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Detecção do vírus da Influenza Aviária, Paramyxovirus tipo 1 (vírus da Doença de Newcastle), Mycoplasma gallisepticum e Mycoplasma synoviae em aves silvestres e domésticas próximas às granjas avícolas comerciais nas regiões de Mogi das Cruzes e Louveira do Estado de São Paulo; Detection of Influenzavirus, Paramyxovirus I, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in free-ranging birds and backyard chicken around poultry farms in Mogi das Cruzes and Louveira, São Paulo state

Guimarães, Marta Brito
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2012 PT
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Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, detectar o vírus da Influenza aviária, Paramyxovirus tipo 1 (doença de Newcastle), Mycoplasma gallisepticum e Mycoplasma synoviae, respectivamente pelas técnicas de RT-PCR e PCR, em aves domésticas e aves em vida livre próximas às granjas avícolas nas cidades de Mogi das Cruzes e Louveira do Estado de São Paulo. As aves silvestres foram capturadas, anilhadas, submetidas à avaliação de estado geral e à coleta de suabes de orofaringe e cloaca. As aves de subsistência ou fundo de quintal seguiram o mesmo protocolo com a exceção do anilhamento, e tiveram amostras de sangue coletadas para a pesquisa de anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença de Newcastle, Mycoplasma gallisepticum e Mycoplasma synoviae pela técnica de ELISA indireto. Foram considerados os aspectos da biodiversidade entre as espécies silvestres capturadas e a biossegurança nas granjas. As aves silvestres apresentaram resultados negativos nesta pesquisa, no entanto, Mycoplasma gallisepticum e Mycoplasma synoviae foram detectados pela técnica da PCR nas aves de subsistência, assim como apresentaram títulos de anticorpos para os agentes acima citados e para o Paramyxovirus tipo I. Duas granjas não possuíam medidas de biosseguridade adequadas permitindo o contato de animais de vida livre com as aves de fundo de quintal e com as aves de produção...

Percepção de agricultores e a agrobiodiversidade em quintais no Rio Grande do Sul : expressões da luta por autonomia camponesa

Muniz, Mariana Francisca Arreguy
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Na trajetória da industrialização da agricultura, a partir de meados da década de 1960 no Brasil, os pequenos agricultores vêm sendo pressionados para aderirem às novas tecnologias e homogeneizar a prática agrícola segundo a necessidade da produção capitalista. A produção em larga escala tem deposto sobre sua insustentabilidade ambiental, social, econômica expondo a população rural a situações de vulnerabilidade que colocam em risco a soberania alimentar e a própria biodiversidade agrícola, uma vez que nos alimentamos de um número cada vez mais reduzido de espécies. Assim, o pequeno agricultor, com o seu modo camponês de fazer agricultura, resiste no espaço de produção buscando a sua crescente autonomia e do seu espaço sócio-produtivo, retroalimentando a base de recursos sociais e naturais, fundamentado no referencial desta pesquisa. O conhecimento que o agricultor adquire na interação com o ambiente no qual está o faz detentor de práticas específicas de acordo com o seu contexto, porém com estratégias comuns para a luta por autonomia. Nesta perspectiva, os quintais, como o espaço ao redor da casa com uma área não muito superior a um hectare e manejados com técnica simples, são agroecossistemas que incluem espécies alimentícias entre árvores...

Fowlpox: identification and adoption of prophylactic measures in backyard chickens in Bahia, Brazil

Silva,PS da; Batinga,T de B; Sales,TS; Herval,EFG; Ramos,I; Maia,PCC; Fernandes,LMB
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2009 EN
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This paper describes the identification of an outbreak of fowlpox in backyard chickens in two villages the state of Bahia, the intervention strategy to control the disease by adopting health measures and vaccination, as well as the impact of the intervention. The diagnosis was based in clinical and laboratory data. After the diagnosis was confirmed, control measures and the vaccination of non-infected birds were recommended. Finally, the impact of the intervention on re-incidence of the disease was evaluated. A number of 700 chickens was vaccinated, after which only 9% of the farmers reported the occurrence of new cases, and 70% informed the acquisition of new birds after vaccination. The information reported in this paper can be useful to design strategic plans to control fowlpox in backyard chickens.

