Página 1 dos resultados de 1730 itens digitais encontrados em 0.007 segundos

On Reciprocal Illumination and Consilience in Biogeography

SANTOS, Charles Morphy D.; CAPELLARI, Renato S.
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.26%
Biogeography deals with the combined analysis of the spatial and temporal components of the evolutionary process. To this purpose, biogeographical analysis should consider two extra steps: a reciprocal illumination step, and a consilience step. Even if the traditional challenges of biogeography were successfully handled, the obtained hypothesis is not necessarily meaningful in biogeographical terms--it needs continuous test in the light of external hypotheses. For this reason, a concept analogous to Hennig`s reciprocal illumination is valuable, as well as a sort of biogeographical consilience in Whewell`s sense. Firstly, through the search for different classes of evidence, information useful to improve the hypothesis can be accessed via reciprocal illumination. Following, a more general hypothesis would arise through a consilience process, when the hypothesis explains phenomena not contemplated during its construction, as the distribution of other taxa or the existence (or absence) of fossils. This procedure aims to evaluate the robustness of biogeographical hypotheses as scientific theories. Such theories are reliable descriptions of how life changes its form both in space and time, putting historical biogeography close to Croizat`s statement of evolution as a three dimensional phenomenon.

Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and biogeography in Neotropical Brotogeris parakeets

RIBAS, Camila C.; MIYAKI, Cristina Y.; CRACRAFT, Joel
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
Aim We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Brotogeris (Psittacidae) using several distinct and complementary approaches: we test the monophyly of the genus, delineate the basal taxa within it, uncover their phylogenetic relationships, and finally, based on these results, we perform temporal and spatial comparative analyses to help elucidate the historical biogeography of the Neotropical region. Location Neotropical lowlands, including dry and humid forests. Methods Phylogenetic relationships within Brotogeris were investigated using the complete sequences of the mitochondrial genes cyt b and ND2, and partial sequences of the nuclear intron 7 of the gene for Beta Fibrinogen for all eight species and 12 of the 17 taxa recognized within the genus (total of 63 individuals). In order to delinetae the basal taxa within the genus we used both molecular and plumage variation, the latter being based on the examination of 597 skin specimens. Dates of divergence and confidence intervals were estimated using penalized likelihood. Spatial and temporal comparative analyses were performed including several closely related parrot genera. Results Brotogeris was found to be a monophyletic genus, sister to Myiopsitta. The phylogenetic analyses recovered eight well-supported clades representing the recognized biological species. Although some described subspecies are diagnosably distinct based on morphology...

Biogeography of Glandulocaudinae (Teleostei : Characiformes : Characidae) revisited: phylogenetic patterns, historical geology and genetic connectivity

MENEZES, Naercio A.; RIBEIRO, Alexandre C.; WEITZMAN, Stanley; TORRES, Rodrigo A.
Fonte: MAGNOLIA PRESS Publicador: MAGNOLIA PRESS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
The biogeography of the Glandulocaudinae ( former Glandulocaudini) is reviewed. The major pattern of diversification presented by this group of freshwater fishes can be clearly associated to the main aspects of the tectonic evolution of the southern portion of the Cis-Andean South American Platform. The phylogenetic relationships within the group suggest that the clade represented by Lophiobrycon is the sister-group of the more derived clade represented by the genus Glandulocauda and Mimagoniates. Lophiobrycon and Glandulocauda occur in areas of the ancient crystalline shield of southeastern Brazil and their present allopatric distribution is probably due to relict survival and tectonic vicariant events. Populations of Glandulocauda melanogenys are found in contiguous drainages in presently isolated upper parts of the Tiete, Guaratuba, Itatinga, and Ribeira de Iguape basins and this pattern of distribution is probably the result of river capture caused by tectonic processes that affected a large area in eastern and southeastern Brazil. The species of Mimagoniates are predominantly distributed along the eastern and southeastern coastal areas, but M. microlepis is additionally found in the rio Iguacu and Tibagi basins. Mimagoniates barberi occurs in both SW margin of the upper rio Parana basin and the lower Paraguay and Mimagoniates sp. occurs in the upper Paraguay river basin. Tectonic activations of the Continental Rift of Southeastern Brazil along the eastern margin of the Upper Parana basin promoted population fragmentation responsible of the present day distribution presented by Glandulocauda melanogenys. We hypothesize that occurrence of Mimagoniates along the lowland area around the Parana basin was due to a single or a multiple fragmentation of populations along the W-SW border of the upper Parana Basin...

