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A success in Toxinology translational research in Brazil: Bridging the gap

Ferreira, Ana Silvia S. B. S.; Barraviera, Benedito; Barraviera, Silvia Regina C. S.; Abbade, Luciana Patrícia Fernandes; Caramori, Carlos Antonio; Ferreira, Rui Seabra
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 50-54
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.76%
Basic research is fundamental for discovering potential diagnostic and therapeutic tools, including drugs, vaccines and new diagnostic techniques. On this basis, diagnosis and treatment methods for many diseases have been developed. Presently, discovering new candidate molecules and testing them in animals are relatively easy tasks that require modest resources and responsibility. However, crossing the animal-to-human barrier is still a great challenge that most researchers tend to avoid. Thus, bridging this current gap between clinical and basic research must be encouraged and elucidated in training programmes for health professionals. This project clearly shows the challenges faced by a group of Brazilian researchers who, after discovering a new fibrin sealant through 20 years of painstaking basic work, insisted on having the product applied clinically. The Brazilian government has recently become aware of this challenge and has accordingly defined the product as strategic to the public health of the country. Thus, in addition to financing research and development laboratories, resources were invested in clinical trials and in the development of a virtual platform termed the Virtual System to Support Clinical Research (SAVPC); this platform imparts speed...

Evaluation of the implementation of a quality system in a basic research laboratory: viability and impacts

Fraga,Hilda Carolina de Jesus Rios; Fukutani,Kiyoshi Ferreira; Celes,Fabiana Santana; Barral,Aldina Maria Prado; Oliveira,Camila Indiani de
Fonte: Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa Albert Einstein Publicador: Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa Albert Einstein
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.78%
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the process of implementing a quality management system in a basic research laboratory of a public institution, particularly considering the feasibility and impacts of this improvement. METHODS: This was a prospective and qualitative study. We employed the norm "NIT DICLA 035 - Princípios das Boas Práticas de Laboratório (BPL)" and auxiliary documents of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development to complement the planning and implementation of a Quality System, in a basic research laboratory. In parallel, we used the PDCA tool to define the goals of each phase of the implementation process. RESULTS: This study enabled the laboratory to comply with the NIT DICLA 035 norm and to implement this norm during execution of a research study. Accordingly, documents were prepared and routines were established such as the registration of non-conformities, traceability of research data and equipment calibration. CONCLUSION: The implementation of a quality system, the setting of a laboratory focused on basic research is feasible once certain structural changes are made. Importantly, impacts were noticed during the process, which could be related to several improvements in the laboratory routine.

Anxiety and inhibition of panic attacks within translational and prospective research contexts

Cabral,Ruan; Nardi,Antonio Egídio
Fonte: Associação de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Associação de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.69%
Basic research involving animal models is an important tool to improve our understanding of clinical conditions related with anxiety and panic attacks. In fact, animal models have been used to study several paradigms on analogous and homologous elements of human anxiety phenomena. However, the direct transposition (translation) to clinical practice of the results obtained with animal models may be restricted by the different constructs used to describe and explain empirical evidence of anxiety phenomena among humans. We aimed to analyze whether theoretical assumptions on the potential inhibitory effects of anxiety on panic could be observed among humans in prospective studies designed to analyze the relationship between anxiety and panic. A systematic literature review including papers published in English language between 1997 and 2011 was undertaken on the MEDLINE database. The search yielded a total of 257 articles, of which 11 were included in the review. In three studies, the global dimension of the anxiety sensitivity construct worked as a facilitator of panic attacks. Six studies showed a positive correlation between the AS-Physical Concerns subfactor and the occurrence of panic attacks, whereas two studies found a greater effect of the AS-Mental Incapacitation Concerns subfactor on panic. There was no evidence that anxiety might act as an inhibitor of panic attacks in humans...

Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort

Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.73%
Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort.

Temporal discounting: basic research and the analysis of socially important behavior.

