Achieving satisfactory retention in online HIV prevention trials typically have proved difficult, particularly over extended timeframes. The overall aim of this study was to assess factors associated with retention in the Men’s INTernet Study II (MINTS-II), a randomized controlled trial of a sexual risk reduction intervention for men who have sex with men. Participants were recruited via e-mails and banner advertisements in December, 2007 to participate in the MINTS-II Sexpulse intervention and followed over a 12-month period. Retention across the treatment and control arms was 85.2% at 12 months. Factors associated with higher retention included: randomization to the control arm, previous participation in a study by the research team, e-mail and telephone reminders to complete a survey once it was available to take, and fewer e-mail contacts between surveys. The results provide evidence that achieving satisfactory retention is possible in online HIV prevention trials, and suggest best practices for maximizing retention.
The aim of this study was to compare the mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors of rural and non-rural transgender persons. Online banner advertisements were used to recruit 1,229 self-identified rural and non-rural transgender adults (18+ years) residing in the United States. Primary findings include significant differences in mental health between rural and non-rural transmen; relatively low levels of binge drinking across groups, although high levels of marijuana use; and high levels of unprotected sex among transwomen. The results confirm that mental and physical health services for transgender persons residing in rural areas are urgently needed.
The long-run effect of banner advertisements is among the most complex topic in the internet world. Media spending on online marketing has grown from $3 billion in 1999 to $9 billion in 2004. Forecasts (Jupiter Research 2005) expect this growth to double in the next five years. The proportion of marketing budgets spent on online advertising is expected to grow from 4.6% in 2004 to 7% in 2010. Banner media costs contribute approximately 60% of the total online media spend across all industries. A portion of this increase can be attributed to the increasing acquisition cost of media/advertising space in the most frequently visited websites. Companies enter into bidding wars to acquire space in a restricted 15"/17" computer monitor screen from service providers like Google, Yahoo, AOL and MSN. Prices for banner advertisement space vary by the number of exposures and even by the time of the day. This directly begs a question on the effectiveness of online banner advertisement in influencing consumer behavior. Currently most firms track immediate response behaviors or the short-run effects. We use an experiment conducted with a student credit card campaign to explain the long-run impact on response behaviors across different audiences by exposing them to promotional advertisements on a public educational website.; by Raghavan Kannan.; Thesis (M.B.A.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...
This report assesses existing mobile
application (app) business models targeted at, or suitable
for, people living at the base of the pyramid (BoP). The
report addresses specific pain points for app developers and
provides practical, actionable advice. Its recommendations
are specific to each of the four countries: Ghana,
Mozambique, Nigeria, and Zambia. While assessing the app
markets in the four countries, it became clear that there is
a wide range of business models. Each business model is
unique to the sector and to the business problem the app is
attempting to address. This report focuses on three areas
common to all business models to provide maximum value for
app developers. This report also presents a brief assessment
of app incubators or hubs. These incubators play a
significant role in supporting and advocating apps. However,
this role is often only partially realized and this report
makes recommendations to address this.
Web designers attempt to draw attention to important links by making them distinctive. However, when users are asked to find specific items, they often overlook these distinctive banners. The irony of this phenomenon I call "banner blindness" is that the user who really wants to find the information the designer has highlighted is not likely to do so. In the experiments reported here, banner blindness was investigated under controlled conditions. Banners located higher on the page and therefore farther from other links were missed more often than banners located lower on the page and closer to the other links. Banners were missed more often when located on pages containing links to categories than when located on pages with links to specific items. Users rarely noticed banners when clicking the banner was not required to accomplish a task.
Banner blindness occurred with several types of distinctive links---graphical banners that resembled advertisements, large plain-text banners and small plain-text banners that were very unlike advertisements. Increasing the perceptual grouping between the banner and the "menu" of hyperlinks helped users notice the banners only slightly more often. Adding animation to graphical banners did not help mitigate the effect. Users searching for specific information seem to focus exclusively on the link-rich areas of the page and do not notice distinctive items outside of that area.