Biogeografia de opiliões Gonyleptidae na Mata Atlântica, com revisão sistemática de Hernandariinae (Arachnida, Opiliones); Biogeography of harvestmen of Atlantic Rainforest, with systematic review of the subfamily Hernandariinae (Arachnida: Opiliones)

Silva, Marcio Bernardino da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/03/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
Os opiliões são um bom modelo para o estudo da biogeografia histórica, especialmente na Mata Atlântica, onde existe a maior diversidade de espécies do grupo no mundo. A presente tese foi dividida em três capítulos: o primeiro objetiva a delimitação de áreas de endemismo para a Mata Atlântica, usando a ocorrência de espécies de Gonyleptidae; o segundo objetiva encontrar um padrão geral de relação histórica entre essas áreas de endemismo que explique a diversificação no bioma, usando as filogenias de sete subfamílias de Gonyleptidae; o terceiro é a revisão sistemática da subfamília Hernandariinae. Foram delimitadas 12 áreas de endemismo para a Mata Atlântica, usando a ocorrência de 109 espécies. Foram usados os métodos numéricos PAE (Análise de Parcimônia de Endemicidade) e NDM, e desenvolvidos seis Critérios Combinados para a avaliação e delimitação das áreas. Para procurar por um padrão geral histórico de relação entre essas áreas, foram usados os métodos de biogeografia cladística para construção de cladogramas gerais de áreas. As 12 áreas de endemismo se relacionam historicamente formando três blocos principais na Mata Atlântica, com a separação do componente norte (Pernambuco e Bahia) inicialmente e posterior separação do componente central (Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo) do componente sul (sul de São Paulo...

Molecular systematic and historical biogeography of the armored Neotropical catfishes Hypoptopomatinae and Neoplecostominae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae)

Chiachio, Marcio Cesar; Oliveira, Claudio; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I.
Fonte: Academic Press Inc. Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Academic Press Inc. Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 606-617
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); The Neotropics possess the greatest freshwater fish diversity of the world, rendering the study of their evolutionary history extremely challenging. Loricariidae catfishes are one of the most diverse components of the Neotropical ichthyofauna and despite a long history of classification, major issues still need elucidation. Based on a nuclear gene, we present a robust phylogeny of two former loricariid subfamilies: Hypoptopomatinae and Neoplecostominae. Our results show that Neoplecostominae is nested within Hypoptopomatinae, and is the sister group to the former Otothyrini tribe. According to our results, supplemented by morphological observations, we erect two new subfamilies, the Otothyrinae and a new Hypoptopomatinae, and modify the Neoplecostominae by including the genus Pseudotocinclus. The uncovered evolutionary relationships allow a detailed analysis of their historical biogeography. We tested two Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis models for inferring the distribution range evolution of the new subfamilies, and show that the model having no constrains performs better than a model constraining long-range dispersal. The Maximum Likelihood reconstructions of ancestral ranges showed a marked division between the Amazonian origin of the Hypoptopomatinae and the eastern coastal Brazil + Upper Parana origin of the Neoplecostominae and Otothyrinae. Markedly few instances of dispersal across the border separating the Amazon basin and the Parana-Paraguay + eastern coastal Brazil + Uruguay were reconstructed. This result is in clear contrast with the historical biogeography of many Neotropical fishes...

