Dysfunction in the hypothalamic GABAergic system has been implicated in panic syndrome in humans. Furthermore, several studies have implicated the hypothalamus in the elaboration of pain modulation. Panic-prone states are able to be experimentally induced in laboratory animals to study this phenomenon. The aim of the present work was to investigate the involvement of medial hypothalamic nuclei in the organization of panic-like behaviour and the innate fear-induced oscillations of nociceptive thresholds. The blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the neuronal substrates of the ventromedial. or dorsomedial hypothalamus was followed by elaborated defensive panic-like reactions. Moreover, innate fear-induced antinociception was consistently elicited after the escape behaviour. The escape responses organized by the dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei were characteristically more elaborated, and a remarkable exploratory behaviour was recorded during GABA(A) receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus. The motor characteristic of the elaborated defensive escape behaviour and the patterns of defensive alertness and defensive immobility induced by microinjection of the bicuculline either into the dorsomedial. or into the ventromedial hypothalamus were very similar. This was followed by the same pattern of innate fear-induced antinociceptive response that lasted approximately 40 min after the elaborated defensive escape reaction in both cases. These findings suggest that dysfunction of the GABA-mediated neuronal system in the medial hypothalamus causes panic-like responses in laboratory animals...
Dustbathing has been the subject of much research in captive birds. In the present review we bring together the studies of domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) and jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) to provide a more complete picture of the behaviour. Dustbathing is discussed from the four aspects suggested by Tinbergen (1963): ontogeny, phylogeny, function and causation and a general aim is to give as complete review as possible of research on dustbathing behaviour.
Studies of ontogeny of dustbathing show that early substrate experience affects later preferences. It appears nevertheless as though the behaviour develops more or less normally even in the absence of appropriate dustbathing stimuli. The behaviour itself is described for a number of species, and there are experimental studies of dustbathing in both jungle fowl and domestic fowl, but there is little comparative research which could provide hypotheses about the phylogeny of the behaviour. Similarly, despite extensive discussions about the function of dustbathing behaviour and the many suggestions regarding the survival value of performing the behaviour, few studies have actually addressed this question. It has been demonstrated that dustbathing reduces the amount of feather lipids...
The development and implementation of an integrated numerical model to predict the
nonlinear response of RC structural elements, including nonlinear flexural and shear behaviour, is
proposed and discussed. The presence of RC elements with dominant behaviour in shear is quite
common in a significant number of existing and new buildings. Severe damages and/or collapse of
buildings have been observed in recent earthquakes due to disregarding of the shear behaviour of
these stocky elements. The main objective of the work proposed is the development of a numerical
model able to simulate the cyclic behaviour of RC elements subjected to cyclic loads, as the
induced by earthquakes. The proposed model would allow to better estimate the nonlinear response
of RC buildings under severe ground motions, combining the nonlinear flexural behaviour with the
nonlinear shear behaviour. The proposed model for nonlinear shear behaviour has been
implemented in the computer program VisualANL and was calibrated with experimental results on
full-scale tests on RC columns.
The adequate prediction of fire behaviour characteristics for both scientific and management objectives is greatly impacted by the performance of fire behaviour models. Lack of experimentation and limitations in fire behaviour models are constraining our current understanding of fuel treatment effectiveness and longevity. The residual effect of a 10-year old prescribed fire treatment is quantified by simulating and observing actual real-world fire behaviour in treated (T10) and untreated (U25) fuel complexes in a 25-year old maritime pine stand in Portugal. Fire behaviour characteristics were measured in experimental surface fires (n=36) under a range of autumn to late spring weather conditions. Surface fire behaviour was simulated using the BehavePlus fire modelling system with custom fuel models for T10, T25 and U15, the untreated fuel-complex when the stand was 15-years old. The T10 fuel complex had significantly less decomposing litter load and shrub cover and load than U25. Observed rate of fire spread did not differ between fuel complexes after accounting for the effects of other environmental variables, but flame length in T10 was 25% lower than in U25. BehavePlus simulations contradicted the difference observed in flame length. Inconsistent and misleading assessments of fuel treatments effectiveness with detrimental impacts on the outcomes of fuel management may result from the generalized practice of solely using simulation modelling tools in lieu of experimental fire behaviour observations.
