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Is the international business environment the actual context of IB research?

Ferreira, Manuel Portugal; Li, Dan; Guisinger, Stephen
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria. globADVANTAGE - Center of Research in International Business & Strategy Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria. globADVANTAGE - Center of Research in International Business & Strategy
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em /08/2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.17%
The International Business Environment (IBE) is argued to be the essential context for international business (IB) studies and the distinguishing factor from other management studies, and from studies of large scale enterprises. In this paper we argue for a greater environmental focus and illustrate how and how much the IBE has been included in published IB research. While extant research has often taken a uni-dimensional view, which has been mostly anchored in the cultural environment, we suggest that: (a) there is a need to developed more uni-and multi-dimensional environmental constructs, (b) a more holistic view of the IBE provides richer insights on the actual complexity that underlies IB research. Future conceptual and empirical studies that provide more comprehensive models of the IBE that overcome the usual "everything out there" are warranted.

Adaptation to the International Business Environment: a resource advantage perspective

Ferreira, Manuel Portugal; Serra, Fernando; Li, Dan; Armagan, Sungu
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
This paper discusses the importance of the adaptation of the firm to the International Business Environment. Using concepts from the literature on resource advantage, we posit that the firms’ adaptation capability to different International Business Environments is a valuable, difficult to imitate, non-tradeable, rare but not scarce and path dependent resource. We further suggest that adaptation to International Business Environment is a non-substitutable core source of competitive advantage for the multinational enterprises, developed over time through the firms experiences and built into their routines. In line with this argument, some propositions are formulated. We conclude with a broad discussion and suggesting some avenues for future research.

On the adaptation of the firm to the international business environment

Ferreira, Manuel Portugal; Serra, Fernando; Reis, Nuno
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
This paper advances on the importance of the adaptation of the firm to the International Business Environment (IBE). The IBE is a distinguishing factor in international business studies and the firm’s adaptation to the environment has been presented as a basic survival strategy. We argue that adaptation is indeed a dynamic and largely internally driven process that leads the firm to co-evolve with the external environment. The ability to adapt to different international business environments is developed over time through the firm’s experiences and built into its routines. Adaptation is both suggested to incorporate the elements of a planned strategy and of random variation in search for local peaks given bounded rationality, imperfect information and the current pool of resources and capabilities. The ability to adapt to the environment may be conceptualized as a knowledge-based capability and a potential source of competitive advantage for the multinational corporation.

On the adaptation of the firm to the international business environment: a knowledge-based and evolutionary perspective

Ferreira, Manuel Portugal; Serra, Fernando; Reis, Nuno
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 10/12/2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
Comunicação apresentada na 36th EIBA Annual Conference, Porto, 2010.; This paper advances on the importance of the adaptation of the firm to the International Business Environment (IBE). The IBE is a distinguishing factor in international business studies and the firm’s adaptation to the environment has been presented as a basic survival strategy. We argue that adaptation is indeed a dynamic and largely internally driven process that leads the firm to co-evolve with the external environment. The ability to adapt to different international business environments is developed over time through the firm’s experiences and built into its routines. Adaptation is both suggested to incorporate the elements of a planned strategy and of random variation in search for local peaks given bounded rationality, imperfect information and the current pool of resources and capabilities. The ability to adapt to the environment may be conceptualized as a knowledge-based capability and a potential source of competitive advantage for the multinational corporation.

Um estudo setorial sobre as relações entre variáveis ambientais externas, modelos de gestão, controles gerenciais e desempenhos das empresas; A sectorial study about the relations of the variable of the business environment, management model, management controls and performance of companies

Reginato, Luciane
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/03/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
A combinação dos fatores externos e internos, intrínsecos ao ambiente empresarial, pode afetar o desempenho de uma empresa, facilitando ou dificultando a sua estabilidade. O objetivo desta pesquisa consistiu em verificar as relações entre as variáveis do ambiente externo, os elementos do modelo de gestão, os controles gerenciais e os desempenhos de empresas de setores de atividade distintos. A partir disso, construíram-se os procedimentos metodológicos. Primeiramente, definiram-se as hipóteses, alicerçadas nos constructos teóricos da pesquisa. Com essa base, desenhou-se o instrumento de pesquisa, que foi aplicado, inicialmente, por meio de um pré-teste em 20 empresas da amostra, para então se dar seqüência ao trabalho de campo. A amostra da pesquisa compôs-se de 69 empresas do setor do comércio, 80 do industrial e 74 do de serviços, totalizando 223 empresas contatadas. Dessas, 118 responderam ao questionário enviado. A coleta dos dados deu-se por meio da aplicação de dois procedimentos: questionário e obtenção dos dados econômicos das empresas. O questionário foi disponibilizado em website para ser respondido pelos gestores do alto escalão da empresa, que pudessem ter a visão sistêmica da empresa presidente...

