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Water and Development : An Evaluation of World Bank Support, 1997-2007, Volume 1

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.46%
The amount of available water has been constant for millennia, but over time the planet has added 6 billion people. Water is essential to human life and enterprise, and the increasing strains on available water resources threaten the mission of institutions dedicated to economic development. The ultimate goal is to achieve a sustainable balance between the resources available and the societal requirement for water. In this evaluation the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) examines all the water-related projects financed by the World Bank between fiscal 1997 and the end of calendar 2007. Bank activities related to water are large, growing, and integrated. They include water resources management, water supply and sanitation, and activities related to agricultural water, industrial water, energy generation, and water in the environment. Through both lending and grants, the World Bank (the International Development Association and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, or IBRD) has supported countries in many water-related sectors. This evaluation examines the full scope of that support over the period from fiscal 1997 to the end of calendar 2007. More than 30 background studies prepared for the evaluation have analyzed Bank lending by thematic area and by activity type. The evaluation is by definition retrospective...

Trade and Transport Facilitation Assessment : A Practical Toolkit for Country Implementation

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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45.43%
Trade facilitation and logistics have become an important policy area in development. Supply chain constraints are now recognized as a major impediment to export led growth. The Trade and Transport Facilitation Assessment (TTFA) is a practical tool to identify the obstacles to the fluidity of trade supply chains. Taking the perspective of service delivery to traders, the TTFA assessment is founded on facts and data collected through a series of meetings and interviews with the main public and private participants to these international supply chains. They include customs and other border agencies, transport regulators, freight forwarders, transport operators, ports, and others. The toolkit helps design plans of action to improve logistics performance among its three main dimensions: infrastructure, services, and procedures and processes. This new edition of the toolkit provides an opportunity not only to reflect the changes in the trade environment and the need for additional features in the toolkit, but also to benefit from the experiences of the assessments already undertaken based on the original edition. In 2001...

Water and Development : An Evaluation of World Bank Support, 1997-2007, Volume 2. Appendixes

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.5%
The amount of available water has been constant for millennia, but over time the planet has added 6 billion people. Water is essential to human life and enterprise, and the increasing strains on available water resources threaten the mission of institutions dedicated to economic development. The ultimate goal is to achieve a sustainable balance between the resources available and the societal requirement for water. In this evaluation the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) examines all the water-related projects financed by the World Bank between fiscal 1997 and the end of calendar 2007. Bank activities related to water are large, growing, and integrated. They include water resources management, water supply and sanitation, and activities related to agricultural water, industrial water, energy generation, and water in the environment. Through both lending and grants, the World Bank (the International Development Association and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, or IBRD) has supported countries in many water-related sectors. This evaluation examines the full scope of that support over the period from fiscal 1997 to the end of calendar 2007. More than 30 background studies prepared for the evaluation have analyzed Bank lending by thematic area and by activity type. The evaluation is by definition retrospective...

Managing an Electricity Shortfall : A Guide for Policy Makers

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.42%
Economic growth in Central America has increased rapidly over the past 20 years. Currently, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita for the six Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama averages approximately US$3,600. However, masked behind this average figure is a Sub region of 40 million people with a wide variety of income, where more than half of the population lives in poverty. Energy in general and electricity specifically are critical for economic development. Electricity is needed to power the machinery that supports income-generating opportunities. Capital (both domestic and foreign) is attracted to countries that are able to offer an affordable, reliable source of electricity for businesses. Although the individual electricity markets of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama are not large, together the six countries collectively generated nearly 38 Terawatt-hours (TWh) of power, equivalent to around 70 percent of the annual electricity supply of a medium-sized country in Latin America. The World Bank has undertaken a series of studies to better understand the energy challenges facing these six Central American countries that are to be joined by Sistema de Interconexion Electrica para America Central (SIEPAC) and to identify actions to promote the sound development of the sector. These studies have been prepared by a team of policy experts...