Occurrence of chicken anemia virus in backyard chickens of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais

Barrios,PR; Marín,SY; Resende,M; Rios,RL; Resende,JS; Horta,RS; Costa,MP; Martins,NRS
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2009 EN
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The occurrence of CAV in backyard chickens in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was evaluated. The spleen and thymus of chickens from different origins were collected for DNA extraction and nested-PCR. CAV genome was detected in 30% of the flocks (n=20) examined. CAV origin for backyard chickens is speculated, taking into consideration its widespread incidence in the chicken industry, the contamination of live vaccines with CAV prior to its eradication from SPF flocks, and the use of attenuated CAV vaccines.

Seroprevalence survey of H9N2 avian influenza virus in backyard chickens around the Caspian Sea in Iran

Hadipour,MM
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2010 EN
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Since 1998, an epidemic of avian influenza occurred in the Iranian poultry industry. The identified agent presented low pathogenicity, and was subtyped as an H9N2 avian influenza virus. Backyard chickens can play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 700 backyard chickens from villages around the Caspian Sea, Northern Iran, using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. The studied backyard chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The mean antibody titers found were 6.8, 7.5, 5.9, 7.2, 5.7, 6.4, 6.2 and the seroprevalence was 76.2%, 79.5%, 68.18%, 78.27%, 65%, 72.31% and 71.4% as found in seven villages. Overall HI titer and seroprevalence against H9N2 were 6.52 and 72.98%, respectively.

Seroprevalence of Salmonella and Mycoplasma in commercial broilers, backyard chickens, and spent hens in the region of Triângulo Mineiro, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

Silva,CBC; Chagas,WF; Santos,RF; Gomes,LR; Ganda,MR; Lima,AMC
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
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Avian salmonellosis and mycoplasmosis are infectious diseases that, in addition of causing lack of flock uniformity, represent a hazard to human health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of mycoplasmosis and salmonellosis in commercial broilers, backyard chickens, and spent hens slaughtered at a processing plant with local health inspection in Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. A total of 210 samples were randomly collected at the time of bleeding. Samples were submitted to rapid plate serum agglutination test (RSA) for the classification of Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella gallinarum, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. In order to increase result specificity, mycoplasmosis-positive samples were submitted to hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). No samples presented detectable antibodies against Salmonella pullorum or Salmonella gallinarum in the RSA test. Only Mycoplasma synoviae was detected in 14% of the backyard chickens and 0.74% in commercial broilers, whereas no antibodies were detected in spent hens. The seroprevalence rates found in the present study emphasize the need of keeping chicken flocks free from disease using effective biosafety systems.

Serendipitous backyard hybridization and the origin of crops

Hughes, Colin E.; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Robertson, Ashley; Filer, Denis L.; Harris, Stephen A.; Bailey, C. Donovan
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Backyard gardens, dump heaps, and kitchen middens are thought to have provided important venues for early crop domestication via generation of hybrids between otherwise isolated plant species. However, this process has rarely been demonstrated empirically. For the majority of polyploid crops, it remains uncertain to what extent hybridization and polyploidization preceded domestication or were precipitated by human activities. Using archaeological, ethnobotanical, geographical, and genetic data, we investigate the extent and significance of predomestication cultivation, backyard sympatry, and spontaneous hybridization for the Mimosoid legume tree Leucaena, which is used as a food crop throughout south-central Mexico. We show that predomestication cultivation was widespread, involved numerous independent transitions from the wild to cultivation, and resulted in extensive artificial sympatry of 2–6 species locally and 13 species in total. Using chloroplast and rapidly evolving nuclear-encoded DNA sequences, we demonstrate that hybridization in Leucaena has been extensive and complex, spawning a diverse set of novel hybrids as a result of juxtaposition of species in cultivation. The scale and complexity of hybridization in Leucaena is significantly greater than that documented for any other Mexican plant domesticates so far. However...

How backyard poultry flocks influence the effort required to curtail avian influenza epidemics in commercial poultry flocks

Smith, G.; Dunipace, S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This paper summarizes the evidence that the contribution of backyard poultry flocks to the on-going transmission dynamics of an avian influenza epidemic in commercial flocks is modest at best. Nevertheless, while disease control strategies need not involve the backyard flocks, an analysis of the contribution of each element of the next generation matrix to the basic reproduction number indicates that models which ignores the contribution of backyard flocks in estimating the effort required of strategies focused one host type (eg commercial flocks only) necessarily underestimate the level of effort to an extent that may matter to policy makers.