Critchfield, T S; Kollins, S H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.64%
Recent basic research on human temporal discounting is reviewed to illustrate procedures, summarize key findings, and draw parallels with both nonhuman animal research and conceptual writings on self-control. Lessons derived from this research are then applied to the challenge of analyzing socially important behaviors such as drug abuse, eating and exercise, and impulsiveness associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attending to the broader temporal context in which behavior occurs may aid in the analysis of socially important behavior. Applying this perspective to the study of behavior in natural environments also highlights the importance of combining methodological flexibility with conceptual rigor to promote the extension of applied behavior analysis to a broader array of socially important behaviors.

Elevated incidence of childhood leukemia in Woburn, Massachusetts: NIEHS Superfund Basic Research Program searches for causes.

Durant, J L; Chen, J; Hemond, H F; Thilly, W G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.64%
Between 1966 and 1986, the childhood leukemia rate in Woburn, Massachusetts, was 4-fold higher than the national average. A multidisciplinary research team from MIT, which is being supported by the NIEHS Superfund Basic Research Program, has explored the possible importance of a temporal correlation between the period of elevated leukemia and a previously unrecognized mobilization of toxic metals from a waste disposal site in north Woburn. Residents of Woburn may have been exposed to arsenic (70 micrograms/l) and chromium (240 micrograms/l) at levels in excess of federal drinking water standards (50 micrograms/l for each metal) by consuming municipal groundwater contaminated with these metals. Research is currently underway a) to elucidate the mechanisms and the pathways by which these metals were transported from the waste disposal site to the drinking water supply; b) to determine the identity of the principal human cell mutagens in samples of aquifer materials collected from the site of the municipal supply wells; and c) to measure the extent of exposure and genetic change in residents who consumed the contaminated well water.

Commercialization of basic research from within the university and return of value to the public

Hammerstedt, Roy H; Blach, Edward L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
The responsibility to return “value” to those who support basic research is an obligatory part of accepting funds to support the research. This reality should, but now does not, impact planning and execution of all basic research from its earliest stages. Universities are becoming ever more important in their role in the accelerating quest of a national goal of transition to a “knowledge based economy.” As such, the complex organizational format of a university, laden with entrenched procedures of questionable utility, should be adjusted to identify the means to commercialize the small subset of projects that appear suitable for further development. Of special concern is the growing tendency to encourage academic “innovators” to develop spin-out companies “on the side.” While seductive in perceived simplicity, this is a difficult step and we believe that most such individuals are ill-suited to these activities. Not because of technical ability but because of lack of relevant management experience. We attempt to address that situation through a brief listing of some reasons why people “do research” and outline phases (steps) in moving from concept to application, including an overview of start-up and funding early-stage spin-outs. A discussion of the limits to applying results of basic research to enhancing sperm fertility in commodity and companion animals and humans is provided. Hurdles are so daunting that there is concern as to why anyone would attempt to translate basic observations into practical solutions; which in turn raises the question of why funding agencies should fund basic studies in the first place.

A New Way of Identifying Biomarkers in Biomedical Basic-Research Studies

Yassouridis, Alexander; Ludwig, Tonia; Steiger, Axel; Leisch, Friedrich
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/05/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.61%
A simple, nonparametric and distribution free method was developed for quick identification of the most meaningful biomarkers among a number of candidates in complex biological phenomena, especially in relatively small samples. This method is independent of rigid model forms or other link functions. It may be applied both to metric and non-metric data as well as to independent or matched parallel samples. With this method identification of the most relevant biomarkers is not based on inferential methods; therefore, its application does not require corrections of the level of significance, even in cases of thousands of variables. Hence, the introduced method is appropriate to analyze and evaluate data of complex investigations in clinical and pre-clinical basic research, such as gene or protein expressions, phenotype-genotype associations in case-control studies on the basis of thousands of genes and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism), search of prevalence in sleep EEG-Data, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or others.

