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Pari-cachoeira e Trinidad: convivência e construção da autodeterminação indígena na fronteira Brasil-Colômbia; Pari-Cachoeira and Trinidad: coexistence and construction of the self-determination indigenous in the border Brasil-Colômbia

Dutra, Israel Fontes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/04/2009 PT
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Esta dissertação enfoca as contradições e conflitos da convivência dos Tukano de Pari- Cachoeira (Brasil) e Tuyuka de Trinidad (Colômbia) e a construção da autodeterminação indígena na fronteira Brasil-Colômbia, pois, mesmo depois da demarcação da Terra Indígena Alto Rio Negro em 1998, ficaram entrecortados pela fronteira. Este fato ameaça as relações de diversos matizes entre esses dois grandes povoados, a saber, prejudicam as relações de parentesco e circulação. Pari-Cachoeira é uma comunidade habitada pelo povo Tukano, do subgrupo Pãsi Põã, localizada no alto rio Tiquié, Uaupés, Brasil. Trinidad é habitada pelo povo Tuyuka, alto Tiquié, na Gran Resguardo Indígena Del Vaupés, Departamento Del Vaupés, Colômbia. No cenário da política indígena do rio Negro, Pari-Cachoeira se destaca por ser o lugar onde se originou o Movimento Indígena do rio Negro, no início da década de 70, que culminou na fundação da Federação das Organizações Indígenas do rio Negro (FOIRN), em 1987. E, Trinidad se destaca por estar situada em uma zona de conflito entre Governo colombiano e as Forças Armada Revolucionária da Colômbia (FARC), que ameaça a circulação e a autonomia indígena em território colombiano. A dissertação está constituída por quatro capítulos. O primeiro capítulo apresenta o contexto histórico dos indígenas do alto rio Negro e o movimento indígena na atualidade. Conjugo informações bibliográficas acadêmicas e as fontes orais dos sujeitos sociais da pesquisa. No segundo capítulo apresentamos uma abordagem teórica dos conceitos selecionados para a pesquisa...

“Illegal Aliens” and the Inconspicuous Geographies of US Immigration and Border Policing within 100 Miles of the US-Canada Border

Coskan, Mert
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
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Legal provisions in the US have extended the idea of the border to the inside of US territory. Border Patrol Agents confront people in different spaces to inquire about their status. I examine border policing along the northern border of the United States through textual and discourse analysis. This thesis asks: How do border agents exercise power and control the movement of people within 100 miles of the border? In whose interest is the border, the “nation,” secured? The spaces in which these mobile borders are practiced become the sites where “citizens” and “aliens” are produced, reproduced and contested. These border policing practices create the illusion of a “nation” that is secured for “our” interests. However, the interests of these vulnerable groups are not reflected in the immigration policy and along the “border. Therefore the very existence of immigrants and their basic right to be in the US is undermined.

Facilitating Cross-Border Trade between the DRC and Neighbors in the Great Lakes Region of Africa : Improving Conditions for Poor Traders

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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This report looks at the current situation and opportunities for cross-border trade between Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and neighbors with a focus on agricultural products. It recognizes that much of current trade across these borders is informal and carried by individual traders, most of whom are poor women. The report shows that it is very important that informality not be equated with illegality. The large numbers of traders that cross the border every day do so through official border crossings. The aim of the report is to provide information on the current state and the potential for cross border trade between the DRC and Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda, to document the conditions and problems that traders face in crossing the borders and provide suggestions to policy makers on the priorities for trade facilitating measures at the border. Exploiting the potential for cross-border trade will be an important element of growth and poverty reduction in the region and a key mechanism for enhancing stability. Comparing prices for food products in a range of markets in the three countries...

Border Crossing Monitoring along the Northern Corridor

Fitzmaurice, Mike; Hartmann, Olivier
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Border-crossing times in East Africa have been identified as a major constraint for smooth trade flows, both for regional trade and for international transit. Delays at borders disrupt efficient trade logistics, impacting on the transport costs and prices, and ultimately on trade competitiveness. In order to improve the efficiency of border crossings in East Africa, the East Africa Community (EAC) has resolved to convert the main border crossings into a Stop Border Post (OSBP), in which all border agencies from the two sides of the border coordinate their interventions, thus reducing documentation processing time. This program is supported by several multilateral and bilateral donors as component of their assistance to regional integration in the EAC. The paper is divided into four sections. The first section provides background information on the Northern Corridor. The second section presents the conclusions that can be drawn from the survey, presented in the Northern Corridor context with the key issues that will require further discussion among stakeholders and further action. From a wider perspective...