Entry costs and quality of business environment: a critical analysis

Zylbersztajn,Decio
Fonte: Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie Publicador: Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
Transaction costs are the costs to protect property rights. Institutions are shaped in order to control transaction costs in society. Studies have been developed to measure transaction costs both at the macro and microeconomic levels. Entry costs, i.e., the cost to start up a new business are considered a proxy for business environment quality, being also interpreted as a proxy to transaction cost measurement. This paper presents new elements in order to amplify the potential of research in business environment, particularly business entry costs. It stresses the limitation related to two theoretical points: first, the near decomposability of one complex transaction, and second, the complementarity between ex-ante and ex-post transaction costs, both related to the methodology adopted to measure business entrance costs.

The Impact of Business Environment Reforms on New Firm Registration

Klapper, Leora; Love, Inessa
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
The authors use panel data on the number of new firm registrations in 92 countries to study how the magnitude of reforms affects new firm registrations. They find that small reforms, in general less than 40 percent reduction in costs, days, or procedures required for business registration, do not have a significant effect on new firm creation. This suggests that small reforms do not have the intended effect on private sector development. They also find important synergies in multiple reforms of two or more business environment indicators. Finally, they show that countries with relatively weaker business environments require relatively larger reforms in order to impact new firm growth. These results can be helpful to motivate policymakers to make larger, broader reforms.

Convergence in Institutions and Market Outcomes : Cross-country and Time-series Evidence from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Surveys in Transition Economies

Mitra, Pradeep; Muravyev, Alexander; Schaffer, Mark E.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
This paper uses firm-level data from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Surveys to study the process of convergence of transition countries with developed market economies. The study focuses on competition and market structure, finance and the structure of lending to firms, and how firms respond to the economic environment by restructuring. The authors find substantial evidence of convergence in a number of dimensions. The pattern of growth at the country, sector, and firm levels shows rapid growth of the new private sector and of the micro and small-firm sectors, with the size distribution of firms moving toward the pattern observed in the surveys of developed market economies. In finance, increasing reliance on retained earnings in transition countries reflects a maturation of the sector as new firms come to rely less on informal and family sources of finance. The authors find evidence of an inverse-U pattern, with the peak of restructuring activity taking place in 2002, the middle of the period analyzed. Throughout...

The Impact of the Business Environment on the Business Creation Process

Klapper, Leora; Lewin, Anat; Delgado, Juan Manuel Quesada
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
New data from the 2008 World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Survey indicates a very strong and statistically significant relationship between entrepreneurship and a better business environment. Data for 100 countries on the number of total and newly registered corporations over an eight-year period (2000-2007) were collected directly from registrars of companies around the world. Data were also collected on the functioning and structure of business registries. Empirical evidence suggests that greater ease in starting a business and better governance are associated with increased entrepreneurial activity. After controlling for economic development (gross domestic product per capita), higher entrepreneurial activity is significantly associated with cheaper, more efficient business registration procedures and better governance. Although the degree of progress in the modernization of business registries varies greatly, countries usually have a common goal to evolve from a paper-based business registry to a one-stop...

Big Constraints to Small Firms’ Growth? Business Environment and Employment Growth across Firms

Aterido, Reyes; Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Pages, Carmen
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
Using data on more than 56,000 enterprises in 90 countries, this paper finds that objective conditions in the business environment vary substantially across firms of different sizes and that there are important non-linearities in their impact on employment growth. The paper focuses on four areas: access to finance, business regulations, corruption, and infrastructure. The results, particularly on the impacts of finance and corruption on growth, depend on whether and how the analysis accounts for the possible endogeneity of the business environment. Controlling for endogeneity revises the finding that small firms benefit most from access to finance, particularly for sources of finance associated with investment and growth. The findings are also sensitive to how small is defined. Differentiating micro (less than 10 employees) from other small firms shows that, while small firms can be disadvantaged in such an environment, micro firms tend to be proportionally less affected by a weak business climate and...

Business Environment and Labor Market Outcomes in Europe and Central Asia Countries

Lopez-Garcia, Paloma
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
New firm entry has been fundamental for job creation in the transition economies. Hence, the urge to reform the framework in which firms operate. This paper aims to improve our understanding of the business environment of the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) countries, as well as to assess which of the institutions that shape it are most important for labor market performance. To achieve that aim, the author groups the institutions into those affecting firm entry and those affecting business survival and growth, and proceeds to construct indicators to summarize them. Next, she analyzes the impact of the business environment institutions on the employment generated by the private sector of the countries, proxied by the service employment rate. The regression analysis uses an unbalanced panel of 28 ECA countries over 14 years-from 1988 to 2002. Recent literature on the labor market performance of the OECD countries argues that what matters for employment is the interaction between institutions and shocks. Accordingly, the explanatory variables used in the regression are the interactions between the transition shock suffered by the ECA countries and each of the business environment institutions previously defined. The author finds that access to finance is the most important institution across all ECA countries. The development of the financial sector can explain about 40 percent of private employment creation in the European transition economies according to the model. On the other hand...