What is Basic Research? Insights from Historical Semantics

Schauz, Désirée
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
For some years now, the concept of basic research has been under attack. Yet although the significance of the concept is in doubt, basic research continues to be used as an analytical category in science studies. But what exactly is basic research? What is the difference between basic and applied research? This article seeks to answer these questions by applying historical semantics. I argue that the concept of basic research did not arise out of the tradition of pure science. On the contrary, this new concept emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a time when scientists were being confronted with rising expectations regarding the societal utility of science. Scientists used the concept in order to try to bridge the gap between the promise of utility and the uncertainty of scientific endeavour. Only after 1945, when United States science policy shaped the notion of basic research, did the concept revert to the older ideals of pure science. This revival of the purity discourse was caused by the specific historical situation in the US at that time: the need to reform federal research policy after the Second World War, the new dimension of ethical dilemmas in science and technology during the atomic era, and the tense political climate during the Cold War.

Improving occupational health and safety policy through intervention research

LaMontagne, Anthony D
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 110999 bytes; 359 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.74%
Intervention research in occupational health and safety (OHS) addresses the development, implementation, and evaluation of OHS interventions.(1) The emphasis in intervention research is applied rather than basic or etiologic. Etiologic OSH research is about identifying risk factors for occupational injury and disease, such as in epidemiology studies about the relationship between job stress and heart disease. It has tended to be under-emphasized historically in relation to more basic science-oriented etiologic research. The goal of intervention research in OHS is to translate basic research knowledge into public health action and benefits. As such, intervention research in OHS is often cross-disciplinary, drawing from a range of disciplines such as program evaluation, education, and social psychology in addition to OHS and other branches of public health. The US National Institutes for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) presented a National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) to improve OHS in 1996.(2, 3) NORA was based on input from over 500 stakeholder groups across the country and identified 21 priority research areas, one of which was Intervention Effectiveness Research.(4) For each priority research area, NIOSH assembled a Team of experts in the area...

Evidence-based tools in toxicological basic research

GRIESINGER Claudius; HOFFMANN Sebastian; KINSNER-OVASKAINEN Agnieszka; COECKE Sandra; HARTUNG Thomas
Fonte: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD Publicador: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Basic research is critical to toxicology in that it contributes to the understanding of how biological systems respond to perturbation (mechanistic studies) and to advances in toxicity testing methodologies (e.g., toxicogenomics and in silico models). Basic research also advances the understanding of inter- and intraspecies variability, and improving the assessment human population responses (biomarker studies). The identification and validation of biomarkers (relevant to both exposure and outcome assessment) also draws upon basic research. Similarly, basic research is critical to the process of phenotypic anchoring for new computational and toxicogenomic methods. Evidence-based considerations can enhance the translational relationship between basic research and toxicology. These considerations include criteria for evaluating research data, the standardization of methodologies (e.g., platforms, procedures, genotypic characterization of cells, and quality control), the selection of relevant doses or concentrations to toxicological problems, and the provision of parameter information (e.g., free chemical concentrations in cell cultures). A number of tools and approaches relevant to basic research in an evidence-based toxicology were identified. With regard to data quality...

The applied importance of research on the matching law

Pierce, W. David; Epling, W. Frank
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.7%
In this essay, we evaluate the applied implications of two articles related to the matching law and published in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, May 1994. Building on Mace's (1994) criteria for increasing the applied relevance of basic research, we evaluate the applied implications of basic research studies. Research by Elsmore and McBride (1994) and Savastano and Fantino (1994) involve an extension of the behavioral model of choice. Elsmore and McBride used rats as subjects, but arranged a multioperant environment that resembles some of the complex contingencies of human behavior. Savastino and Fantino used human subjects and extended the matching law to ratio and interval contingencies. These experiments contribute to a growing body of knowledge on the matching law and its relevance for human behavior.

The NIEHS Superfund Basic Research Program: overview and areas of future research directions.