Niger - Impacts of Sustainable Land Management Programs on Land Management and Poverty in Niger

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.48%
Since the early 1980s, the Government of Niger and its development partners have invested more than 200 billion West African Francs (FCFA) in programs will promote sustainable land management (SLM) and other activities to reduce poverty and vulnerability. Overall, more than 50 programs have promoted SLM in Niger. Despite large investments in SLM programs, their impacts on land management, agricultural production, poverty, and other outcomes are not well known. A few studies have documented impacts of particular projects and land management practices in selected locations, finding many favorable impacts. However, although these studies provide valuable insights, they are limited in scope and by the methods used. A common problem is the absence of suitable counterfactual observations to compare to outcomes for communities and households participating in programs or using particular land management practices, or inadequate definition of the counterfactual used. This analysis is intended to contribute to knowledge about the impacts of SLM programs in Niger by addressing some of the methodological limitations of prior studies. The evaluation is based on a secondary database of major SLM program activities and village characteristics assembled for all villages of Niger...

Brazil - Minas Gerais - World Bank Partnership : Building on a Strong Foundation and Leading to Next Steps

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.46%
This document, Minas Gerais World Bank partnership: building on a strong foundation and leading to next steps, points the direction for next steps and emphasizes the elements and principles of a possible follow-up operation to the Development Policy Loan (DPL) that completed disbursement in April 2007, recognizing that it was premature to discuss the specifics of such an operation during this exercise. These elements and principles would provide the incentives and motivations for the choice of focus sectors under a possible Bank operation with Minas Gerais. Lead actively by the Governor and Deputy Governor, the Minas authorities have clearly identified enhancing the living conditions of citizens in the state as the overall priority. Nevertheless, the Minas Gerais targets are ambitious and by international standards there is ample room for additional progress. The report points out that fiscal policies and public sector reforms in Minas Gerais could be expected to yield continued stronger than national average economic growth and progress in creating jobs. The focus of this Partnership document is mainly on the Plano Mineiro de Desenvolvimento Integrado (PMDI) 2007-2023 long-term development strategy with an emphasis on broadening reforms. In short...

Foreign Bank Behavior During Financial Crises

Adams-Kane, Jonathon; Caballero, Julian A.; Lim, Jamus Jerome
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.45%
One of the persistent policy problems faced by governments contemplating financial liberalizations is the question of whether to allow foreign banks entry into the domestic economy. This question has become ever more urgent in recent times, due to rapid financial globalization, coupled with the credit contractions experienced as a result of the 2007/08 financial crisis. This paper examines the question of whether opening the financial sector to foreign participation is a good idea for developing countries, using a unique bank-level database of foreign ownership. In particular, the authors examine whether the credit supply of majority foreign-owned financial institutions differ systematically conditional on a crisis event in their home economies. They show that foreign banks that were exposed to crises in their home countries exhibit changes in lending patterns that are lower by between 13 and 42 percent than their non-crisis counterparts.

Private School Participation in Pakistan

Nguyen, Quynh; Raju, Dhushyanth
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.4%
Private schooling is an important feature of the educational landscape in Pakistan and is increasingly a topic of public and government discourse. This study uses multiple rounds of national household sample surveys to examine the extent and nature of private school participation at the primary and secondary levels in Pakistan. Today, one-fifth of children -- or one-third of all students -- go to private school in Pakistan. Private school students tend to come from urban, wealthier, and more educated households than do government school students and especially out-of-school children. Important differences exist across Pakistan s four provinces with respect to the characteristics of private school students relative to government school students, as well as in the composition of private school students. Private schooling is highly concentrated, with a few districts (situated mainly in northern Punjab province) accounting for most of the private school students. Private school participation among children varies largely from one household to another...

