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Biomecânica ultra-sonográfica da deglutição: estudo preliminar; Sonographic evaluation of swallowing biomechanics: a preliminary study

LYNCH, Cinthya da Silva; CHAMMAS, Maria Cristina; MANSUR, Letícia Lessa; CERRI, Giovanni Guido
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnóstico por Imagem Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnóstico por Imagem
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
OBJETIVO: Verificar, por meio da ultra-sonografia, os parâmetros espaciais do complexo hiolaríngeo na dinâmica da deglutição e a associação entre idade e efeitos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Neste estudo quantitativo e prospectivo foram incluídos 39 indivíduos sadios, de ambos os gêneros, na faixa etária de 20 a 70 anos (média, 45,56; desvio-padrão, 14,53). Avaliou-se a biomecânica da deglutição correspondente à medida da distância entre a porção superior do osso hióide e a borda superior da cartilagem tireóide, no momento de máxima elevação laríngea. As medidas foram realizadas com a ingestão de alimentos de consistências líquida e pastosa. RESULTADOS: A variação da distância da laringe ao hióide apresentou associação positiva com a idade, somente na deglutição de alimento pastoso, consistência na qual é solicitada maior atividade de propulsão lingual do que nos líquidos. CONCLUSÃO: É possível que o aumento da distância entre o hióide e a laringe, que representa menor elevação laríngea, na deglutição de pastosos, ocorra por efeito do envelhecimento, processo no qual se verifica diminuição de reservas funcionais, mesmo em indivíduos sadios. A ultra-sonografia pode detectar comportamentos relacionados a consistências alimentares...

Effect of Functional Stabilization Training on Lower Limb Biomechanics in Women

Baldon, Rodrigo De Marche; Moreira Lobato, Daniel Ferreira; Carvalho, Livia Pinheiro; Lam Wun, Paloma Yan; Pereira Santiago, Paulo Roberto; Serrao, Fabio Viadanna
Fonte: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS; PHILADELPHIA Publicador: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS; PHILADELPHIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
BALDON, R. D. M., D. F. M. LOBATO, L. P. CARVALHO, P. Y. L. WUN, P. R. P. SANTIAGO, and F. V. SERRAO. Effect of Functional Stabilization Training on Lower Limb Biomechanics in Women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 135-145, 2012. Purpose: This study aimed to verify the effects of functional stabilization training on lower limb kinematics, functional performance, and eccentric hip and knee torques. Methods: Twenty-eight women were divided into a training group (TG; n = 14), which carried out the functional stabilization training during 8 wk, and a control group (CG; n = 14), which carried out no physical training. The kinematic assessment of the lower limb was performed during a single-leg squat, and the functional performance was evaluated by way of the single-leg triple hop and the timed 6-m single-leg hop tests. The eccentric hip abductor, adductor, lateral rotator, medial rotator, and the knee flexor and extensor torques were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Results: After 8 wk, the TG significantly reduced the values for knee abduction (from -6.86 degrees to 1.49 degrees), pelvis depression (from -10.21 degrees to -7.86 degrees) and femur adduction (from 7.08 degrees to 5.19 degrees) as well as increasing the excursion of femur lateral rotation (from -0.55 degrees to -3.67 degrees). Similarly...

Estudo da marcha e de alterações biomecânicas no pé de pacientes com diabetes; Study of gaits and biomechanics disturbance in diabetics foot