Estimating Trade Flows, Describing Trade Relationships, and Identifying Barriers to Cross-Border Trade Between Cameroon and Nigeria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Cameroon and Nigeria share a common border of nearly 1,700km and both countries have strong historical and cultural ties. However, the partnership between the two countries has had its difficult periods, most recently when the relationship turned hostile over the disputed Bakassi Peninsula, and economic linkages between the economies remain limited. Expanding trade between the two countries could play a critical role in accelerating economic development and regional integration by opening up new markets for producers, and allowing them to benefit from economies of scale. This will require reducing barriers to cross-border trade, allowing increased trade flows to reach the larger market, and permitting private sector producers to increase the scale of their activities. Removing barriers to trade between the two neighbors is likely to benefit particularly relatively remote areas of both countries. The study finds that regulatory and security barriers at the border and along the road remain key impediments to trade. The remainder of this report proceeds as follows. Section one describes drivers for cross border trade such as historical relations...

Deepening Integration in Border Regions within CAREC : The Asiaregio

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The central endeavor of Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) is the deepening of cooperation between its members across the entire range of development activities. Recent papers prepared by the World Bank for consideration of the ministers and officials of CAREC countries have focused on fostering cooperation in border trade and in supporting key institutions that underpin border trade such as bazaars in central Asia. But cooperation in border areas goes much deeper than trade alone. Economic development activities related to trade such as tourism, retail, business and trade facilitation as well as cooperation in public services (such as shared health facilities, other infrastructure services such as small-scale irrigation), optimal use of the environment, cultural and sports activities often have a significant cross-border character. Therefore, cross-border arrangements that support such activities and realize economies of scale in the provision of services can yield high dividends; and the key public policy question is how to best make such arrangements flourish. This paper presents initial thinking on this question...

U.S.-Canadian border security: lessons learned from Denmark's experience with the Schengen Convention

Kreutzer, Richard C. L.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; This thesis examines U.S.-Canadian border threats and defenses and compares the U.S.-Canadian situation with the European Schengen Convention (SC). The Department of Homeland Security coordinates U.S. security with representatives from law enforcement, military and civilian entities. Public Safety Canada coordinates defense in Canada. Prior to the 9/11 attack, the U.S.-Canadian relationship was similar to the SC, focusing on securing external borders while opening shared borders. Some experts, especially in the U.S., argue that border security needs to be tightened further while others contend increased U.S.-Canadian border security is unnecessary and harms commerce. In 2011, Denmark decided to increase internal border security, rejecting the SC tenets requiring common security of external border of the larger Schengen area and open internal zones. The increase represented a case study of unilateral border relations. Although never completed, the lessons of this brief experiment in increased border security are that homeland security decisions are based more on arguments of sovereignty and politics, rather than on objective determinations of threats and security. More broadly...

The impact of land border security on terrorism financing: Turkey's Southeast land border and the PKK

Eren, Yunus
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Terrorism has become the one of the major threats facing many states. Understanding the potential sources of and preventing the financial support of terrorist organizations takes an important place in countering terrorism. This thesis focuses on the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) financing activities through the land border of Turkey. In doing so, this study mainly examines how the Turkish border security system can stop the trans-border financial activities of PKK along its land borders with Iran, Iraq and Syria. This thesis also takes the U.S. as a case study in terms of border security measures, and within that framework, makes recommendations for safeguarding Turkeys land borders to prevent financial activities of the PKK terrorist organization without affecting free trade and the economic flow of services. Presently, the Turkish border security system is fragmented and poorly coordinated. Border management is currently split between the army, gendarmerie, police and coast guard. Moreover, international and interdepartmental collaborations are extremely limited. The prevention of cross-border financial activities of the PKK might be accomplished by forming an independent border security agency...