Suk, W A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.66%
The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences' Superfund Basic Research Program is currently funding 142 separate research projects within 18 programs encompassing 29 universities and institutions around the United States. The research under this program covers a wide range of interdisciplinary science from both the biomedical and nonbiomedical perspectives. This is a unique program of technology-driven research. Nonetheless, there are some areas of research that should be investigated or investigated further, should funds become available. Environmental health risk posed by the location of Superfund sites may be distributed inequitably across socioeconomic status and racial groups. Since one in five children now lives below the poverty line, an important aspect of environmental equity must be the investigation of the health effects of environmental factors on children. The multidisciplinary investigation of the effects of hazardous substance exposure on children is an area that needs much research due to the fact that most of the toxicologic data available are based on adults and animals. This program is funding 27 projects on ecologic damage posed by hazardous wastes. Much more research is needed in the investigation of toxic effects on natural succession of ecosystems as well as on their effects on biodiversity to further our understanding of the food web in the role of bioavailability in human health...

Chemical wastes, children's health, and the Superfund Basic Research Program.

Landrigan, P J; Suk, W A; Amler, R W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.63%
Three to 4 million children and adolescents in the United States live within 1 mile of a federally designated Superfund hazardous waste disposal site and are at risk of exposure to chemical toxicants released from these sites into air, groundwater, surface water, and surrounding communities. Because of their patterns of exposure and their biological vulnerability, children are uniquely susceptible to health injury resulting from exposures to chemical toxicants in the environment. The Superfund Basic Research Program, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and directed by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, is extremely well positioned to organize multidisciplinary research that will assess patterns of children's exposures to hazardous chemicals from hazardous waste disposal sites; quantify children's vulnerability to environmental toxicants; assess causal associations between environmental exposures and pediatric disease; and elucidate the mechanisms of environmental disease in children at the cellular and molecular level.

The Structure of Disaster Research: Its Policy and Disciplinary Implications

Dynes, Russell R.; Drabek, Thomas E.
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Outros Formato: 343797 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.55%
The context of sociological research on disaster is discussed by the various settings in which the research tradition has developed . In addition, both funders and users of that research are identified. It is suggested that the most important policy use of disaster research has been to change the conceptualization of the disaster. While no specific study can be directly tied to particular policy changes, the overall research tradition has had a transforming effect. The transformation is, of course, more obvious in some societies than in others. In the future, it is suggested that increased attention will be given to disaster preparedness and planning because of more and worse disasters. This means that social science research will continue to thrive because of its potential utility in problem solving. However, future research will be increasingly cast in interdisciplinary terms. Given the reluctance to support basic research, the relationship between applied research and the core disciplines will be come more problematic.

The Structure of Disaster Research: Its Policy and Disciplinary Implications

Dynes, Russell R.; Drabek, Thomas E.
Fonte: Research Committee on Disasters, International Sociological Association Publicador: Research Committee on Disasters, International Sociological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.55%
The context of sociological research on disaster is discussed by the various settings in which the research tradition has developed. In addi­tion, both funders and users of that research are identified. It is suggested that the most important policy use of disaster research has been to change the conceptualization of disaster. While no specific study can be directly tied to particular policy changes, the overall research tradition has had a transforming effect. That transformation is, of course, more obvious in some societies than in others. In the future, it is suggested that increased attention will be given to disaster preparedness and planning because of more and worse disasters. This means that social science research will continue to thrive because of its potential utility in problem solving. However, future research will be increasingly cast in interdisciplinary terms. Given the reluctance to support basic research, the relationship between applied research and the core disciplines will become more problematic.

Basic research in nursing; Investigación básica en la enfermería; Pesquisa básica na enfermagem

Alves, Leila Maria Marchi; Nogueira, Maria Suely; Godoy, Simone de; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/2004 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.71%
The integration between basic science and research in the field of nursing is an emerging subject and expanding in many countries. However, in Brazil, researchers have shown little interest in exploring this line of research, in spite of the numerous benefits it may bring to nursing care practice. In this article, by means of a bibliographic review, we will focus on the importance of basic research and take into consideration our own experiences and expectations as nursing researchers, emphasizing the possibility of integrating fundamental and experimental science with nursing research and practice.; La integración de la ciencia básica a la investigación en enfermería es un tema emergente y en expansión en muchos países. Sin embargo, en Brasil, los investigadores poco han se involucrado en la exploración de esta línea de investigación, además de los beneficios que puede traer a la práctica asistencial del enfermero. En este artículo, a través de una revisión bibliográfica, abordaremos la importancia de la investigación básica y haremos consideraciones sobre nuestras experiencias y expectativas como enfermeras investigadoras, enfatizando la posibilidad de articular la ciencia fundamental y experimental a las investigaciones y acciones del enfermero.; A integração da ciência básica à pesquisa em enfermagem é um tema emergente e em expansão em muitos países. Entretanto...