Cardoso, Vinicius Saura
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/03/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
A marcha é um dos movimentos mais estudados na biomecânica. Ela é considerada um ciclo repetitivo, que tem por característica, uma fase de apoio e uma fase de balanço. Alterações na marcha de pacientes com neuropatia diabética foram identificadas quando comparados à um grupo controle. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar comparativamente a marcha de pacientes portadores de diabetes com e sem neuropatia verificando possíveis alterações nos padrões de marcha dos dois grupos em relação a um grupo controle. Estudamos 36 voluntários, que foram divididos em 3 grupos compostos por 10 pessoas sem diabetes (GC), 10 com diabetes sem neuropatia periférica (GD) e 16 portadores de neuropatia periférica diabética (GDN). Foi realizada a análise biomecânica da marcha de todos os voluntários, capturando a força de reação vertical do solo e filmando a movimentação da articulação do tornozelo. Para análise dos dados foi construída e utilizada uma rotina no programa Matlab®. Os resultados demonstraram, estatisticamente, que os valores do 1° e do 2° picos da força de reação vertical do solo são maiores nos pacientes com neuropatia periférica diabética. A amplitude de movimentação do tornozelo foi menor nos grupos com pacientes portadores de diabetes em relação ao grupo controle. Desta forma...

Biomechanics Studies in Dentistry: Bioengineering Applied in Oral Implantology

Assuncao, Wirley Goncalves; Ricardo Barao, Valentim Adelino; Tabala, Lucas Fernando; Gomes, Erica Alves; Delben, Juliana Aparecida; dos Santos, Paulo Henrique
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1173-1177
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
The application of engineering knowledge in dentistry has helped the understanding of biomechanics aspects related to osseointegrated implants. Several techniques have been used to evaluate the biomechanical load oil implants comprising the use of photoelastic stress analysis, finite element stress analysis, and strain-gauge analysis. Therefore, the purpose of this Study was to describe engineering methods used in dentistry to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of osseointegrated implants. Photoelasticity provides good qualitative information oil the overall location and concentration of stresses but produces limited quantitative information. The method serves as ail important tool for determining the critical stress points in a material and is often used for determining stress concentration factors in irregular geometries. The application of strain-gauge method oil dental implants is based oil the use of electrical resistance strain gauges and its associated equipment and provides both in vitro and vivo measurements strains under static and dynamic loads. However, strain-gauge method provides only the data regarding strain at the gauge. Finite element analysis can Simulate stress using a computer-created model to calculate stress...

Molecular Biomechanics: The Molecular Basis of How Forces Regulate Cellular Function

Bao, Gang; Kamm, Roger D.; Thomas, Wendy; Hwang, Wonmuk; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Zhu, Cheng; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/03/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.07%
Recent advances have led to the emergence of molecular biomechanics as an essential element of modern biology. These efforts focus on theoretical and experimental studies of the mechanics of proteins and nucleic acids, and the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress transmission, mechanosensing and mechanotransduction in living cells. In particular, single-molecule biomechanics studies of proteins and DNA, and mechanochemical coupling in biomolecular motors have demonstrated the critical importance of molecular mechanics as a new frontier in bioengineering and life sciences. To stimulate a more systematic study of the basic issues in molecular biomechanics, and attract a broader range of researchers to enter this emerging field, here we discuss its significance and relevance, describe the important issues to be addressed and the most critical questions to be answered, summarize both experimental and theoretical/computational challenges, and identify some short-term and long-term goals for the field. The needs to train young researchers in molecular biomechanics with a broader knowledge base, and to bridge and integrate molecular, subcellular and cellular level studies of biomechanics are articulated.

Artificial Intelligence in Sports Biomechanics: New Dawn or False Hope?

Bartlett, Roger
Fonte: Asist Group Publicador: Asist Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.12%
This article reviews developments in the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in sports biomechanics over the last decade. It outlines possible uses of Expert Systems as diagnostic tools for evaluating faults in sports movements (‘techniques’) and presents some example knowledge rules for such an expert system. It then compares the analysis of sports techniques, in which Expert Systems have found little place to date, with gait analysis, in which they are routinely used. Consideration is then given to the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in sports biomechanics, focusing on Kohonen self-organizing maps, which have been the most widely used in technique analysis, and multi-layer networks, which have been far more widely used in biomechanics in general. Examples of the use of ANNs in sports biomechanics are presented for javelin and discus throwing, shot putting and football kicking. I also present an example of the use of Evolutionary Computation in movement optimization in the soccer throw in, which predicted an optimal technique close to that in the coaching literature. After briefly overviewing the use of AI in both sports science and biomechanics in general, the article concludes with some speculations about future uses of AI in sports biomechanics.