Clean Stove Initiative Forum Proceedings : Beijing, China, April 26-29, 2014

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.43%
The objectives of the second EAP CSI Regional Forum are twofold. The first is to share the progress, findings, and challenges of implementing the initiative s second phase. The second is to promote South-South collaboration, learning, and knowledge-sharing, with a focus on China s experiences. The forum is being held in Beijing on April 28, 2014, as part of a four-day event (April 26 29, 2014). A two-day, pre-forum event held April 26 27 focuses on participation in the 8th China Clean Stoves Expo in Langfang, Hebei province. Post-forum, South-South knowledge-exchange activities, scheduled for April 29, feature a meeting with officials of China s Rural Energy and Environment Agency (REEA) on South- South collaboration, tour of the stove-testing center at China Agriculture University in Beijing, and field visits with local stove manufacturers in Gaobeidian, Hebei province. The forum is co-organized by the China Alliance for Clean Stoves (CACS) and the REEA, Ministry of Agriculture, with funding support provided by the Australian government s DFAT...

Indonesia Sustainable Natural Resources Management through PNPM Green Investments

Rambe, Vivianti; Johnsen, Steffen
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.44%
The PNPM Green program has been implemented for four years. The studies reported in summary here were undertaken to identify the benefits of the program, and to examine to what extent the program meets its objective to make the utilization of natural resources by rural communities sustainable. PNPM Green aims to improve environmental and natural resources management (NRM) and associated governance, while increasing household incomes in poor communities, and empowering local groups who prepare and execute the sub-projects and activities. To assess the effects and outcomes of PNPM Green in targeting these objectives, the Economic and Livelihoods Study applied the concepts of financial, natural, human, and social assets, as well as influence and access . The Micro-Hydropower Return on Investment (MHP ROI) Study analyzed Micro-Hydropower (MHP) schemes using a business assessment methodology. This was expanded by incorporating non-tangible and social benefits of MHP schemes. The Spillover Effect Study measured the extent of benefits in non-participating communities. These studies indicate that participation of beneficiaries in PNPM Green sub-projects and activities is likely to be higher if the sub-project: (a) conforms to the priority needs of participants livelihoods; (b) provides immediate benefits to the community; (c) directly increases household incomes in participating communities; (d) is supported by local values...

Information, Knowledge and Behavior

Cerdan-Infantes, Pedro; Filmer, Deon P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.43%
Improving education outcomes by disseminating information to parents and thereby encouraging them to become more actively engaged in school oversight is attractive, since it can be done relatively cheaply. This study evaluates the impact of alternative approaches to disseminating information about a school grants program in Indonesia on parents knowledge about the program in general, knowledge about the implementation of the program in their childs school, and participation in school activities related to the program as well as beyond it. Not all dissemination approaches yielded impacts, and different modes of dissemination conveyed different types of information best, resulting in different impacts on behavior. Specifically, the low-intensity approaches that were tried—sending a letter from the principal home with the child, or sending a colorful pamphlet home with the child—had no impact on knowledge or participation. On the other hand, holding a facilitated meeting with a range of school stakeholders or sending targeted text messages to parents did increase knowledge and participation. Facilitated meetings mostly increased overall knowledge and fostered a feeling of transparency on the part of parents...

Republic of Indonesia - Information, Knowledge, and Behavior

Cerdan-Infantes, Pedro; Filmer, Deon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.43%
Improving education outcomes by disseminating information to parents and thereby encouraging them to become more actively engaged in school oversight is attractive since it can be done relatively cheaply. This study evaluates the impact of alternative approaches to disseminating information about a school grants program in Indonesia on parent knowledge about the program in general, knowledge about the implementation of the program in their child’s school, and participation in school activities related to the program as well as beyond it. Not all dissemination approaches yielded impacts, and different modes of dissemination conveyed different types of information best, resulting in different impacts on behavior. Specifically, the low-intensity approaches that were tried - sending a letter from the principal home with the child, or sending a colorful pamphlet home with the child - had no impact on knowledge or participation. On the other hand, holding a facilitated meeting with a range of school stakeholders or sending targeted short message services (SMSs) to parents did increase knowledge and participation. Facilitated meetings mostly increased overall knowledge and fostered a feeling of transparency on the part of parents...