The last two experiments in this research focused on emphasizing one item within a menu of search-engine "hits." Three types of emphasis were used. Very large text caused a slight banner-blindness effect. Subtly large text had no effect at all. Highlighting one menu item by giving it a brightly-colored background did not cause banner blindness. In fact...
Barwinski, Mark; Irvine, Cynthia E.; Levin, Tim E.
Fonte: International Common Criteria ConferencePublicador: International Common Criteria Conference
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
The ability of spyware to circumvent common security practices, surreptitiously exporting confidential information to remote parties and illicitly consuming system resources, is a rising security concern in government, corporate, and home computing environments. While it is the common perception that spyware infection is the result of high risk Internet surfing behavior, our research shows main-stream web sites listed in popular search engines contribute to spyware infection irrespective of patch levels and despite �safe� Internet surfing practices. Experiments conducted in July of 2005 revealed the presence of spyware in several main-stream Internet sectors as
evidenced in the considerable infection of both patched and unpatched Windows XP test beds. Although the experiment emulated conservative web surfing practices by not interacting with web page links, images, or banner advertisements, pyware infection of Internet Explorer based test beds occurred swiftly through cross-domain scripting and ActiveX exploits. As many as 71 different spyware programs were identified among 6 Internet sectors. Real estate and online ed web sites infected the test beds with, as many as 14 different spyware programs and one bank-related web site appeared to be the source of a resource consuming dialing program.Empirical analysis suggests that spyware infection via drive-by-download attacks has thus far been unabated by security patches or even prudent web surfing behavior. At least for the moment...
Rosser, B. R. Simon; Miner, Michael H.; Bockting, Walter O.; Ross, Michael W.; Konstan, Joseph; Gurak, Laura; Stanton, Jeffrey; Edwards, Weston; Jacoby, Scott; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Mazin, Rafael; Coleman, Eli
This study assessed the feasibility of online recruitment of high-risk Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) for HIV prevention survey research and investigated the relationship between Internet use and unsafe sex. Participants (N= 1,026) were Internet-using Latino MSM living in the U.S. recruited using online banner advertisements. Respondents completed a cross-sectional, online survey in English or Spanish. Sample characteristics reflected national statistics within 5%. Nearly all (99%) reported having used the Internet to seek sex with another man. Two-thirds of respondents reported having unprotected anal sex with ≥ 1 man in the last year, 57% of these with multiple partners. Participants reported engaging in anal sex and unprotected anal sex with nearly twice as many men first met online versus offline, but risk proportions did not differ. Internet-based HIV prevention research is possible even with geographically-dispersed minority populations. Efficiency appears the primary risk associated with meeting partners online.
Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants' eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-center horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people's memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely...
We present a new algorithm for behavioral targeting of banner advertisements.
We record different user's actions such as clicks, search queries and page
views. We use the collected information on the user to estimate in real time
the probability of a click on a banner. A banner is displayed if it either has
the highest probability of being clicked or if it is the one that generates the
highest average profit.; Comment: 8 pages
This study investigated textual and visual variables of banner advertisements. A number of
research questions were addressed by content analyzing banner advertisements from social media and social networking Websites, including YouTube and Facebook. Implications of linking types of banner advertisements to types of social media sites, including differences between visual and textual content of banner advertisements, are addressed. Results indicate that there were notable differences between banner advertisements found on these sites. Ads are more likely to contain greater visual aspects such as animation on social media sites than they are on social networking sites. Further studies should examine how visual and textual appeals affect recognition and attitudes towards a brand or product.
Advertising has become an integral part of the Internet's capacity to generate revenue, drive traffic to websites, and to increase brand recognition. This study examined how text and graphic search goals influence how many times and how long people look at graphic and text advertisements. Twenty-four participants were eye tracked while they searched for text or graphic information on six websites. Results show that when people searched for text information they increased the amount of time and the number of times that they viewed text advertisements. When people searched for graphical information, they increased the amount of time and number of times that they viewed graphic advertisements. This has implications for the design of effective advertising.