Psychopathy researchers have long debated the role of antisocial behaviour and criminality as part of the construct of psychopathy. The current study examined the relationship between the interpersonal and affective traits (Factor 1) of psychopathy and antisocial behaviour (a facet of Factor 2), examining possible predictors of antisocial behaviour. It was hypothesized that early environment would moderate the relationship between Factor 1 traits and antisocial behaviour. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used in order to test for possible moderators. Sex differences were found, where men scored higher in Antisocial Behaviour. Childhood Abuse did not moderate the relationship between Factor 1 traits and Antisocial Behaviour, but predicted higher Antisocial Behaviour scores independently. Maternal Neglect was especially influential as a risk factor, significantly interacting with Factor 1 traits to predict higher Antisocial Behaviour scores. Maternal Warmth was also important, interacting with Factor 1 in a protective fashion, predicting lower Antisocial Behaviour Scores.
Safe behaviour programs are currently a popular strategy for improving safety in large organizations. This paper provides a critical look at the assumptions which underly such programs and identifies some of their limitations. Safe behaviour programs run the risk of assuming that unsafe behaviour is the only cause of accidents worth focusing on. The reality is that unsafe behaviour is merely the last link in a causal chain and not necessarily the most effective link to focus on, for the purposes of accident prevention. One major drawback of these programs is that they miss critically important unsafe behaviour, such as attempts by workers to re-start processes that have been temporarily interrupted. Conventional safe behaviour programs aimed at front line workers are also of no use in preventing accidents in which the behaviour of front line workers is not involved. Given that it is the behaviour of management which is most critical in creating a culture of safety in any organization, behavioural safety observations are likely to have their greatest impact if directed upwards, at managers. The paper concludes with an appendix about accident repeater programs which are sometimes introduced along with safe behaviour programs.; no
The research presented in this thesis was predicated on the need to improve service provision and care for children in out-of-home care. Although behavioural concerns are prevalent in this population, and frequently serve as the focus for interagency discussion, little is known about how the respective stakeholder groups in the out-of-home care sector understand and manage challenging behaviour. While the complexity of children’s needs necessitates effective collaboration between multiple services, relatively little theoretical or practical guidance exists about how this can be achieved, particularly in relation to supporting children with challenging behaviour. The long term significance of unaddressed behavioural issues for placement stability and educational outcomes provided the compelling impetus for this research.
The research had two broad aims. First, to identify barriers to collaborative practice, using the specific example of stakeholders’ experiences in supporting young people in out-of-home care to resolve challenging behaviours. Second, to identify what accounts of behaviour are dominant amongst key stakeholders and further, to understand what these accounts might mean for the practice of collaboration and for the support provided to children in out-of-home care. Accordingly...
Sedentary behaviour is associated with an increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and a range of other adverse health outcomes. However, few systematic reviews or meta-analyses have synthesised the evidence of sedentary behaviour and adverse health outcomes in adults. This systematic review differed from other systematic reviews in that it included only prospective studies with clearly defined measurements of prolonged sedentary behaviour in otherwise healthy adults. A comprehensive search of major databases for studies measuring cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes identified 19 prospective studies, 16 of which were included after critical appraisal. The review revealed difficulties in identifying a consistent and unified definition of sedentary behaviour, and ambiguities in quantifying sedentary behaviour due to methodological limitations. Despite this, the results suggested that prolonged sedentary behaviour in adults, particularly sitting for more than three hours at a time, was consistently and strongly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality, and — to a lesser degree — type 2 diabetes mellitus; these associations appeared to be independent of a range of age...
Selbstbeschädigung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Selbstbeschädigung unter Haftbedingungen
Die Arbeit untersucht Selbstbeschädigung vor allem anhand einer Zusammenfassung der aktuellen Literatur. Es erfolgt eine Abgrenzung zu ähnlichen Verhaltensweisen, wodurch eine Definition gelingt. Sonderformen selbstverletzenden Verhaltens werden näher untersucht und es erfolgt eine systematische Einteilung.