Zimbabwe Economic Policy Dialogue; Policy Notes for the New Government - 2013

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.43%
In past four years, the World Bank, in close cooperation with the Government of Zimbabwe, and the support of international partners - has carried out a number of studies and technical assistance activities in key areas of the socio-economic recovery. In line with Bank’s Africa strategy of fostering Africa’s economic transformation and poverty reduction, the overall goal of these studies has been to support broad-based development of Zimbabwe by facilitating evidence-based debate and policy-making. As a new government for 2013-2018 is about to take function, sectoral teams at the World Bank have distilled key analysis from those studies, and prepared the short policy notes. The policy notes attempt to summarize the main findings, challenges, constraints, and lay out policy options. While the past decade of hyperinflation and weak economic management has undoubtedly eroded a significant share of Zimbabwes physical and human capital, these can be rebuilt with the combination of sound economic policy and proper incentives to private sector investors...

Improving the Management of Secondary and Tertiary Roads in the South East Europe Countries

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.37%
The importance of the tertiary road sector in contributing to economic development and poverty alleviation efforts cannot be understated. In Albania, forty-nine percent of rural producers have stated that a lack of adequate transportation, primarily good roads, was their biggest marketing problem. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, there is discontent about the quality of the regional and tertiary roads, with complaints about the low quality of roads foremost amongst all public services. In Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) Macedonia, a recent survey has revealed tertiary roads to rank among the top three capital investment priorities in two-thirds of surveyed municipalities twelve percent listing as first priority, twenty-three percent as second priority and thirty-one percent as the third priority. Other studies have supported these findings but also report positive differences in school enrolment, and frequency in use of health services, between areas with and without all-weather roads. The best model of financing for tertiary (rural) roads is highly dependent on a particular country. The key to setting a policy framework for managing road networks is the realization that with constrained funding and specified target standards...

Bank Bailouts, Competition, and the Disparate Effects for Borrower and Depositor Welfare

Calderon, Cesar; Schaeck, Klaus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.5%
This paper investigates how government interventions into banking systems such as blanket guarantees, liquidity support, recapitalizations, and nationalizations affect banking competition. This debate is important because the pricing of banking products has implications for borrower and depositor welfare. Exploiting data for 124 countries that witnessed different policy responses to 41 banking crises, and using difference-in-difference estimations, the paper presents the following key results: (i) Government interventions reduce Lerner indices and net interest margins. This effect is robust to a battery of falsification and placebo tests, and the competitive response also cannot be explained by alternative forces. The competition-increasing effect on Lerner indices and net interest margins is also confirmed once the non-random assignment of interventions is accounted for using instrumental variable techniques that exploit exogenous variation in the electoral cycle and in the design of the regulatory architecture across countries. (ii) Consistent with theoretical predictions...

Chile’s Agricultural Innovation System : An Action Plan Towards 2030

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.44%
The report builds on the 'towards a vision for agricultural innovation in Chile in 2030' report and is further based on a series of background papers and a consultation process that took place between December 2010 and May 2011. The current study is the third in a series of three that were agreed between the Government of Chile and the World Bank to support the development of a long-term agricultural innovation strategy. The first paper reviewed the functioning of the three main public technological institutes and recommended how their performance can be improved. The second study explored the future of Chile's agriculture towards 2030, using scenario planning and developing a vision for the future of its agricultural innovation system. This paper is based on the results of the former two studies, as well as a set of background documents and further consultations, and will outline the action plan required to achieve the aforementioned vision. The objective of this action plan is to enhance the capacity of Chile's agricultural innovation system in order to achieve the goals as laid out in the vision for the sector for the year 2030. It builds on the current strengths of the agricultural innovation system and elaborates on the main actions needed to address the priority topics. Five principles serve as the foundation of the plan: recognizing national and regional responsibilities; distinguishing public and private roles; diversity; excellence; and institutional integration. Most of the actions can be implemented between 2011 and 2015 and consolidated in the next five years. After 2020...