The effect of a daily quiz (TOPday) on self-confidence, enthusiasm, and test results for biomechanics

Tanck, Esther; Maessen, Martijn F. H.; Hannink, Gerjon; van Kuppeveld, Sascha M. H. F.; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Kooloos, Jan G. M.
Fonte: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum Publicador: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.22%
Many students in Biomedical Sciences have difficulty understanding biomechanics. In a second-year course, biomechanics is taught in the first week and examined at the end of the fourth week. Knowledge is retained longer if the subject material is repeated. However, how does one encourage students to repeat the subject matter? For this study, we developed ‘two opportunities to practice per day (TOPday)’, consisting of multiple-choice questions on biomechanics with immediate feedback, which were sent via e-mail. We investigated the effect of TOPday on self-confidence, enthusiasm, and test results for biomechanics. All second-year students (n = 95) received a TOPday of biomechanics on every regular course day with increasing difficulty during the course. At the end of the course, a non-anonymous questionnaire was conducted. The students were asked how many TOPday questions they completed (0–6 questions [group A]; 7–18 questions [group B]; 19–24 questions [group C]). Other questions included the appreciation for TOPday, and increase (no/yes) in self-confidence and enthusiasm for biomechanics. Seventy-eight students participated in the examination and completed the questionnaire. The appreciation for TOPday in group A (n = 14)...

Three-dimensional computer simulations of feeding behaviour in red and giant pandas relate skull biomechanics with dietary niche partitioning

Figueirido, Borja; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Serrano-Alarcón, Francisco J.; Martín-Serra, Alberto; Pastor, Juan F.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
The red (Ailurus fulgens) and giant (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) pandas are mammalian carnivores convergently adapted to a bamboo feeding diet. However, whereas Ailurus forages almost entirely on younger leaves, fruits and tender trunks, Ailuropoda relies more on trunks and stems. Such difference in foraging mode is considered a strategy for resource partitioning where they are sympatric. Here, we use finite-element analysis to test for mechanical differences and similarities in skull performance between Ailurus and Ailuropoda related to diet. Feeding simulations suggest that the two panda species have similar ranges of mechanical efficiency and strain energy profiles across the dentition, reflecting their durophagous diet. However, the stress distributions and peaks in the skulls of Ailurus and Ailuropoda are remarkably different for biting at all tooth locations. Although the skull of Ailuropoda is capable of resisting higher stresses than the skull of Ailurus, the latter is able to distribute stresses more evenly throughout the skull. These differences in skull biomechanics reflect their distinct bamboo feeding preferences. Ailurus uses repetitive chewing in an extended mastication to feed on soft leaves, and Ailuropoda exhibits shorter and more discrete periods of chomp-and-swallow feeding to break down hard bamboo trunks.

Techniques for extended modeling of cardiac morphogenesis in the embryonic chick

Young, Jonathan Michael (1981 - ); Perucchio, Renato (1950 - )
Fonte: University of Rochester Publicador: University of Rochester
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:xviii, 190 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.12%
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 2010.; Computational models that simulate the biophysical mechanisms of early cardiac morphogenesis in the embryonic chick heart have been used to demonstrate the influence of biomechanics in cardiac development. However, algorithms for the automatic coding of material subroutines that govern the constitutive relations of biological tissues, generating realistic geometries, transferring solution results correctly during analysis continuation procedures, and for including advanced biomechanical components of the developing cardiac environment limit current models from demonstrating the role biomechanics has on normal cardiac development. The purpose of our work is to develop and demonstrate novel techniques to resolve each of the aforementioned limitations and use new techniques to model the hypothetical role of biomechanics in cardiac development. First, we use the symbolic mathematics software Mathematica and nonlinear continuum mechanics to automatically generate FORTRAN based user material subroutines. The Mathematica notebook only requires the definition of a pseudoelastic strain energy function to generate the current Cauchy stress and Tensor of Elasticity for all integration points in the model. We demonstrate the accuracy of the automatically generated code using uniaxial...