United States land border security policy : the national security implications of 9/11 on the "Nation of Immigrants" and free trade in North America

Butikofer, Nathan R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 181 p. : col. ill. ;
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The 9/11 terrorist attacks spawned heated debates about border security roles in preventing terrorism. The United States is generally known as a "nation of immigrants," welcoming those seeking economic and religious freedom. This thesis explores the effects of three policy options (increased manpower/financial resources for border inspection agencies, technology, and private sector-government cooperation) on the prevention of terrorism within U.S. borders. It also explores the effects of those policy options on trade flows and the movement of legitimate people across international borders. Scope is limited to land border security policy from 1990-2003. Three case studies are included: (1) the Border Patrol's "prevention through deterrence" strategy, which began in 1994 and benefited from a monumental increase in manpower/financial resources to the INS; (2) an analysis of which border technology options are the most secure and inexpensive means of preventing illegal immigration, stopping the introduction of contraband into the United States, and maintaining legitimate flows of commerce/people that have increased since the passage of NAFTA; and (3) an analysis of why private sector-governmental partnerships that both increase transportation security while lowering border wait times developed on the U.S.-Canadian border but not on the U.S.-Mexican border. Implications are drawn for U.S. policy-makers.; Lieutenant...

Regional joint border commands : a pathway to improving collaboration and effectiveness for border control

Carr, Alan.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 83 p. : ill. , col. maps ;
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CHDS State/Local; Control of the U.S. border is a primary concern for the Department of Homeland Security. Three of the department's components have major roles in providing border security and control. With increasing costs and constantly changing threats, it is vital that all border organizations work together collaboratively. This thesis looks at two new ideas, border regionalization and joint regional border commands, and compares them with current efforts to increase collaboration. By establishing border regions, DHS can use threat based planning in each region to allow all border control components to focus on threats specific to their region while also increasing the level effectiveness of resources. Joint regional border commands offer even greater advantages in collaboration between components and resource usage. The DoD model for regional combatant commands is used as an example of how DHS can take advantage of the lessons learned with this recommendation.; Lead Management & Program Analyst, US Customs and Border Protection, Washington, D.C. author (civilian).

Border Management Modernization

McLinden, Gerard; Fanta, Enrique; Widdowson, David; Doyle, Tom
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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This book provides border management policymakers and reformers with a broad survey of key developments in and principles for improving trade facilitation through better border management, including practical advice on particular issues. In contrast to the traditional border management reform agenda, with its focus on improving customs operations, this book addresses both customs reform and areas well beyond customs-a significant broadening of scope. The book thus presents a new, more comprehensive approach to trade facilitation through border management reform: an approach that embraces a much wider, 'whole of government' perspective. The objective of this book is to summarize and provide guidance on what constitutes good practices in border management-looking beyond customs clearance. The contributions to the volume make clear that there are no simple or universally applicable solutions. Instead, the aim is to provide a range of general guidelines that can be used to better understand the complex border management environment and the interdependencies and interrelationships that collectively need to be addressed to secure meaningful change and improvement.

Risk-Based Compliance Management : Making it Work in Border Management Agencies; Gestion du respect de la loi basee sur les risques : guide des administrations douanieres

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The World Bank's publication Border Management Modernization (2011) provides policymakers and reformers with a comprehensive 'whole of government' perspective on improving trade facilitation through better border management. This reference and implementation guide has been developed to supplement the information provided in the World Bank publication. Specifically, it builds on the contents of chapter six (Core border management disciplines: risk-based compliance management) and chapter eleven (Reform instruments, tools, and best practice approaches) by providing: an introduction to the key issues associated with the practical implementation of a modern risk-based compliance management regime in border management agencies; a step-by-step method of establishing a compliance management approach in a border management agency; practical examples covering a range of border management activities to illustrate the methodology; and useful tips to help identify and rationalize or eliminate resource intensive, time consuming and ineffective regulatory processes. Proper border management is critical to the cost effectiveness of international trade transactions and the smooth flow of legitimate goods and people from the perspective of both the public and private sectors. Risk management is at the heart of border management efficiency and effectiveness and is the key to achieving the balanced approach. The most important consideration from a risk management perspective is to ensure that the relevant risk has been properly identified...