Historical biogeography and cryptic diversity in the Callichthyinae (Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

Mariguela, Tatiane C.; Alexandrou, Markos A.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
The family Callichthyidae, divided into the subfamilies Corydoradinae and Callichthyinae, contains more than 200 species of armoured catfishes distributed throughout the Neotropics, as well as fossil species dating from the Palaeocene. Both subfamilies are very widely distributed throughout the continent, with some species ranges extending across multiple hypothesized biogeographical barriers. Species with such vast geographical ranges could be made up of multiple cryptic populations that are genetically distinct and have diverged over time. Although relationships among Callichthyinae genera have been thoroughly investigated, the historical biogeography of the Callichthyinae and the presence of species complexes have yet to be examined. Furthermore, there is a lack of fossil-calibrated molecular phylogenies providing a time frame for the evolution of the Callichthyinae. Here, we present a novel molecular data set for all Callichthyinae genera composed of partial sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear markers. These data were used to construct a fossil-calibrated tree for the Callichthyinae and to reconstruct patterns of spatiotemporal evolution. All phylogenetic analyses [Bayesian, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony (MP)] resulted in a single fully resolved and well-supported hypothesis for the Callichthyinae...

Biogeography of the social wasp genus (Hymenoptera: Vespidade: Polistinae)

Silva, Marjorie da; Noll, Fernando Barbosa
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 833-842
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.14%
Aim The aim of this study was to understand the biogeography of Brachygastra. As the spatial component of evolution is of fundamental importance to understanding the processes shaping the evolution of taxa, the known geological history of the Neotropical region was used together with the current phylogeny and distribution of species to investigate questions concerning the biogeography of Brachygastra: the ancestral ranges of Brachygastra species; their areal relationships and their congruence with previously published hypotheses; the possible associated vicariance events and the influence of land bridges between North and South America, and the split between the Amazon and Atlantic forests. Location Neotropical region, from Mexico to central Argentina and southern USA. Methods Statistical dispersal–vicariance analysis (S-DIVA) was used to reconstruct the possible ancestral ranges of Brachygastra species based on their phylogeny (divided into three groups, lecheguana, scuttelaris and smithii). A Brooks parsimony analysis (BPA) and component analysis were performed to reconstruct the areal relationships of these species within the Neotropics. Results S-DIVA suggested a widespread, South American ancestral region for Brachygastra. The ancestral B. azteca probably reached the Nearctic before a posterior vicariance event separated it from the species groups ((lecheguana (scutellaris + smithii)))...

Filogenia e biogeografia de Lonchocarpus s.l. e revisão taxonômica dos gêneros Muellera L.f. e Dahlstedtia Malme (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae); Phylogeny and biogeography of Lonchocarpus s.l. and taxonomic revision of the genera Muellera L.f. and Dahlstedtia Malme (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae)

Marcos José da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/05/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
Lonchocarpus Kunth (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae) é predominantemente neotropical e inclui cerca de 150 espécies. Estudos considerando a sistemática de Lonchocarpus são necessários, devido à sua classificação infragenérica que apresenta problemas nomenclaturais e taxonômicos, correlacionados com a alta diversidade morfológica de seus representantes. Há controvérsias referentes ao número, ao nome e à definição de suas séries, seções e subgêneros, bem como à sua própria circunscrição genérica. Entre as seções de Lonchocarpus, L. sect. Laxiflori (Benth.) Taub. e L. sect. Punctati (Benth.) Taub. são distintas morfologicamente das demais e têm distribuição geográfica quase que restrita à América do Sul, sendo a revisão taxonômica delas fundamental para a delimitação de Lonchocarpus. Ainda neste contexto, a precisa circunscrição do gênero só é possível com o entendimento das relações de Lonchocarpus com gêneros relacionados. Entre as poucas referências de estudos filogenéticos que incluem espécies de Lonchocarpus, uma apresenta Lonchocarpus s. str. como monofilético se as espécies sulamericanas da seção Punctati forem excluídas. Considerando os resultados apresentados nos estudos filogenéticos e os problemas relacionados à circunscrição e à classificação infragenérica de Lonchocarpus...