Scientific Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports

Harrison, Andrew J.; Anderson, Ross; Kenny, Ian
Fonte: Original Writing & Biomechanics Research Unit, University of Limerick Publicador: Original Writing & Biomechanics Research Unit, University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/book; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.28%
peer-reviewed; The 27th International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports is the official annual meeting of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports (ISBS) whose primary purposes are: • To provide a forum for the exchange of ideas for sports biomechanics researchers, coaches and teachers • To bridge the gap between researchers and practitioners • To gather and disseminate information and materials on biomechanics in sports These proceedings, presented at the University of Limerick, Ireland, from 17th to 21st August 2009 include seven keynote papers, 110 oral papers, 180 poster papers and 5 thematic applied sessions. The conference proceedings present cutting edge research on sports biomechanics and its applications from many internationally renowned researchers and academics from more than 35 countries and 5 continents. 344 papers were submitted online for blind review by two expert members of the ISBS 2009 Scientific Committee and were required to satisfy strict requirements for scientific merit and relevance to sports biomechanics. For inclusion in the proceedings, authors had to respond appropriately to the reviewers’ comments and make requested changes to the satisfaction of the ISBS 2009 Editorial Board. 46 papers were rejected or withdrawn by authors during the review process. Accepted papers were edited and formatted to ensure they complied fully with ISBS submission guidelines. Papers are published as either four‐page short communications or as one‐page work in progress reports. The proceedings also include over 30 applied session papers under the themes of rowing...

Geoffrey Dyson Keynote: Applications of Functional Data Analysis in Sports Biomechanics.

Harrison, Andrew J.
Fonte: Internatinal Society of Biomechanics in Sport Publicador: Internatinal Society of Biomechanics in Sport
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
peer-reviewed; This paper reconsiders the challenge of analysing coordination in human movement with particular emphasis on the application of Functional Data Analysis and Functional Principal Component Analysis. The process of Functional Data Analysis is outlined using examples from biomechanics of sports injuries and coordination in race-walking, jumping and running. The evolution of the spring mass model used to describe jumping and hopping behaviour is examined and it is proposed that this model represents a coordination structure in human movement which may be appropriately analysed using Functional Data Analysis methods.; PUBLISHED; peer-reviewed

A study on the biomechanics of axonal injury

Anderson, Robert William Gerard
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1205749 bytes; 9041541 bytes; 8391638 bytes; 5496340 bytes; 6644084 bytes; 129294 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
The current focus of research efforts in the area of the biomechanics of traumatic brain injury is the development of numerical (finite element) models of the human head. A validated numerical model of the human head may lead to better head injury criteria than those used currently in crashworthiness studies. A critical step in constructing a validated finite element model of the head is determining the mechanical threshold, should it exist, for various types of injury to brain tissue. This thesis describes a biomechanical study of axonal injury in the anaesthetised sheep. The study used the measurements of the mechanics of an impact to the living sheep, and a finite element model of the sheep skull and brain, to investigate the mechanics of the resulting axonal injury. Sheep were subjected to an impact to the left lateral region of the skull and were allowed to survive for four hours after the impact. The experiments were designed specifically with the numerical model in mind; sufficient data were collected to allow the mechanics of the impact to be faithfully reproduced in the numerical model. The axonal injury was identified using immunohistological methods and the injury was mapped and quantified. Axonal injury was produced consistently in all animals. Commonly injured regions included the sub-cortical and deep white matter...