Prevalence of parasites and associated risk factors in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and free-range backyard chickens of Sistan region, east of Iran

Radfar, Mohammad Hossein; Khedri, Javad; Adinehbeigi, Keivan; Nabavi, Reza; Rahmani, Khatereh
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from December 2010 to November 2011 to determine the prevalence, intensity and species of internal and external parasites in Sistan region, east of Iran. Of the total of 59 (27 males and 32 females) free-range backyard chickens and 46 (26 males and 20 females) domestic pigeons inspected, 55 (93.22 %) and 39 (84.78 %) were infected respectively. Ten species of free-range backyard chickens parasites were collected from alimentary canals, body, head and neck, comprising of 3 species of nematodes, 4 species of cestodes and 3 species of ectoparasites as follows: Ascaridia galli (16.94 %), Heterakis gallinarum (23.72 %), Subulura brumpti (67.79 %), Raillietina tetragona (35.59 %), Raillietina echinobothrida (27.11 %), Raillietina cesticillus (15.25 %), Choanotaenia infundibulum (40.67 %), Argas persicus (16.94 %), Menopen gallinae (55.93 %) and Menacanthus stramineus (33.89 %). The domestic pigeons were infected with seven species of parasites including 2 species of nematodes, 2 species of cestodes and 3 species of ectoparasites as follows: Ascaridia colombae (15.21 %), Hadjelia truncata (17.39 %), Raillietina tetragona (26.08 %)...

Risk Factors for Infectious Diseases in Backyard Poultry Farms in the Poyang Lake Area, China

Wang, Yong; Jiang, Zhiben; Jin, Zhenyu; Tan, Hua; Xu, Bing
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/06/2013 EN
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Emergence and transmission of infectious diseases have an enormous impact on the poultry industry and present a serious threat to the health of humans and wild birds. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as backyard poultry facilities in China, are potential sources of virus exchange between commercial poultry and wild birds. It is particularly critical in wetland areas where backyard poultry have close contact with commercial poultry and migratory birds, therefore increasing the risk of contracting infectious diseases. To evaluate the transmission risks, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in the Poyang Lake area, China, involving 309 residents in the backyard poultry farms in three counties (Region A, B, and C) of Jiangxi Province. We examined the backyard poultry population, poultry species, presence of poultry deaths from infectious diseases, food sources, and biosecurity practices. Region B ranked highest for biosecurity while region C ranked lowest. The risks of infectious diseases were assessed by adjusted odds ratio based on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Potential risk factors in the three regions of the study site were compared. In Region A, significant factor was contact of poultry with wild birds (OR: 6.573...

Putative Human and Avian Risk Factors for Avian Influenza Virus Infections in Backyard Poultry in Egypt

Sheta, Basma M.; Fuller, Trevon L.; Larison, Brenda; Njabo, Kevin Y.; Ahmed, Ahmed Samy; Harrigan, Ryan; Chasar, Anthony; Aziz, Soad Abdel; Khidr, Abdel-Aziz A.; Elbokl, Mohamed M.; Habbak, Lotfy Z.; Smith, Thomas B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 causes significant poultry mortality in the six countries where it is endemic and can also infect humans. Egypt has reported the third highest number of poultry outbreaks (n=1,084) globally. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify putative risk factors for H5N1 infections in backyard poultry in 16 villages in Damietta, El Gharbia, Fayoum, and Menofia governorates from 2010–2012. Cloacal and tracheal swabs and serum samples from domestic (n=1242)and wild birds (n=807) were tested for H5N1 via RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. We measured poultry rearing practices with questionnaires (n=306 households) and contact rates among domestic and wild bird species with scan sampling. Domestic birds (chickens, ducks, and geese, n = 51) in three governorates tested positive for H5N1 by PCR or serology. A regression model identified a significant correlation between H5N1 in poultry and the practice of disposing of dead poultry and poultry feces in the garbage (F = 15.7, p< 0.0001). In addition, contact between domestic and wild birds was more frequent in villages where we detected H5N1 in backyard flocks (F= 29.5, p< 0.0001).