Biogeography of ViWiTa clade and phylogeny of Willughbeieae (Apocynaceae, Rauvolfioideae) = : Biogeografia do clado ViWiTa e filogenia de Willughbeieae; Biogeografia do clado ViWiTa e filogenia de Willughbeieae

Rosemeri Morokawa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/08/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
Apocynaceae é a segunda maior família de Gentianales com 366 gêneros e cerca de 5000 espécies, está dividida em cinco subfamílias. Um interessante grupo para estudar aspectos evolutivos e biogeográficos é o clado ViWiTa, que compreende as três maiores tribos (Vinceae, Willughbeieae, Tabernaemontaneae) de Rauvolfioideae, com 42 gêneros e 470 espécies distribuídas principalmente na região tropical do mundo, com exceção de Vinca em região temperada. Os objetivos do presente estudo são: reconstruir a hipótese filogenética de Willughbeieae, testar a monofilia das subtribos, elucidar as relações filogenéticas entre os gêneros e identificar sinapomorfias morfológicas para os clados maiores (Capítulo 1); realizar a datação molecular do clado ViWita, testar hipóteses biogeográficas acerca da disjunção pantropical e testar possíveis padrões vicariantes e rotas de dispersão (Capítulo 2). As análises filogenéticas foram realizadas usando cinco marcadores plastidiais (rpl16, rps16, trnK, trnS-G, matK) para 97 espécimens pertencentes aos 18 gêneros reconhecidos em Willughbeieae. A porcentagem dos representantes amostrados para cada gênero foram acima de 60% em doze gêneros, 50-59% em três gêneros e 30-49% em três gêneros. As idades moleculares do clado ViWiTa foram estimadas a partir da hipótese filogenética de Willughbeieae...

The historical biogeography of Pteroglossus aracaris (Aves, Piciformes, Ramphastidae) based on Bayesian analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences

Pereira,Sérgio L.; Wajntal,Anita
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
Most Neotropical birds, including Pteroglossus aracaris, do not have an adequate fossil record to be used as time constraints in molecular dating. Hence, the evolutionary timeframe of the avian biota can only be inferred using alternative time constraints. We applied a Bayesian relaxed clock approach to propose an alternative interpretation for the historical biogeography of Pteroglossus based on mitochondrial DNA sequences, using different combinations of outgroups and time constraints obtained from outgroup fossils, vicariant barriers and molecular time estimates. The results indicated that outgroup choice has little effect on the Bayesian posterior distribution of divergence times within Pteroglossus , that geological and molecular time constraints seem equally suitable to estimate the Bayesian posterior distribution of divergence times for Pteroglossus , and that the fossil record alone overestimates divergence times within the fossil-lacking ingroup. The Bayesian estimates of divergence times suggest that the radiation of Pteroglossus occurred from the Late Miocene to the Pliocene (three times older than estimated by the “standard” mitochondrial rate of 2% sequence divergence per million years), likely triggered by Andean uplift...

The emergence and promise of functional biogeography

Violle, Cyrille; Reich, Peter B.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Enquist, Brian J.; Kattge, Jens
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.21%
Understanding, modeling, and predicting the impact of global change on ecosystem functioning across biogeographical gradients can benefit from enhanced capacity to represent biota as a continuous distribution of traits. However, this is a challenge for the field of biogeography historically grounded on the species concept. Here we focus on the newly emergent field of functional biogeography: the study of the geographic distribution of trait diversity across organizational levels. We show how functional biogeography bridges species-based biogeography and earth science to provide ideas and tools to help explain gradients in multifaceted diversity (including species, functional, and phylogenetic diversities), predict ecosystem functioning and services worldwide, and infuse regional and global conservation programs with a functional basis. Although much recent progress has been made possible because of the rising of multiple data streams, new developments in ecoinformatics, and new methodological advances, future directions should provide a theoretical and comprehensive framework for the scaling of biotic interactions across trophic levels and its ecological implications.