Sistema para análise biomecânica de nadadores – SABIO; System for biomechanics analysis of the swimmers - SABIO

Persona, Karina Lorenti
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
O objetivo deste trabalho foi o desenvolvimento de um sistema baseado na aquisição de imagens que auxilie no treinamento e na análise biomecânica de atletas, especificamente, de nadadores. A análise visou a identificação e a quantificação dos fatores biomecânicos que podem melhorar o desempenho de nadadores, pois a otimização de pequenos valores podem significar a vitória na natação. Para a avaliação biomecânica é necessário conhecer alguns parâmetros de um nadador, tais como velocidade parcial e velocidade média do nado, freqüência e comprimento de braçada, ritmo de nado, mensuração de ângulos articulares, entre outras. Para que estes dados representem fielmente os valores do atleta, sem limitar seus movimentos com equipamentos acoplados a ele, o sistema denominado SABIO é dividido em hardware e software. O hardware é composto por vários elementos como câmeras de vídeo, marcadores aquáticos e sistema de estímulo visual e têm a função de capturar imagens do nado no plano sagital do atleta, delimitar pontos de interesse no ambiente e na piscina e ditar o ritmo do teste. No software são realizados os cálculos de parâmetros do nado e a análise biomecânica do nadador. Foram realizados diversos testes...

Reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior com a técnica de duplo feixe - avaliação no laboratório de biomecânica; Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the double bundle technique - evaluation in the biomechanics laboratory

D'ELIA, Caio Oliveira; BITAR, Alexandre Carneiro; CASTROPIL, Wagner; GAROFO, Antônio Guilherme Padovani; CANTUÁRIA, Anita Lopes; ORSELLI, Maria Isabel Veras; LUQUES, Isabela Ugo; DUARTE, Marcos
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ortopedia e Traumatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ortopedia e Traumatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.91%
OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é descrever a metodologia da análise da rotação do joelho utilizando instrumentos do laboratório de biomecânica e apresentar os resultados preliminares de um estudo comparativo com pacientes submetidos à reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior com a técnica de duplo feixe. MÉTODOS: Descreveu-se o protocolo atualmente utilizado em nosso laboratório e realizou-se a análise cinemática tridimensional e medida da amplitude de rotação do joelho de oito pacientes normais (grupo controle) e 12 pacientes operados com a técnica de duplo feixe em três tarefas no laboratório de biomecânica. RESULTADOS: Não indicam diferenças significativas entre os lados operados e não operados em relação às amplitudes médias da marcha, da marcha com mudança de direção ou da marcha com mudança de direção ao descer a escada (p > 0,13). CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados preliminares não demonstraram diferença da técnica de reconstrução de LCA em duplo feixe em relação ao lado contralateral e ao grupo controle.; OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the methodology of knee rotation analysis using biomechanics laboratory instruments and to present the preliminary results from a comparative study on patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the double-bundle technique. METHODS: The protocol currently used in our laboratory was described. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis was performed and knee rotation amplitude was measured on eight normal patients (control group) and 12 patients who were operated using the double-bundle technique...

Investigation of the influence of design details on short implant biomechanics using colorimetric photoelastic analysis: a pilot study

Zielak,João César; Archetti,Felipe Belmonte; Scotton,Ricardo; Filietaz,Marcelo; Storrer,Carmen Lucia Mueller; Giovanini,Allan Fernando; Deliberador,Tatiana Miranda
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Engenharia Biomédica Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Engenharia Biomédica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
Introduction: The clinical survival of a dental implant is directly related to its biomechanical behavior. Since short implants present lower bone/implant contact area, their design may be more critical to stress distribution to surrounding tissues. Photoelastic analysis is a biomechanical method that uses either simple qualitative results or complex calculations for the acquisition of quantitative data. In order to simplify data acquisition, we performed a pilot study to demonstrate the investigation of biomechanics via correlation of the findings of colorimetric photoelastic analysis (stress transition areas; STAs) of design details between two types of short dental implants under axial loads. Methods Implants were embedded in a soft photoelastic resin and axially loaded with 10 and 20 N of force. Implant design features were correlated with the STAs (mm2) of the colored fringes of colorimetric photoelastic analysis. Results Under a 10 N load, the surface area of the implants was directly related to STA, whereas under a 20 N load, the surface area and thread height were inversely related to STA. Conclusion A smaller external thread height seemed to improve the biomechanical performance of the short implants investigated.