Communication Between Basic, Applied, and Theoretical Research in Behavior Analysis in Brazil: A Bibliometrical Analysis; Comunicação Entre a Pesquisa Básica, Aplicada e Teórica na Análise do Comportamento no Brasil: Uma Análise Bibliométrica

Strapasson, Bruno Angelo; Universidade de São Paulo (USP) e Universidade Positivo (UP); Magalhães, Fernanda Gutierrez; Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo e Universidade Positivo; Custódio, Joice Kalfeld; Universidade Positivo
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/11/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.78%
Muitos autores sugerem que deve haver alto grau de interação entre pesquisa aplicada, básica e teórica para um desenvolvimento adequado da Análise do Comportamento. Pretendeu-se aqui avaliar a comunicação entre essas áreas, mediante análise de referências de três publicações brasileiras. As revistas tiveram seus artigos e referências categorizados como aplicados, básicos e teóricos. Foram identificados 132 artigos teóricos, 90 aplicados e 43 básicos. Verificou-se a porcentagem de autorreferências e de referências cruzadas em cada categoria. Nos teóricos, as autorreferências são predominantes e nos aplicados, as referências cruzadas o são. Nos básicos, o número de autorreferências e referências cruzadas é similar. Observou-se um decréscimo das autorreferências e aumento das referências cruzadas nos últimos anos.; Many authors suggest that there should be high interaction between applied, basic and theoreticalresearch for an adequate development of Behavior Analysis. The purpose of this text is to evaluate thecommunication between these areas, through the analysis of citations from three Brazilianpublications. The journals have had their articles and references categorized as applied, basic andtheoretical. One hundred thirty-two articles were sorted as theoretical...

Empowering first year (post-matric) students in basic research skills: a strategy for education for social justice

Zulu,Constance
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.72%
Post-matric students from under-resourced (historically disadvantaged) black high schools generally encounter difficulties in their academic work at university. The study reported here was intended to empower first year (post-matric) students from these schools with basic research skills in a bid to counteract the effects of their high school under-preparedness. The context of an English and Academic skills module was used to offer a hands-on collaborative research skills experience based on John Dewey's concept of "learning-by-doing". The students were an intact class of Human and Social Sciences first year students involved in a research endeavour based on student-generated topics. The research project was carried out in small groups during the second semester of the year. Qualitative data were collected by means of an open-ended questionnaire and a written report at the end of the year. Students reported that the collaborative research experience had a positive effect on their basic research, reading, writing, and critical thinking skills, and it empowered them to work in groups on a project. They had not been exposed to this experience at high school.

Stem cells: basic research on health, from ethics to panacea

Luna,Naara
Fonte: Interface - Comunicação, Saúde, Educação Publicador: Interface - Comunicação, Saúde, Educação
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.64%
Even though stem cell therapies are still under experimentation, the media has represented them as a panacea that would cure all diseases. This fact secured the authorization for using human embryos as research material. Therapies include manipulation of human material in tissue bioengineering, suggesting a representation of the body as a factory. This article describes stem cell research projects being carried out in the health sciences center of a higher education institution, focusing on field organization and on the system of values underlying scientific activity. Researchers at different levels were interviewed about perspectives on, and implications of, their research in order to analyze the discourse of the projects' participants. Experiments with adult stem cells enjoyed wide support, while the use of human embryos was disputed. The foundations of those arguments were sought in their relation both to the structure of the scientific field and to the researchers' religious background.