and, in 1993 formed a new journal named - “Acta Informatica Medica” (AIM) , as the Journal of the Bosnian Society of Medical informatics. Bosnian Society of Medical Informatics, thus became the first scientific association from Bosnia and Herzegovina, included in 1994, in the European Federation of Medical Informatics (EFMI) and the International Medical Informatics Assiciation (IMIA) ...

Secular trends in body height in Balkan populations from 1945 to 1995

Sarajlić, Nermin; Resić, Emina; Gradaščević, Anisa; Salihbegović, Adis; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, and Tomaž
Fonte: Association of Basic Medical Sciences of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Publicador: Association of Basic Medical Sciences of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2014 EN
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The aim of this study was to look for any secular trend in the stature of Balkan populations from the time of World War II (1939–1945) to the Balkans War (1991–1995). The research was based on the examination of exhumed skeletons of 202 men killed in World War II in the area of the Republic of Slovenia, and 243 men killed in the Bosnian War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The length measurements of the right and left humerus, femur, tibia and fibula were taken. Since the results revealed no significant differences and the left-sided bones were more complete and recurrent in the sample, the bones of the left side were used in the analysis. Since the increase in height depends mostly on the increase in length of the long bones, with an average absolute change of about 0.28 cm for humerus, 0.55 cm for femur, 0.49 cm for tibia and 0.20 cm for fibula per decade in our case, these results suggest a significant increase of the height of the Balkans population. The difference of the sum of the average femur and tibia length for the study period was 4.13 cm. Recalculated average length increase of the sum length of femur and tibia per decade was 0.88 cm for the left side. Our study revealed that there was a trend towards increased long bone lengths...

Jihad and Other Universalisms: Arab-Bosnian Encounters in the U.S. World Order

Li, Darryl Chi-Yee
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
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This dissertation uses the experiences of Arab Islamist fighters in the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia-Herzegovina (BiH) to rethink prevailing notions of world order. These actors are frequently glossed as “foreign fighters”: rootless, unaccountable extremists attempting to impose rigid forms of Islam on local “moderate” Muslim populations, be it in BiH, Afghanistan, Chechnya, or other sites of conflict with non-Muslim powers. By illuminating some of the many diasporic and imperial circuits linking BiH with other parts of the world, this dissertation provides a richer historical and sociological context in which transnational activist movements no longer seem so aberrational. This study argues that the mobilization to join the “jihad” alongside Bosnian Muslims can be usefully understood as a universalist project: an attempt to incarnate a worldwide Muslim community (umma) theoretically open to all of humanity, in which activists struggle through the experience of racial, cultural, and doctrinal difference vis-à-vis Bosnian and other Muslims. This approach opens up two broad avenues of inquiry. First, it allows an analysis of how Muslims of different backgrounds interacted in contexts of fighting, intermarriage, and doctrinal disputation. Second...

Catalysts of conflict : how refugee crises lead to the spread of civil war

Lischer, Sarah Kenyon
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 364 p.; 30450345 bytes; 30450103 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The spread of civil war due to refugee crises has occurred repeatedly throughout history. In some refugee crises, the sending state pursues the refugees, subjecting them to military attack. In other cases, militant exiles use the refugee camps as rear bases in their attacks on the sending state. As the cross-border attacks escalate, the risk of international war grows. The refugee crisis spawned by the 1994 genocide in Rwanda provides the most extreme example of this phenomenon. The militant actions of the Rwandan Hutu refugees in Zaire eventually sparked two international wars that led to further massive population displacement in the region. The recurring pattern of violent refugee crises, prompts the following three questions: 1) How widespread is the phenomenon of political violence involving refugees? 2) Under what conditions do refugee crises cause a civil war to spread across borders? 3) What role can international actors, such as the United Nations or the United States government, play in preventing the spread of violence? To answer the above questions, this dissertation presents new time series data on refugee-related political violence and also systematically compares violent and non-violent crises involving Rwandan, Bosnian...