Über die Analyse der Motive, der Methoden und des sozialen Umfeldes werden Selbstbeschädigung und Selbstbeschädiger untersucht. In der Literatur getroffene Aussagen werden kritisch referiert und anhand eigener an zwei Gruppen durchgeführter Untersuchungen überprüft. Zum einen werden Häftlinge, die sich selbst verletzen und demzufolge in das Justizvollzugskrankenhaus Hohenasperg verlegt werden, befragt. Die zweite Gruppe umfaßt Personen, die wegen des Verdachtes auf die Anzeige fingierter Überfälle dem Institut für Gerichtliche Medizin in Tübingen zum Gutachten vorgestellt werden. Während bei den Häftlingen über die Selbstbeschädigung meist kein Zweifel besteht, geht es hier vielmehr um die Motivfindung. Bei der anderen Gruppe interessiert vor allem der Nachweis der Selbstbeibringung, weshalb auf die Morphologie der Wunde größter Wert gelegt wird.
Bei der vergleichenden Analyse der Methode der Selbstbeschädigung...
Background: Challenging and disruptive behaviour is commonly reported among children placed in the out-of-home care sector. Little is known about how stakeholders in this sector understand or manage challenging behaviour. Method: Ninety-two stakeholders in the South Australian out-of-home care sector were interviewed about their approach to supporting children with challenging behaviour. Participants were teachers, foster carers, child statutory workers, child mental health workers, and residential care workers. These semi-structured interviews were subject to thematic analysis. Results: The analysis revealed several ways of understanding challenging behaviour: behaviour as learnt, behaviour as purposeful, behaviour as a choice, behaviour arising from constant change, behaviour reflecting strong emotions, and behaviour reflecting attachment history. Conclusions: This analysis suggests that professionals seeking to engage in collaborative casework on behalf of children may need to accommodate a range of diverse views about the origin and solution to challenging and aggressive behaviour. The possible implications of these divergent understandings for placement policy and practice are discussed. These apparently disparate frameworks are discussed in terms of their underlying assumptions...
The purpose of this study was to examine whether certain temperament characteristics
(fearfulness, surgency, frustration, and effortful control) moderate the association
between authoritative parenting dimensions (psychological autonomy granting,
acceptance-involvement, and monitoring knowledge) or friends' antisocial behaviour,
and self-reported antisocial behaviour among adolescents. Questionnaires on adolescent
temperament and authoritative parenting were completed by 484 mothers and their
adolescent children (54.8% female). In addition, the adolescents responded to measures
regarding friends' antisocial behavior and their own antisocial behaviour. Adolescent
participants ranged between 13 and 17 years of age (M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.39) and
lived in a region of southern Ontario. As predicted, the results indicated that effortful
control moderated the association between parental monitoring knowledge and adolescent antisocial behaviour. Also, as predicted, effortful control moderated the
relation between friends' antisocial behaviour and adolescents' self-reports of antisocial
behaviour although the relation was sex-specific to girls. Unexpected results included a
significant monitoring knowledge by frustration by sex interaction...
The inclusion of adequate physical activity time within schools is difficult when curriculum time is already saturated with a focus on skills that improve academic achievement. Time-efficient physical activity solutions that demonstrate their impact on academic achievement related outcomes are needed to prioritize physical activity within the school curricula. FUNtervals are 4-minute high-intensity interval activities that use whole body actions to complement a storyline. The purpose of this thesis was four-fold. 1) To develop a resource of classroom appropriate high-intensity interval activities (FUNtervals) 2) to examine the effects of FUNtervals on classroom behaviour and 3) selective attention in elementary school children and lastly 4) to determine whether classroom behaviour predicts changes in selective attention following FUNtervals. Over the past two years, two separate studies have compared FUNtervals (FUN) to No Activity (NA) days using observations of off-task behaviour and administration of the d2 test of attention. Results from the first study showed mean percentages of passive and motor off-task behaviour were significantly decreased in both the grade 2 and 4 classrooms following FUNterval activity (Grade 4: Passive...