Secondary Education in India : Universalizing Opportunity

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.43%
The dramatic growth in Indian elementary education enrollment and improvements in retention and transition rates over the past ten years, particularly among more disadvantaged groups, are increasing pressure on the secondary level to absorb new entrants. Given ongoing center and state investments in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (education for all), this trend will continue for the next 10 years. At the same time, India's impressive, sustained economic growth has increased household and labor market demand for secondary and higher education. Secondary education's contribution to economic growth, demonstrated high social benefits (particularly for girls), and support of democratic citizenship reinforce the need for increased public support at this level, particularly in light of the very large inequalities in access to secondary education, by income, gender, social group and geography. The challenge is to dramatically improve access, equity and quality of secondary education simultaneously. Small-scale learning achievement studies and parental preference for private schools suggest that the quality of public secondary education is alarmingly low. Efforts to improve the quality of secondary education are thus urgent...

Bangladesh - Public Expenditure and Institutional Review : Towards a Better Quality of Public Expenditure - Sectoral Analysis

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.45%
Bangladesh has recorded many impressive achievements in economic and social development in the last decade and a half. It has achieved steady economic growth of over 5.5 percent annually (over 6 percent on average since 2004), maintained relatively low inflation and stable levels of domestic debt. More remarkable have been its achievements in reducing income poverty and improving social indicators, such as life expectancy, fertility control, child mortality, literacy and enrollment rates, which, in many cases, exceed other countries in the region and outside. In addition to standard expenditure policy analysis typically associated with Public Expenditure Reviews (PERs), this study combines an assessment of key institutional elements that are likely to affect budget outcomes with political economy analysis of the budget institutions, in order to discover the underlying reasons behind the existing equilibrium. While the Public Expenditure and Institutional Review (PEIR) does not include a description of the technical aspects of Public Financial Management (PFM) institutions...

Fuelwood Consumption and Participation in Community Forestry in India

Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit; Shyamsundar, Priya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.45%
Decentralized forest management is an important policy issue in India and elsewhere. Yet there are few careful studies of the impacts of community forestry. The authors try to fill this gap by analyzing National Sample Survey data from 524 villages in five states in India. Their analysis seeks to answer two key questions: (1) Who participates in community forestry and what are the determinants of participation? (2) What is the impact of participation on household fuelwood consumption? The authors find that proximity to forests, leadership, and fuelwood dependence are significant factors in explaining village participation in community forestry. Household participation is strongly correlated with scarcity, a result that has implications for a recent policy to expand community forestry from degraded to less degraded forests. The authors' most important findings are that fuelwood consumption and participation are linked, and household participation has a significant positive impact on consumption. However...

Analysis of Community Forest Management in Madagascar

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.43%
The major role tropical forests play in biodiversity and climate change has led the world to search for effective ways to slow down deforestation. Community forest management (CFM) is an example of the broader concept of community-based natural resources management (CBNRM). As part of the decentralization policy in many countries, mainly in Africa and Asia, CFM was expected to promote: (i) a more effective stewardship of the resources by involving the local communities in the management of the resources, and (ii) a more locally-driven development with them tapping most of the derived benefits. The precursors of CBNRM and CFM in Madagascar are the centrally-led compensation-based mechanisms to conservation. Madagascar is one of the first countries in the southern hemisphere to have put in place a legal framework for CBNRM and CFM. The CBNRM implementation process starts with the creation of a local natural resources management group. The government has identified the protection of natural capital and the harnessing of its value as a key pillar in its national development plan for 2015-2019. The plan identifies poor governance as a major constraint to achieving the country’s development objectives. It puts strong emphasis on the roles of both natural capital and the necessity for a more inclusive economy to achieve sustainable development. This report will help the Bank take stock of the nearly two-decades of implementation of the national environmental action plan and provide nation-wide facts that will inform future investment in renewable natural resources management...