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Nigeria - Banking Cross-Border Issues

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The introduction of new much higher minimum capital requirements and the subsequent banking sector consolidation created a platform for Nigerian banks to expand within the region and more globally. After capitalization, several Nigerian banks found themselves with large amounts of capital while there was an environment of uncertainty about the situation in Nigeria in the aftermath of the 2009 Nigerian banking crisis. This together with new market expansion opportunities gave an impulse to a number of Nigerian banks to quickly expand within West and Central Africa, as well as more globally. The global crisis itself provided Nigerian banks with opportunities to expand within Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). With Nigerian banks' presence in many countries in the region and more globally, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) needed to overhaul its traditional supervisory practices and embark on rigorous supervision of its banks on a consolidated basis taking into account all their subsidiaries and branches abroad-a task with which even advanced supervisors still struggle. This note focuses on issues of cross-border coordination and provides policy recommendations that could be taken into consideration by the CBN. Section two provides a brief description of the expansion and cross-border liquidity flows of some Nigerian banks. Section three focuses on issues related to supervisory cross-border coordination. Section four offers some recommendations. Several Nigerian banks have expanded abroad...

Borderless Bazaars and Regional Integration in Central Asia : Emerging Patterns of Trade and Cross-Border Cooperation

Kaminski, Bartlomiej; Mitra, Saumya
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
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Local populations' economic opportunities can be enhanced through special arrangements governing movement of people and goods in neighboring areas. For instance, in the Tajikistan-Uzbekistan border-crossing points (BCPs), preferential treatment accorded to residents in contiguous regions varies from one BCP to another, even within one borderline, restricting the distance allowed for travel into the territory of another country to the closest large city or marketplace. When governments impose restrictions on the movements of individuals, vehicles, or goods or close BCPs or bazaars, they may do so on public policy grounds. Security is often cited as a factor for imposing controls, as is prevention of contraband trade. Such government imposed obstacles are a blunt and expensive instrument to attain such public policy aims. The income and welfare costs levied on poor communities of such public policies may be disproportionate to achieve stated public policy goals. Instead, BCPs and bazaars could be opened but made subject to strict and effective policing, ideally using risk-based criteria; similarly, risk-based surveillance or vehicle searches could take the place of an outright ban. Moreover, a government may find that the security benefits of stronger community ties across borders may be considerable; after all...

RISK GOVERNANCE AND BORDER SECURITY POLICY POST 9/11: BEYOND BORDERS IN THE SECURITY ERA

SEBBEN, CHRISTINE
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
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This paper utilizes a critical (political) discourse analysis to examine security dialogue as revealed through policy; in order to facilitate this task, the following publically available political documents will be analyzed: Smart Border Declaration; Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP), and the pending Beyond Borders deal. The objective is to highlight the complexities and realities of the security era as it pertains to North American border security. In other words, I am interested in the administration of border security policy in its practical context. Reviewing the Beyond Borders deal and situating it within the overall national security policies that govern the Canadian border facilitates the identification of limitations posed by the security mentality dominant in border governance. This thesis advocates that those studying border security policies in order to formulate alternative options do so in a manner that appreciates the unique polity milieu of the border. The analysis presented here has policy implications and concludes with recommendations and projections for the Beyond Borders deal.; Thesis (Master, Sociology) -- Queen's University, 2011-10-14 13:59:44.787

Haunted Borderland : The Politics on the Border War against China in post-Cold War Vietnam

Shim, Juhyung
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2014
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This dissertation deals with the history and memory of the Border War with China in contemporary Vietnam. Due to its particularity as a war between two neighboring socialist countries in Cold War Asia, the Border War has been a sensitive topic in Vietnam. While political sensitivity regarding the national past derives largely from the Party-State, the history and memory of the war has permeated Vietnamese society. The war's legacy can be seen in anti-China sentiments that, in the globalized neoliberal order, appear to be reviving alongside post-Cold War nationalism. The Border War against China represented an important nationalist turn for Vietnam. At the same time, the traumatic breakdown of the socialist fraternity cultivated anxiety over domestic and international relations. The recent territorial dispute over the South China Sea, between Vietnam and China, has recalled the history and memory of the war in 1979. The growing anti-China sentiment in Vietnam also interpellates the war as a near future.

As an anthropological approach to the history and memory of war, this dissertation addresses five primary questions: 1) how the historyscape of Vietnam's past has been shifted through politics on the Border War; 2) how the memoryscape involving the Border War has been configured as national and local experience; 3) how the Border War has shaped the politics of ethnic minorities in a border province; 4) why the borderscape in Vietnam constantly affects the politics of the nation-state in the globalized world order; and 5) why the border markets and trade activities have been a realm of competing instantiations of post-Cold War nationalism and global neoliberalism.

In order to tackle these questions...