Background: Adolescent school injuries are common and often result in serious consequences. Problem risk behaviours are known causes of injury and interventions have targeted these independent behaviours with modest success in the past. Although there is some research investigating relationships between risk behaviours, none have empirically evaluated measures of multiple risk behaviour using a theoretical framework of adolescent risk-taking. There is a need for research to utilize population health theory to investigate associations between measures of multiple risk behaviour and school injury.
Objectives: The objectives of this thesis are to: 1) investigate the relationships between risk behaviours among a sample of Canadian adolescents using a framework of adolescent risk-taking, and 2) to evaluate adolescent risk behaviours and school climate as independent, and perhaps interactive, determinants of school injury under the Population Health Framework.
Methods: Both objectives utilized an interim dataset from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study. Objective 1. Factor-analytically derived (and validated) scales of multiple risk behaviours were used to describe relationships between these behaviours. Objective 2. Students reported their experiences with different types of school injury. Relationships between multiple risk behaviour and school injuries were assessed. The influence of school climate on that relationship was also evaluated.
Results: Objective 1. Adolescent risk behaviours appear to cluster into three distinct categories: 1) Overt Risk-Taking...
Prosocial behaviours are a diverse group of actions that are integral to human social life. In this dissertation I propose and test a three-factor model of prosocial behaviour. Specifically, in a series of four studies I examined the ability of infants and toddlers to engage in helping, sharing, and comforting behaviour. Additionally, I examine the consistency with which children produce these behaviours longitudinally over time and the associations between these three subtypes of prosocial behaviour and social cognitive perspective taking, effortful control, affective perspective taking, and temperament.
In Study 1, I found that 18-month-old infants were able to engage in helping and sharing, but not comforting behaviour. In Study 2, I found that between 18 and 30 months, there was no individual consistency in the production of prosocial behaviours, either across types (helping, sharing) or times (18, 24, or 30 months). Moreover, I found that even at 30 months of age, young children were not recognizing and responding to the emotional needs of others. In Study 3, I examined the relation between helping and sharing and three measures of social cognitive perspective taking and general cognitive development. I found unique relations between the behavioural correlates and the measures of prosocial behaviour. Specifically...
Four experiments are presented that explore social interactivity in a visually communicating species: the pigeon, Columba livia. A closed-loop teleprompter system was used to isolate, control and manipulate social contingency in a natural courtship interaction. Experiment 1 tested different ways to measure pigeon behaviour and developed an automatic method for measuring the pigeon’s circle walking display using motion energy analysis. In Experiment, 2 the subject’s courtship behaviour towards the video image of an opposite sex partner streamed live (Live), was compared with their behaviour towards a pre-recorded video image of the same partner (Playback). The only difference between the Live and Playback condition was the presence or absence of social contingency. The results showed that pigeons behaved interactively: their behaviour was determined, in part, by the social contingencies between visual signals. To investigate what types of social contingencies are behaviourally relevant, the effects of the partner’s facing direction and the timing of social contingencies on behaviour were investigated in Experiment 3 and 4, respectively. To manipulate partner facing direction, the camera was rotated so that the partner appears to be courting 90° away from the subject. To manipulate social timing...
Face-to-face communication is one of the most natural forms of interaction between humans. Speech perception is an important part of this interaction. While speech could be said to be primarily auditory in nature, visual information can play a significant role in influencing perception. It is not well understood what visual information is important or how that information is collected. Previous studies have documented the preference to gaze at the eyes, nose, and mouth of the talking face, but physical saliency, i.e., the unique low-level features of the stimulus, has not been explicitly examined. Two eye-tracking experiments are presented to investigate the role of physical saliency in the guidance of gaze fixations during audiovisual speech perception. Experiment 1 quantified the physical saliency of a talking face and examined its relationship with the gaze behaviour of participants performing an audiovisual speech perception task and an emotion judgment task. The majority of fixations were made to locations on the face that exhibited high relative saliency, but not necessarily the maximally salient location. The addition of acoustic background noise resulted in a change in gaze behaviour and a decrease in correspondence between saliency and gaze behaviour...