Biogeography of time partitioning in mammals

Bennie, Jonathan J.; Duffy, James P.; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
The majority of mammal species are nocturnal, but many are diurnal (active during the day), crepuscular (active mostly during twilight), or cathemeral (active during hours of daylight and darkness). These different strategies for regulating activity over a 24-h cycle are associated with suites of adaptations to light or semidarkness. The biogeography of these time partitioning strategies is, however, poorly understood. We show that global patterns in mammal diversity with different diel activity patterns are constrained by the duration of time that is both (i) illuminated by daylight, moonlight, and/or twilight and (ii) between thermal limits suitable for mammal activity.

Phylogenetics, Conservation, and Historical Biogeography of the West Indian Members of the Adelieae (Euphorbiaceae)

Jestrow, Brett
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
The Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot is the largest insular system of the New World and a priority for biodiversity conservation worldwide. The tribe Adeliae (Euphorbiaceae) has over 35 species endemic to this hotspot, representing one of the most extraordinary cases of speciation in the West Indies, involving taxa from Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and the Bahamas. These species form a monophyletic group and traditionally have been accommodated in two endemic genera: Lasiocroton and Leucocroton. A study based on: (1) scanning electron microscopy of pollen and trichomes, (2) macromorphology, and (3) molecular data, was conducted to reveal generic relationships within this group. Phylogenies were based on parsimony and Bayesian analyses of nucleotide sequences of the ITS regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and the non-coding chloroplast DNA spacers psbM-trnD and ycf6-pcbM. One species, Lasiocroton trelawniensis, was transferred from the tribe into the genus Bernardia. Of the remaining species, three major monophyletic assemblages were revealed, one was restricted to limestone ares of Hispaniola and was sister to a clade with two monophyletic genera, Lasiocroton and Leucocroton. Morphological, biogeographical, and ecological data provided additional support for each of these three monophyletic assemblages. The Hispaniolan taxa were accommodated in a new genus with four species: Garciadelia. Leucocroton includes the nickel hyperaccumulating species from serpentine soils of Cuba...

A phylogenetic analysis of pygmy perches (Teleostei: Percichthyidae) with an assessment of the major historical influences on aquatic biogeography in Southern Australia

Unmack, P.; Hammer, M.; Adams, M.; Dowling, T.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Ltd Publicador: Taylor & Francis Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
The biogeography of southern Australia is characterized by a repeated pattern of relatedness between the biota of southwestern and southeastern Australia. Both areas possess a temperate climate but are separated by a vast arid region, currently lacking permanent freshwater habitats, which has become increasingly drier since about 15 Ma. Aquatic organisms have thus potentially remained isolated for a considerable time. Pygmy perches (Nannatherina and Nannoperca, Percichthyidae) provide an excellent scenario for investigating biogeographic relationships between southwestern and southeastern regions as multiple species occur on either side of Australia. This allows us to potentially differentiate between “Multiple Invasion” and “Endemic Speciation,” the two major hypotheses proposed to account for current distributions. The first suggests that multiple east–west movements have occurred, whereas the second suggests a single east–west split, with current biodiversity in each region being reciprocally monophyletic. Systematic relationships within this group were investigated with the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene; nuclear intron and exon sequences from S7, RAG1, and RAG2; and 53 allozyme loci. Our data supported the hypothesis of multiple movements across southern Australia based on a consistent lack of support for reciprocal monophyly of eastern and western species. This study appears to be the first example of an animal group displaying clear multiple east–west movement in southern Australia...