Muslim-Croat relations in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1987-1997

Spajic, Darko
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The purpose of this thesis is to identify and explain the causes of instability in Muslim-Croat relations in the period between 1990-1997. These two nations are supposed to be the main pillars of the new Bosnian state born in Dayton, Ohio on November 21, 1995. So far, the Serbs have eschewed all efforts of the International Community in the direction of the stronger integration of a Bosnian state, and there are no signs of possible improvement in the future. If the project of a Muslim-Croat Federation fails, the whole state is at stake. Muslim leadership, along with many historians and political analysts hold the Croats responsible for the deterioration of Muslim-Croat relations, but a number of important developments do not fit this assumption. The author will argue that although the Muslims and the Croats did not create their alliance in the Bosnian war in good faith, the main cause of deterioration of Muslim-Croat relations is the wavering policy of the international community toward the Yugoslav crisis

The war in Bosnia, 1992-1995: analyzing military asymmetries and failures

Anghel, Gheorghe.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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This thesis analyzes the three key failures by the leading external powers in their efforts in 1992-1995 to manage the crisis in Bosnia and impose a settlement. Except for Russia, these leading powers were the so-called NATO quad: Britain, France, Germany, and the United States. when these powers initially intervened, they failed to comprehend the origins and dynamics of the Yugoslav crisis. These powers successively failed to prevent the outbreak of the fighting, then to properly contain it, and finally to achieve a stable and enduring settlement when the chance presented itself in 1995. The thesis concludes that the failures stemmed from incorrect assessments, a lack of political will, and organizational shortcomings. Because of these failures, the Bosnian conflict remains unsettled, and the current stalemate hinges on continuing political-military commitments by the external powers.

Corrective software management: the success of the EPLRS program

Cummings, Terrence
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; This thesis examines the British involvement in the current Bosnian War by focusing on two specific policy determinants, strategic culture and national interests. The thesis assigns working definitions to these two concepts and then applies them to the Balkan conflict to determine how each has motivated the British decision to intervene in the current crisis. The thesis also provides a concise survey of the historical British interests in the Balkans, in support of this study. The thesis concludes that each concept has exerted some influence on British decision making with respect to the Balkans. Indeed, strategic culture can wield considerable impact in the formation of British foreign policy. The narrowly defined concept of national interest that is employed in this work has also been a factor in British efforts in the current Balkan struggle, only to a lesser degree.

Evolution of security identity of domestic antimilitarism and\roles of political parties: case studies of Japan and Germany

An, Hyoju
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xiv, 141 p. ; 28 cm.
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; Both Japan and Germany have presented security identities of domestic antimilitarism throughout their postwar political histories. Remnants of war memories made peoples of both nations strongly antipathetic to waging a war as a way of pursuing national security. They institutionalized such means as constitutions, laws, and civilian control of military means. Among several tenets of security identities, the most basic and core tenet was no use of force in foreign war. Up until the Cold War period, the bans remained intact. However, as changes in the security environment appeared along with the end of the Cold War, Japan and Germany relied on the circumstances to consider modifying their long-standing antimilitarist approaches to security policies. This thesis examines how Japan's and Germany's political parties contributed to developing new security identities of domestic antimilitarism under the changing security environment and foreign expectations. The main focus of this thesis is finding out the answers to how the political parties' role as representatives of the public, policy makers based on their inherent security policy stances, and competitors over the preferred policies exerted influence on the evolution of the Japan's and Germany's security identity of domestic antimilitarism. Both nations faced international criticism in the Gulf War due mainly to their failures to properly meet the new expectations of the international community. In consideration of lessons learned from the Gulf War...

Security culture in times of war: how did the Balkan War affect the security cultures in Germany and the United States?