Phodopus campbelli is a naturally biparental dwarf hamster with males so paternal they will act as midwives during the birth of their litter. The hormonal regulation of parental behaviour has been well established in many species. However, to date, no causal mechanism for the extensive paternal behaviour displayed by male P. campbelli has been discovered. Recently, activity at the progesterone receptor has been shown to inhibit infant-directed behaviour in male mice. Therefore, the first study in this thesis was carried out to determine if antagonism of the progesterone receptor (PR) would enhance infant-directed care behaviour in naïve P. campbelli males. Despite detectable serum progesterone concentration in males, PR antagonism did not alter progesterone concentration, nor did it alter infant-directed behaviour in males with antagonized PR in adulthood. A slight increase in the latency to retrieve a pup seen in males with antagonized PR during adolescence suggests that there may be a developmental effect of PR activity on infant-directed behaviour in adulthood. Neonatal male rats express high levels of PR in brain regions important for parental behaviour. Since hormones can act very early in life to organize adult behaviour...
The behaviour of ostrich chicks bred in captivity was studied by using groups with 30 birds in five age groups: from 10 to 40 days of age; from 41 to 60 days of age; from 61 to 90 days of age; from 91 to 120 days of age and from 121 to 150 days of age. Six birds at each age were ringed around one of their feet and observed for four consecutive days for eight hours daily in three periods (in the morning, at noon and in the afternoon), following the "one-zero" method for sampling. The order for observation of behaviour of the six selected birds was performed randomly at every thirty minutes, totalling 16 periods or 80 minutes/bird/day. Fourteen types of behaviour were observed. There were differences among ages for behaviour like standing, walking, running, ingesting stones, ingesting feces, picking and attacking. Non-parametric-tests were used to analyse the behaviour according to age of the bird and to the periods of the day. There was a statistical difference between in the morning and at noon periods on behaviours standing, walking, eating ration and in litophagia, which were observed more frequently at the first hours of the day. When periods of the morning and afternoon were compared, the birds' age had a significant effect on behaviour sand bathing. When the periods noon/afternoon were compared...
This is the final version of the article. It was first available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2015.11.002; Purpose: To strengthen our understanding of the impact of baseline variability in mode choice on the likelihood of travel behaviour change.
Methods: Quasi-experimental analyses in a cohort study of 450 commuters exposed to a new guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in Cambridge, UK. Exposure to the intervention was defined using the shortest network distance from each participant?s home to the busway. Variability in commuter travel behaviour at baseline was defined using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, the number of different modes of transport used over a week, and the proportion of trips made by the main (combination of) mode(s). The outcomes were changes in the share of commute trips (i) involving any active travel, (ii) involving any public transport, and (iii) made entirely by car. Variability and change data were derived from a self-reported seven-day record collected before (2009) and after (2012) the intervention. Separate multinomial regression models were estimated to assess the influence of baseline variability on behaviour change, both independently and as an interaction effect with exposure to the intervention.
Results: All three measures of variability predicted changes in mode share in most models. The effect size for the intervention was slightly strengthened after including variability. Commuters with higher baseline variability were more likely to increase their active mode share (e.g. for HHI: relative risk ratio [RRR] for interaction 3.34...
Unethical behaviour is a rapidly escalating trend in the current work situation, where - within organisations - there appears to be a decrease in ethical behaviour at a national as well as international level. Employees within the financial sector form a specific area of interest concerning ethical behaviour in South Africa. Various incidents of unethical conduct are reported within the financial sector, necessitating a specific focus on factors which may influence ethical behaviour. Current research supports a person-situation-interaction approach to ethical decision-making, where both individual and situational factors influence the decisions of individuals. Research indicate that individual factors such as locus of control may influence ethical behaviour. The way these variables are related among employees in the financial sector in South Africa, however, has not as yet been demonstrated. In order to determine the relationship between locus of control and ethical behaviour, Schepers' Locus of Control Questionnaire and the Work Beliefs Questionnaire were administered to 100 employees in the financial sectorin Bloemfontein. Statistically significant relationships (p<0,05) were found between internal locus of control and ethical behaviour...