Biogeography of the social wasp genus Brachygastra (Hymenoptera: Vespidade: Polistinae)

Silva, Marjorie da; Noll, Fernando Barbosa
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 833-842
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.14%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 2009/12997-4; Processo FAPESP: 2011/06058-5; AimThe aim of this study was to understand the biogeography of Brachygastra. As the spatial component of evolution is of fundamental importance to understanding the processes shaping the evolution of taxa, the known geological history of the Neotropical region was used together with the current phylogeny and distribution of species to investigate questions concerning the biogeography of Brachygastra: the ancestral ranges of Brachygastra species; their areal relationships and their congruence with previously published hypotheses; the possible associated vicariance events and the influence of land bridges between North and South America, and the split between the Amazon and Atlantic forests.LocationNeotropical region, from Mexico to central Argentina and southern USA.MethodsStatistical dispersal-vicariance analysis (S-DIVA) was used to reconstruct the possible ancestral ranges of Brachygastra species based on their phylogeny (divided into three groups, lecheguana, scuttelaris and smithii). A Brooks parsimony analysis (BPA) and component analysis were performed to reconstruct the areal relationships of these species within the Neotropics.ResultsS-DIVA suggested a widespread...

Macroecologia, biogeografia e áreas prioritárias para conservação no cerrado; Macroecology, biogeography and prioritary areas for conservation in the brazilian cerrado; Macroecologia, biogeografia y áreas prioritárias para conservación en el cerrado

Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Bini, Luis Mauricio; Oliveira, Guilherme de; Barreto, Bruno de Souza; Silva, Marcel Müller Fernandes Pereira da; Terribile, Levi Carina; Rangel, Thiago Fernando L.V.B.; Pinto, Miriam Plaza; Sousa, Nayara Pereira Rez
Fonte: brasil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Evolução Publicador: brasil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Evolução
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.14%
v. 13, n. 3, p. 470-497, set. 2009; Worldwide scientists claim there is an ongoing crisis in biodiversity associated with increased human occupation. The field of conservation biology, is known as a crisis science / field, as it basically aims at obtaining useful information for better dealing with the ongoing crisis, thus supporting the decisions made by scientists to reduce biodiversity losses. Among these actions, of paramount importance is the suggestion of priority regions for conservation, given that conservation of entire ecosystems or biomes is impracticable. In this context, it has been suggested that the application of biogeography and macroecology principles, theorems, and methods could be of great help to conservation biology, which formalizes a new approach named conservation biogeography. The present paper discusses the use of macroecology to build and implement systematic conservation programs using the Cerrado of Central Brazil as model system. We start by discussing species richness and beta diversity, and how human occupation of Cerrado relates with it. This is important because the nature of this relationship is incorporated into regional systematic conservation plans, also including species complementarity, irrepleceability and gap analyses. It is also important taking into consideration that obtained results can be biased by poor knowledge of local biodiversity; For example ‘Wallacean and Linnean shortfalls’ may allow choosing a best set of indicator groups for analyses. Thus...

Filogenia e biogeografia das espécies de actinote hübner, 1819 (Nymphalidae : Heliconinae); Phylogeny and biogeography of species of actinote hübner, 1819 (Nymphalidae : Heliconinae)

Eduardo de Proença Barbosa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/02/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
Muitos aspectos e detalhes da origem, evolução e padrões de distribuição das borboletas ainda não são totalmente compreendidos, como as relações filogenéticas entre a grande maioria dos grupos de borboletas, que permaneceram desconhecidas até recentemente. Estudos filogenéticos até alguns anos atrás foram baseados principalmente em caracteres morfológicos de adultos muito embora o uso de caracteres de estágios imaturos tenha aumentado em importância atualmente, principalmente por se mostrarem informativos onde os caracteres de adultos foram insuficientes. Ainda assim, existem poucos trabalhos que utilizem esses caracteres tanto para a filogenia quanto para a classificação das borboletas. Além das lacunas nas relações de ancestralidade comum das borboletas, também existem lacunas a serem preenchidas com relação aos padrões biogeográficos, principalmente com relação à biogeografia histórica. Nos neotrópicos, a região mais biodiversa do planeta, o estudo da origem e da biogeografia da maioria dos grupos de organismos incluindo borboletas, é um assunto de grande interesse. Isso porque a maioria desses grupos não possui uma boa compreensão de suas histórias evolutivas, e desvendar alguns desses pontos seria dar um passo em direção à compreensão dessa enorme diversidade Neotropical. Apesar de ser um grupo relativamente bem conhecido...