A biomecânica e a produção do conhecimento em fisioterapia: levantamento baseado nos anais do congresso brasileiro de biomecânica; The biomechanics and the production of knowledge in physiotherapy: survey based on the proceedings of Brazilian congress of biomechanics

Costa, Paula Hentschel Lobo da; Moreira, Roberta de Fátima Carreira; Foltran, Fabiana Almeida; Selistre, Luiz Fernando Approbato; Santos, Kleber Luis Silva; Castro, Kelli Cristina de; Lima, Natália Targas; Coletta, Teresinha das Graças
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.91%
O aumento gradual da participação da comunidade acadêmica da Fisioterapia nas edições do Congresso Brasileiro de Biomecânica (CBB) é notório. Os Anais do CBB passaram a ser importantes veículos para a divulgação científica em Fisioterapia no Brasil; porém, a caracterização dessa produção ainda não foi feita. O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar um levantamento bibliográfico dos estudos em Fisioterapia publicados nas edições dos Anais do CBB, desde a primeira edição em 1992 (Anais do IV CBB) até a edição publicada em 2009 (Anais do XIII CBB), a fim de identificar quais especialidades da Fisioterapia têm aplicado o conhecimento em Biomecânica no contexto clínico e/ou científico, além de caracterizar o tipo de pesquisa que se tem desenvolvido. Seis revisores independentes levantaram os estudos pertencentes à área da Fisioterapia e coletaram informações de maneira padronizada através de questionários. Os resultados evidenciaram um grande crescimento da participação das diferentes áreas da Fisioterapia ao longo das dez edições do CBB. Embora os dados sejam positivos em relação à ampliação das pesquisas em Biomecânica, verificou-se uma carência da utilização dos recursos biomecânicos para avaliar efeitos de intervenções em pacientes. Dessa forma...

The Biomechanics of the Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cervical Spine: Investigation of the Tensile, Bending and Viscoelastic Response

Luck, Jason Frederick
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12%

Pediatric cervical spinal injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Cervical injuries observed in the pediatric population appear to be age dependent with younger children experiencing more upper cervical level injuries compared to increased lower level cervical injury patterns to older children. The majority of pediatric cervical spinal injuries are motor vehicle crash related. Current progress in child occupant protection, including increased and proper restraint usage continues to reduce serious injury and fatalities to child occupants. However, improper restraint usage and incorrect child seating location, especially with children transitioning from rear-facing child restraints to forward-facing restraints is still a concern. Continued reductions in serious injury and fatalities to child occupants in survivable motor vehicle crashes will be based on continued education and improvements in child anthropometric test devices, child computational injury models and child restraint system design. Improvements in all of these categories are dependent on an improved understanding of the developmental biomechanics of the human cervical spine. Currently, limited data exist on human child neck biomechanics and none of the current cadaveric work has evaluated the biomechanical response over the entire age spectrum from birth to young adulthood. Numerous surrogate studies exist and have formed the basis of child injury criteria and developmental biomechanics...

Biomechanics of Coupled Motion in the Cervical Spine During Simulated Whiplash in Patients with Pre-existing Cervical or Lumbar Spinal Fusion: A Finite Element Study

Huang, Haoming
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.91%

It is well understood that loss of motion following spinal fusion increases strain in the adjacent motion segments. However, it is unclear if to date, studies on cervical spine biomechanics can be affected by the role of coupled motions in the lumbar spine. Accordingly, we investigated the biomechanics of the cervical spine following cervical fusion and lumbar fusion during simulated whiplash.