Reimers, Frank.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 131 p. ; 28 cm.
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis uses a comparative case study approach to examine how security cultures change under the impact of political shocks and learning through failure. The thesis thus analyzes the security cultures of Germany and the United States as they evolve under the impact of the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina from 1992 to 1995. The thesis thereby also enhances our understanding of German and U.S. foreign policies. Using paired observations for controlled comparison, the thesis employs process tracing to examine the nature and quantity of change. The case studies demonstrate that security cultures influence the assessment of political situations, restrain policy objectives, and condition the range of issues to which political attention is devoted. Both cases reveal that security cultures affect the evaluation of policy options and the choices that are made. The thesis argues that different transformations of German and U.S. security cultures led to divergent political behavior particularly with regard to the use of force, resulting in more forceful and effective interventions in Bosnia and a reframing of future interventions in third-party conflicts. Domestic reactions to the Bosnian war transformed the security culture in Germany...

Women, rape and war: "Gaining redress within a human rights framework"

Washington, Carolyn J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: vi, 64 p.
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The evolution of human rights and the world women's movement have combined for the first time to place rape as an instrument of war on the agenda of international politics. Rape in war has been regarded as an incidental, accidental and individual violation of military law. It was rarely given serious scholarly consideration, not even by historians of war, except to glorify it as a form of propaganda. This thesis will examine: (1) how the historical subordination of women in peacetime is related to the wartime rape of women, (2) the manner in which the mass rapes in the Bosnian War were brought to world attention and onto the agenda of international human rights and (3) the impact of the feminist movement in the United States in redefining the way sexual assault and rape are understood in our culture.; Captain, United States Army

British involvement in the Bosnian War: strategic culture and national interests

Hein, August Howard
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 127 p.
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; This thesis examines past theories of military and naval innovation in an effort to draw lessons from which today's naval leaders can foster innovation in the United States Navy. There is a natural tendancy to resist change unless it is disguised as doing the same thing better. Understanding the process can help encourage innovation advocates or zealots as they are often called, who are necessary for true change. In this period immediately following the Cold War there is uncertainty over future roles and missions, because our primary adversary has diminished in power. Yet, the United States Navy has embraced a revolutionary strategy causing the maritime forces to look to shoreward, instead of seaward. It is too early to tell if the new strategy and the accompanying doctrine (not yet published) will he successful. However, there are signals one can look for to see if the Navy is committing its resources to support its announced shift in focus. Old combat arms will be disrupted, or eliminated. A new career path should emerge in which the best and brightest junior officers stake their future.; U.S. Navy (USN) author

A social interaction model for war traumatization Self-processes and postwar recovery in Bosnia in subjects with PTSD and other psychological disorders

Butollo, Willi Heinz
Fonte: Les Laboratoires Servier Publicador: Les Laboratoires Servier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2000 EN
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Traumatization of self-processes as a consequence of acts of war is not only determined by the content and number of traumatic experiences, but also, to a large extent by factors related to posttraumatic socioeconomic, environmental, and psychosocial interactions, À model is presented to describe posttraumatic adaptation of war-traumatized selves according to the characteristics of the individuals' social interactions and the cognitive representations of those processes. Findings in children (n=816) and adults (n=801) from postwar Bosnia are analyzed. One of the most traumatic experiences was having a missing relative, particularly a father: not knowing the fate of a close relative is an ongoing stressor that alters cognitive-emotional processes and reduces self esteem and interactional competence, whether in children or in adults. Use of a multiphasic integrative therapy for traumatized subjects (MITT) showed promising results in victims of the Bosnian war.

Becoming integrated: pathways and navigation within a Swedish municipality. A case study about Bosnians integration processes in Värnamo

Zegarac, Jelena
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2015 ENG
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European Master in Social Work with Families and Children; Sweden has become one of the most targeted countries for refugees and asylum seekers. In order to meet the needs of a society, Sweden has introduced more friendly and inclusive policies that should be able to facilitate the integration process of immigrants. However, the integration appears to be a challenging process for many immigrant groups as they follow different integration strategies and mechanisms. The Swedish municipality Värnamo has a larger share of immigrants compared to the average on the national level. At the same time it notes the highest employment rate among foreign born workers in Sweden. The largest immigrant group has arrived from Bosnia due to the civil war during the nineties. Generally, this group through the time managed to cope with the challenges that their migration forced them to, which can be viewed as a successful integration into Swedish society. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to present immigrant group from Bosnia and to identify the strategies that have led to their successful integration. Likewise, this study was guided by the questions of which factors and agents appeared to be crucial in their integration process. This was a qualitative study with an explanatory case study design followed by descriptive elements. The research subjects were first generation of Bosnian refugees who have managed to integrate successfully. Semi structured interviews with standardized open ended questions were used. The results show that Värnamo is perceived among the participants as an open and friendly city toward everybody...