The Effects of Biogeography on Ant Diversity and Activity on the Boston Harbor Islands, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Clark, Adam T.; Rykken, Jessica J.; Farrell, Brian Dorsey
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
Many studies have examined how island biogeography affects diversity on the scale of island systems. In this study, we address how diversity varies over very short periods of time on individual islands. To do this, we compile an inventory of the ants living in the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, Boston, Massachusetts, USA using data from a five-year All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of the region's arthropods. Consistent with the classical theory of island biogeography, species richness increased with island size, decreased with island isolation, and remained relatively constant over time. Additionally, our inventory finds that almost half of the known Massachusetts ant fauna can be collected in the BHI, and identifies four new species records for Massachusetts, including one new to the United States, Myrmica scabrinodis. We find that the number of species actually active on islands depended greatly on the timescale under consideration. The species that could be detected during any given week of sampling could by no means account for total island species richness, even when correcting for sampling effort. Though we consistently collected the same number of species over any given week of sampling, the identities of those species varied greatly between weeks. This variation does not result from local immigration and extinction of species...

Integrating multiple lines of evidence into historical biogeography hypothesis testing: a Bison bison case study

Metcalf, J.L.; Prost, S.; Nogués-Bravo, D.; DeChaine, E.G.; Anderson, C.; Batra, P.; Araújo, M.B.; Cooper, A.; Guralnick, R.P.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
One of the grand goals of historical biogeography is to understand how and why species' population sizes and distributions change over time. Multiple types of data drawn from disparate fields, combined into a single modelling framework, are necessary to document changes in a species's demography and distribution, and to determine the drivers responsible for change. Yet truly integrated approaches are challenging and rarely performed. Here, we discuss a modelling framework that integrates spatio-temporal fossil data, ancient DNA, palaeoclimatological reconstructions, bioclimatic envelope modelling and coalescence models in order to statistically test alternative hypotheses of demographic and potential distributional changes for the iconic American bison (Bison bison). Using different assumptions about the evolution of the bioclimatic niche, we generate hypothetical distributional and demographic histories of the species. We then test these demographic models by comparing the genetic signature predicted by serial coalescence against sequence data derived from subfossils and modern populations. Our results supported demographic models that include both climate and human-associated drivers of population declines. This synthetic approach...

Inferring dispersal: a Bayesian approach to phylogeny-based island biogeography, with special reference to the Canary Islands

Sanmartín, Isabel; Mark, P. van der; Ronquist, Fredrik
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Publicador: Blackwell Publishing
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 366315 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
Aim Oceanic islands represent a special challenge to historical biogeographers because dispersal is typically the dominant process while most existing methods are based on vicariance. Here, we describe a new Bayesian approach to island biogeography that estimates island carrying capacities and dispersal rates based on simple Markov models of biogeographical processes. This is done in the context of simultaneous analysis of phylogenetic and distributional data across groups, accommodating phylogenetic uncertainty and making parameter estimates more robust. We test our models on an empirical data set of published phylogenies of Canary Island organisms to examine overall dispersal rates and correlation of rates with explanatory factors such as geographic proximity and area size. Location Oceanic archipelagos with special reference to the Atlantic Canary Islands. Methods The Canary Islands were divided into three island-groups, corresponding to the main magmatism periods in the formation of the archipelago, while non-Canarian distributions were grouped into a fourth 'mainland-island'. Dispersal between island groups, which were assumed constant through time, was modelled as a homogeneous, time-reversible Markov process, analogous to the standard models of DNA evolution. The stationary state frequencies in these models reflect the relative carrying capacity of the islands...