A validated whole-human finite element model was used to investigate whiplash injury. The cervical spine before and after spinal fusion was subjected to simulated whiplash exposure in accordance with Euro NCAP testing guidelines, and the strains in the anterior longitudinal ligaments of the adjacent motion segments were computed.

In the models of cervical arthrodesis, peak ALL strains were higher in the motion segments adjacent to the level of fusion, and strains directly increased with longer fusions. The mean strain increase in the motion segment immediately adjacent to the site of fusion from C2-C3 through C5-C6 was 26.1% and 50.8% following single- and two-level cervical fusion (p=0.03). On average, peak strains experienced in a lumbar-fused spine were 1.0% less than those seen in a healthy spine (p=0.61). The C3-C4 motion segment had disproportionately high increases in strain following cervical fusion. The C6-C7 motion segment experienced high absolute strain under all tested conditions but the increase in strain following fusion was very small. This study provides support for both the hypothesis that adjacent segment disease is associated with post-arthrodesis biomechanical influences and the hypothesis that adjacent segment disease is a result of natural history...

A biomecânica em educação física e esporte; The biomechanics in physical education and sports

Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Júlio Cerca
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Educação Física e Esporte Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Educação Física e Esporte
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Trata o artigo da contextualização da biomecânica enquanto disciplina acadêmica que compõe o corpo de conhecimento da Educação Física e do Esporte. São discutidos aspectos relacionados à fundamentação metodológica da avaliação do movimento humano; aspectos históricos; e as perspectivas da aplicação dos conhecimentos de natureza biomecânica para a prática profissional na Educação Física e no Esporte. No que se refere às aplicações profissionais, especial ênfase é dada aos esforços objetivando a otimização do desempenho esportivo, a detecção de soluções para promover a qualidade de vida, e o controle das lesões.; The paper discusses the context of biomechanics as an academic discipline that composes the body of knowledge of Physical Education and Sports. This review discusses methodological aspects related to the basis of evaluation of human movement, historical aspects, and perspectives of applying knowledge of biomechanics to the nature of professional practice in Physical Education and Sport. Concerning to professional applications, particular emphasis is given to efforts aiming at the optimization of sports performance, the detection of solutions to improve the quality of life, and the control of injuries.

Anthropometry and biomechanics: characteristics, principles and anthropometric models; Antropometria em biomecânica: características, princípios e modelos antropométricos

Iberes Lopes Melo, Sebastião; Prof. Doutor, CEFID/UDESC.; dos Santos, Saray Giovana; Profª NuPAF/DEF/CDS/UFSC - Doutoranda em Ergonomia
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Florianópolis, SC. Brasil Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Florianópolis, SC. Brasil
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; "Avaliado por Pares"; "Avaliado por Pares"; Bibliográfica Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2000 POR; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
Due to the importance of interdisciplinarity and multidisciplinarity to the complex analysis of human movement, and in an attempt to seek to bring Kinanthropometry and Biomechanics closer together, through anthropometry, this review article was compiled in order to: present the historical evolution of anthropometry and the theoretical presuppositions on which its anthropometric models are based; to present anthropometry as a method for measurement in biomechanics; to describe the role and scope of anthropometry in biomechanics by discussing some of its applications and contributions. Initially, an analysis is made of historical and conceptual aspects and anthropometric models are presented and characterized together with their theoretical presuppositions and limitations. Anthropometry is then analyzed in the context of the different methods for measuring in biomechanics, studying its position within the process of analyzing human movement as a prerequisite of kinemetry and dynamometry and also of synchronized analysis. What follows is a refl ection on the role and scope of anthropometry within the analysis of movement, with examples from drawn from several studies, and an identifi cation of their respective contributions. Finally...