“Bósnia, minha pátria ferida”: trauma, pós-memória e representação em 'Filha da Guerra'

Agostinho, Daniela
Fonte: Asociación Argentina de Estudios de Cine y Audiovisual Publicador: Asociación Argentina de Estudios de Cine y Audiovisual
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 POR
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A relação entre trauma, memória e representação é tanto estreita quanto problemática, conflitual e aporética. Se, por um lado, memória e representação são mutuamente constitutivas, representação e trauma, por outro, são dois conceitos antagónicos; senão mesmo mutuamente exclusivos. Através da análise do filme Filha da Guerra (Jasmila Zbanic, 2006), e com base em teorias da memória e nos estudos de género, este artigo procura perceber de que forma a guerra da Bósnia é representada e recordada no presente pósconflito, de que modo o trauma é articulado através da representação cinematográfica e, por fim, em que medida é possível pensar as memórias de género como “contra-memória” às narrativas hegemónicas da guerra e da violência.; The relationship between trauma, memory and representation is as intimate as aporetic, contentious and problematic. If memory and representation are, on the one hand, mutually constitutive, representation and trauma, on the other, are antagonic, if not mutually exclusive concepts. Focusing on Esma’s Secret (Jasmila Zbanic, 2006), and drawing from theories on memory and gender studies, this article inquires into the way the Bosnian war is recalled and represented in the post-conflict present...

La representació de la Guerra de Bòsnia i Hercegovina (1992-1995) en la premsa espanyola

Gelabert Martínez, Patricia
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; Text Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 CAT
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La recerca s’ha basat en la hipòtesi de que la cobertura mediàtica occidental sobre la Guerra de Bòsnia (1992-1995) va ser pèssima; hipòtesi traslladada i acotada a l’Estat Espanyol. L’objectiu principal d’aquest treball és esbrinar quin paper van jugar els diaris espanyols a l’hora de transmetre els missatges a l’opinió pública sobre la Guerra de Bòsnia. Per respondre la pregunta i verificar la hipòtesi s’ha realitzat una anàlisi diacrònica i sincrònica de la cobertura dels principals diaris espanyols - El País, El Mundo, ABC, La Vanguardia i El Periódico de Catalunya – de set dates claus al llarg del conflicte bosnià.; La búsqueda se ha basado en la hipótesis de que la cobertura mediática occidental sobre la Guerra de Bosnia (1992-1995) fue pésima; hipótesis trasladada y acotada al Estado Español. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es averiguar qué papel jugaron los periódicos españoles a la hora de transmitir los mensajes a la opinión pública sobre la Guerra de Bosnia. Para responder a la pregunta y verificar la hipótesis, se ha realizado un análisis diacrónico y sincrónico de la cobertura de los principales diarios españoles – El País, El Mundo, ABC, La Vanguardia y El Periódico de Catalunya – de siete fechas clave a lo largo del conflicto bosnio.; The research is based on the hypothesis that Western media coverage of the Bosnian War (1992-1995) was terrible; a hypothesis transferred and refined to the Spanish State. The main objective of this work is to find out what role did the Spanish newspapers...