Stockmanship Competence and Its Relation to Productivity and Economic Profitability: The Context of Backyard Goat Production in the Philippines

Alcedo, M. J.; Ito, K.; Maeda, K.
Fonte: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST) Publicador: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2015 EN
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A stockperson has a significant influence on the productivity and welfare of his animals depending on his stockmanship competence. In this study, stockmanship competence (SC) is defined as the capacity of the stockperson to ensure the welfare of his animals by providing his animals’ needs. The study was conducted to evaluate the SC of backyard goat raisers and examine its relationship to goat productivity and economic profitability. There were 101 respondents for this study who have all undertaken farmer livestock school on integrated goat management (FLS-IGM). Interview was conducted in Region I, Philippines on September 3 to 30, 2012 and March 4 to 17, 2013. Data on SC, goat productivity and farmer’s income were gathered. Questions regarding SC were formulated based on the Philippine Recommendations for Goat Production and from other scientific literature. Housing, feeding, breeding and health and husbandry management were the indicators used in computing stockmanship competence index score (SCIS). Pearson correlation using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was carried out to analyse the relationship between SCIS, productivity and income. Based from the results of the study, a majority of the respondents raised native and upgraded goats. The computed mean SCIS before and after undergoing FLS-IGM were 38.52% and 75.81% respectively...

Backyard Chicken Policy: Lessons from Vancouver, Seattle and Niagara Falls

Miller, Kieran
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Outros
EN
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The report “Backyard Chicken Policy: Lessons from Vancouver, Seattle and Niagara Falls”, explores the practice of urban agriculture in the cities of Vancouver, British Columbia; Seattle, Washington; and Niagara Falls, Ontario.

People gathering in their backyard; Bryant Slides Collection; Bryant Slides Collection, Haiti

Unknown ( Photographer )
Fonte: Universidade da Flórida Publicador: Universidade da Flórida
Tipo: still image Formato: 35 mm
Publicado em //circa 1970
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The slides were taken on collecting trips sponsored by the William L. Bryant Foundation, where books, music and art indigenous to the regions were gathered. They are organized by geographical location.; People standing up and sitting down in their backyard. Almond trees and palm trees in the backyard.

Seroprevalence of salmonella and mycoplasma in commercial broilers, backyard chickens, and spent hens in the region of Triangulo Mineiro, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

Silva, Claudiane Barbosa Carrara da; Chagas, Wadia de Freitas; Santos, Renata Ferreira dos; Gomes, Lívia Resende; Ganda, Muriell Ribeiro; Lima, Anna Monteiro Correia
Fonte: Facta-fundacio Arnco Ciencia Tecnologia Avicolas Publicador: Facta-fundacio Arnco Ciencia Tecnologia Avicolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 57-62
ENG
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Avian salmonellosis and mycoplasmosis are infectious diseases that, in addition of causing lack of flock uniformity, represent a hazard to human health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of mycoplasmosis and salmonellosis in commercial broilers, backyard chickens, and spent hens slaughtered at a processing plant with local health inspection in Uberlandia, MG, Brazil. A total of 210 samples were randomly collected at the time of bleeding. Samples were submitted to rapid plate serum agglutination test (RSA) for the classification of Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella gallinarum, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. In order to increase result specificity, mycoplasmosis-positive samples were submitted to hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). No samples presented detectable antibodies against Salmonella pullorum or Salmonella gallinarum in the RSA test. Only Mycoplasma synoviae was detected in 14% of the backyard chickens and 0.74% in commercial broilers, whereas no antibodies were detected in spent hens. The seroprevalence rates found in the present study emphasize the need of keeping chicken flocks free from disease using effective biosafety systems.

Vers le haut : la valeur d’usage du toit vert privé : le point de vue de professionnels de l’immobilier œuvrant sur le Plateau Mont-Royal

Tremblay, Valérie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Cette recherche s’intéresse à la valeur d’usage du toit vert dans l’arrondissement du Plateau Mont-Royal, de la Ville de Montréal. Spécifiquement, elle s’intéresse à l’état problématique qu’est l’étalement urbain en tentant l’estimation de la valeur d’usage du toit vert, de la cour arrière et du balcon-terrasse soutenue par le dispositif argumentaire immobilier propre à chacun des aménagements. L’étalement urbain est la source de graves problèmes et la résorption de ses effets néfastes est devenue une priorité dans l’aménagement du territoire. L’une des principales raisons sousjacentes à l’exode urbain est la valeur d’usage accordée à la parcelle extérieure qu’offre l’habitat unifamilial pavillonnaire. Dans cette situation, la question est de savoir si l’insertion d’espaces verts privés en milieu urbain peut participer à la résorption de l’exode urbain. Or, dans l’agglomération, le sol manque. Le toit vert privé apparaît comme une alternative astucieuse, bien que limitée, au terrain entourant la maison. Reste à savoir si les gens le valorisent tel un espace vert privé d’extrême proximité, à même le sol. À la lueur de l’analyse, il advient que le toit vert ne présente pas de valeur d’usage comparable à celle de la cour arrière dans le contexte observé...