The Border as a Life Experience: Identities, Asymmetry and Border Crossing between Mexico and the United States

Velasco Ortiz,Laura; Contreras,Óscar F.
Fonte: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte Publicador: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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This article analyzes the effects of the Mexico-United States geopolitical border in social and cultural differentiation, using the crossing experience as the analytical core. Based in 60 life histories of residents of the Mexico-USA border region, a typology of life experiences structured around border crossing is developed, including a wide range of life experiences, from those that involve never having crossed the border to those that are precisely the product of border crossing. The experienced border encompasses the subjectified experience of the region, integrating both the meaning of crossing and the structural elements that historically have defined the border: proximity, asymmetry, and interaction.

Crime on the U.S.-Mexico Border: The Effect of Undocumented Immigration and Border Enforcement

Coronado,Roberto; Orrenius,Pia M.
Fonte: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte Publicador: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2007 EN
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In the 1990s, the U.S. border led the nation in the decline of property-related crimes, while violent crime rates fell twice as fast in the U.S. as in the median border county. This paper asks how changes in undocumented immigration and border enforcement have played a role in generating these divergent trends. We find that migrant apprehensions are correlated with violent crime and that increased border enforcement has not had a deterrent effect on such crime. Rather, increased border enforcement in a sector has led to more violent crime in neighboring sectors. In contrast to the results for violent crime, property crime is not correlated with migrant apprehensions, and while there is some evidence that border enforcement has lowered property crime rates, this result is sensitive to the model's specification. Our findings also indicate that the improved border economy over this period, specifically rapid job growth, played a significant role in lowering property crime rates.

Health status of southern Arizona border counties: a Healthy Border 2010 midterm review

Robinson,Keisha L.; Ernst,Kacey C.; Johnson,Babs L.; Rosales,Cecilia
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2010 EN
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OBJECTIVE: The region on the United States (US) side of the US-Mexico border consists of 44 counties in four states; populations on both sides of the border have similar health problems. Healthy Border 2010: An Agenda for Improving Health on the US-Mexico Border (HB 2010) is a binational agenda of health promotion and disease prevention for individuals in the region. This study reports on the health status of the four southern Arizona border counties. METHODS: Data on health indicators for Cochise, Pima, Santa Cruz, and Yuma Counties were collected from the Arizona Department of Health Services Vital Records and Statistics. Progress was calculated as a percentage made toward or away from the 2010 target. Comparisons were made between the border counties and Arizona. RESULTS: Progress toward the HB 2010 targets varied among the border counties. All border counties made progress toward the targets with the cervical cancer, hepatitis A, and teenage birthrate objectives. Most border counties moved toward the goals for breast cancer, diabetes mortality, tuberculosis, motor vehicle crashes, infant mortality from congenital abnormalities, and prenatal care. Border counties moved away from the target with the human immunodeficiency virus and infant mortality objectives. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of the HB 2010 objectives provided a comprehensive description of the health status of the population. Although the southern Arizona border counties have shown improvement in some areas...

Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose: cross-sectional study of multiethnic adult population at the United States-Mexico border

Díaz-Apodaca,Beatriz A.; Ebrahim,Shah; McCormack,Valerie; de Cosío,Federico G.; Ruiz-Holguín,Rosalba
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2010 EN
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OBJETIVE: To estimate prevalence of type 2 diabetes (diabetes) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in the border region between the United States of America and Mexico, by ethnic origin and country of residence; identify risk factors associated with both conditions; and explore the extent to which these factors account for cross-border or ethnic disparities in prevalence. METHODS: From April 2001 to November 2002, Phase I of the U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project, a prevalence study of diabetes and its risk factors, was conducted at the U.S.-Mexico border using multistage cluster sampling. A questionnaire was administered on diabetes (self-reported) and lifestyle and a physical examination and blood sample were obtained. A total of 4 027 adults participated in the study: 2 120 Hispanics from the Mexican side of the border and 1 437 Hispanics and 470 non-Hispanics (of whom 385 were classified as "white") from the U.S. side of the border. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of self-reported and unrecognized diabetes in Hispanics was 15.4% (16.6% on the Mexican side of the border and 14.7% on the U.S. side). The age-adjusted prevalence of IFG was similar on both sides of the border (14.1% on the Mexican side and 13.6% on the U.S. side). CONCLUSIONS: Established risk factors for diabetes (e.g....