Contextualització i anàlisi de les eleccions del 18 de novembre de 1990 a la R.S. de Bòsnia i Hercegovina

Sambró i Melero, Virtuts
Fonte: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 CAT; CAT
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Descripció del recurs: el 30-11-2009; La tesi que aquí es presenta és una anàlisi tant del context històric on es desenvoluparen les eleccions de 1990 a Bòsnia i Hercegovina, com dels resultats que en sortiren, basada sobretot en fonts locals, tant primàries com secundàries. També conté una forta base documental inèdita de material primari i secundari traduïda del serbo-croato-bosni. Les eleccions del 18 de novembre de 1990 representen la fi d'un llarg procés històric que començà amb l'acabament de la 2a Guerra Mundial i la instauració del regim titoista el 1945 per mitjà d'eleccions generals. Al llarg de tot aquest període hi ha un intent, per part del partit únic de la Lliga dels Comunistes Iugoslaus (SKJ), de desenvolupar un projecte d'estat federal iugoslau basat en el lema "fraternitat i unitat" (bratsvo i jedinstvo) que reunís tots els pobles que l'integraven. L'última constitució (1974) comportà una descentralització, tant econòmica com política, ratllant la confederació. El 1980 mor el mariscal Josip Broz, Tito. La crisi econòmica que ja s'arrossegava, surt a la llum i s'agreuja al llarg de la dècada dels anys vuitanta, repercutint en la política i portant a un enfrontament entre el sector continuista que volia portar la constitució a la confederació (Eslovènia) i el sector reformista que volia un canvi constitucional vers un model centralista (Sèrbia). Així s'arriba al XIV Congrés Extraordinari de la SKJ en un últim intent per solucionar la situació...

Croatian journalists’ narratives on Croatian war crimes in Bosnia-Herzegovina

Erjavec, Karmen; Volcic, Zala
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Comunicações e Artes Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Comunicações e Artes
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/08/2007 ENG
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The former Yugoslav wars of 1990s have proven to be one of the most violent and aggressive military conflicts after the 2nd World War in Europe. One of the wars in the former Yugoslav region took place between Croats and Bosnian Muslims (1992-1994). The causes for war and war itself are still being denied by the majority of Croats despite evidence from Croatian historians and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague. Because the media have played a crucial role in the construction of the ethnic “Other” (the enemy), we’ve interviewed Croatian journalists to understand how they understand, explain and justify the war crimes committed in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The study shows that Croatian journalists appropriated “war on terrorism”, “Iraqi war”, “European” and “neo-liberal” discourses according to their own socio-historical framework to justify a particular ideology (in this case, the nationalistic ideology of a “Greater Croatia”) and a particular practice (the war crimes against the Bosnian Muslims).

Book review: Places of pain: forced displacement, popular memory and trans-local identities in Bosnian war-torn communities

Laking, Joe
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/09/2013 EN; EN
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"Places of Pain: Forced Displacement, Popular Memory and Trans-Local Identities in Bosnian War-Torn Communities." Hariz Halilovich. Berghahn Books. March 2013. --- For displaced persons, memory and identity is performed, reconstructed, and renegotiated daily. In Places of Pain, Hariz Halilovich considers the places of pain and belonging that were lost during the 1992 – 95 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the survivors’ new places of resettlement in Australia, Europe and North America. Joe Laking concludes that Halilovich’s work may find relevance in studies of war and migration not just in this context but all over the world.

What civil society after civil war? A study of civil society organizations' affect on peace consolidation in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Tajikistan.

Freizer, Sabine
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 EN
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This dissertation seeks to explain how civil society organizations can positively affect peace consolidation based on cases of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community based (CBOs) organizations from Bosnia-Herzegovina and Tajikistan. It aims to determine how and why civil society organizations behave as they do in post-conflict, post-communist, contexts, and assess their contribution to peace. The link between civil society and peace has been assumed in research literature, but little comparative empirical research has been carried out to explain its nature. This dissertation is an attempt to fill this gap. I describe how liberal and communal definitions of civil society are applicable to the Tajik and Bosnian cases based on a brief historical analysis. NGOs are found to be the most significant organizational representation of liberal civil society, and CBOs, especially mahallas (neighborhoods) and mjesne zajednice (local communities), of communal civil society in the postwar period. I outline key post conflict challenges, classifying them as institutional, behavioral, political-economic and rights based. I develop a series of preliminary hypotheses on civil society organizations' possible contributions based on civil society and peace literature. These assumptions are tested through case studies of two NGOs and two CBOs. I determine how the post-conflict...