La avicultura familiar en el norte del Tolima (Colombia); Household poultry production northern Tolima (Colombia)

Calderón, Juan Camilo; Gómez Sandra Milena; Mora Delgado, Jairo Ricardo
Fonte: Ibagué : Universidad del Tolima, 2010; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia Publicador: Ibagué : Universidad del Tolima, 2010; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia
Tipo: Artículo de revista; Text; info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
SPA
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Páginas 64-67; Este artículo muestra los resultados obtenidos en un estudio transversal en cuatro municipios de la zona norte del departamento del Tolima (Colombia) con el fin de caracterizar la avicultura familiar en la comunidad. In formación sobre producción avícola, nivel tecnológico, sistemas de alimentación, consumo y contribución a la economía familiar fue recolectada mediante entrevistas a los granjeros. El principal fin de este componente productivo es el autoconsumo. En 2006 el 55, 62 y 78% de familias de cada grupos (C1, C2, C3, respectivamente) criaron aves. Las principales limitaciones identificadas son las deficiencias en la alimentación, la ausencia de asistencia técnica, la presencia de enfermedades. Los resultados sugieren que la avicultura familiar representa una oportunidad para contribuir al mejoramiento de las condiciones de vida de las familias campesinas, especialmente de las mujeres, para lo cual se requiere que la actividad ocupe un lugar relevante en la agenda de las instituciones de desarrollo de investigación.; ABSTRACT. This article shows results of a research project related to household poultry production carried out in the peasant communities of four northern municipalities of Departamento del Tolima (Colombia)...

Campylobacter jejuni, coli, and lari prevalence in wild birds and backyard poultry

Keller, Judith
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Shriver, W. Gregory; Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for the majority of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis in the United States (Thomas, 1988; Abulreesh et al., 2006), yet due to the generalized symptoms and overall feelings of malaise, Campylobacter infections often go undiagnosed and unreported. Most food poisoning occurs due to the consumption of undercooked poultry meat; however little research has been conducted on other avian species that have the potential for transmitting the bacterium, especially in the US. Understanding the prevalence of these bacterial pathogens in wild birds may serve as a useful model for examining the spread of disease organisms (Benskin et al., 2009). The overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 11.4 % for all wild birds in this study and 11.1 % for backyard poultry. Samples were heterogeneous in terms of prevalence at all levels, including order, family, genus, and species, ranging from 0 to 43.1 %. C. jejuni was the most prevalent species of Campylobacter present, while C. coli and C. lari prevalence estimates were low (10.1 %, 1.4 %, 0.3 %, respectively for wild birds). Results from culturing methods indicate that 30 % of Snow Geese and 6 % of Canada Geese were positive for Campylobacter spp. (n = 111...

Uma outra ideia da Índia. As literaturas nas línguas Bhashas; Another Idea of India: Indian Literatures in the Bhashas

Festino, Cielo Griselda; Universidade Paulista
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Tradução e critica literária; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/04/2013 POR
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2013v1n31p103O objetivo deste artigo é discutir as narrativas indianas nas línguas bhashas, as línguas vernáculas do subcontinente indiano a través de uma política e poética da tradução que da voz e visibilidade a culturas que, de outro modo, estariam restringidas às diversas culturas onde são produzidas. Dessa maneira, não só as literaturas do “front yard”, ou seja as narrativas indianas escritas na língua inglesa da diáspora ganham visibilidade, mas também as narrativas escritas do “backyard” nas línguas vernáculas  da Índia. Nesse processo, o termo “vernáculo” ganha um novo significado no sentido que o que é realmente “vernacularizado” é a língua  inglesa porque se torna um veículo por meio do que as literaturas bhasha tornam-se conhecidas. Para ilustrar esse processo o artigo traz uma análise do conto “Thayyaal” escrito na língua Tamil, do sul da Índia.  ; The aim of this article is to discuss the translation of Indian narratives in the bhashas, the vernacular languages of the Indian subcontinent into English through a  politics and poetics of translation that gives voice and visibility to cultures that, otherwise, would be restricted to a very close range of dissemination. In this way...

Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria

Oluwayelu,D.O.; Todd,D.; Olaleye,O.D.
Fonte: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research Publicador: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
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This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.