Investment Climate Around the World : Voices of the Firms from the World Business Environment Survey

Batra, Geeta; Kaufmann, Daniel; Stone, Andrew H. W.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
The analysis of firm-level data collected through parallel international enterprise surveys can reveal important linkages between governance constraints and business growth and investment. The World Business Environment Survey (WBES), an initiative led by the World Bank Group in 1999 and 2000, collected enterprise data from more than 10,000 firms in 80 countries. Econometric analysis of responses to that survey points to a strong association between corruption, financing, regulatory and tax constraints, policy uncertainty, and protection of intellectual property rights with firm-level performance, as measured by sales and investment growth and participation in the formal economy. This book present the core WBES questionnaire and survey findings, and confirms the significance of key country conditions on the firm performance and behavior. The finding provide a basis for regional comparison, but suggest the need for caution when averaging across categories, especially in light of country conditions that can significantly affect firm-level sales and investment.

Business Environment and Firm Entry : Evidence from International Data

Klapper, Leora; Laeven, Luc; Rajan, Raghuram
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
Using a comprehensive database of firms in Western and Eastern Europe, the authors study how the business environment in a country drives the creation of new firms. They focus on regulations governing entry, although they also examine the effects of a developed financial sector, a well-trained labor force, strong enforcement of intellectual property rights, and strict labor laws. The authors find entry regulations hamper entry, especially in industries that naturally should have high entry. They find that naturally "high entry" industries grow less, have lower profitability, and account for a lower share of the economy in countries with onerous regulations on entry. Also, value added per employee in naturally "high entry" industries grows more slowly in countries with onerous regulations on entry. This suggests entry regulations are neither benign nor welfare improving. The authors also find less entry into labor-intensive industries in countries with labor regulations that restrict the ability to fire workers. They do not imply that all regulations inhibit entry. In particular...

Business Environment, Economic Agglomeration and Job Creation around the World

Clarke, George; Li, Yue; Xu, Lixin Colin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
Based on a comprehensive worldwide firm survey, this paper looks at how the business environment and economic agglomeration affect job creation, holding constant conventional determinants of firm growth, such as firm ownership, size, and age. The analysis finds that economic agglomeration is most important, especially modern telecommunications, access to export markets, concentration of economic activity in large cities, and capacity agglomeration (the concentration of large firms in a city). Although the business environment affects job growth less than agglomeration does, some elements of the business environment matter, such as labor flexibility, unionization, and local skill levels. There is strong heterogeneity in job creation across firm size and age.

Business Environment and Cost of Doing Business

Hussain, Abid Abrar; Mir, Aized H.; Durrani, Amer Z.; Zaidi, Hasan A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
The objective of the Pakistan Infrastructure Implementation Capacity Assessment (PIICA) study was to identify and ascertain the extent to which certain complex and dysfunctional business processes in fact contribute to the overall delays caused in completion of infrastructure projects. The primary focus was to understand and document the business processes relating to the life cycle of infrastructure projects, especially processes that involve an interface with external agencies. The study was further extended to assess the resultant impact of the delays caused on overall capacity, efficiency, and costs of the project. The study identifies areas that contain business processes and which relative to other processes in the life cycle of a project are disproportionate, or a cause of significant time delays in completion of such projects. Such disproportionate business processes that are unpredictable and vary greatly from the planned time or inputs are areas that can be the focus for selective and further analysis...

Is entrepreneurial competency and business success relationship contingent upon business environment?: A study of Malaysian SMEs

Ahmad, N.; Ramayah, T.; Wilson, C.; Kummerow, E.
Fonte: Emerald Group Publishing Limited Publicador: Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
Purpose – The purpose of this article is to evaluate the effect of entrepreneurial competencies and the moderating effect of business environment on business success in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach – A sample of 212 Malaysian SME owner-founders participated in this study. The structural equation modeling (SEM) procedure was used to test the proposed model. Findings – The results showed that entrepreneurial competencies were strong predictors of business success in SMEs in Malaysia. It was also found that the association between entrepreneurial competencies and business success was more strongly evident in hostile and dynamic environments than in more benign and stable environments. Research limitations/implications – Self-report was used as the source of all data. This approach, even though criticised by some, was deemed necessary because of difficulties associated with the independent assessment of each of these variables. Nevertheless, future studies should identify ways to obtain competency data from multiple informants to minimise the possibility of response bias. Practical implications – It was suggested that understanding business success through the lens of entrepreneurial competencies is important because it provides entrepreneurs with knowledge about the way they should operate their business and encourages them to be conscious of the potential positive or negative impacts of their own behaviour. Originality/value – The study shows that entrepreneurs are capable of minimising the negative impact of business environment if they are willing to equip themselves with the appropriate competencies.; Noor Hazlina Ahmad...

Understanding the Business Environment in South Asia : Evidence from Firm-Level Surveys

Carlin, Wendy; Schaffer, Mark
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
This paper examines the relationship between firm performance and growth and the business environment in the countries of the South Asia Region -- Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka -- using firm-level data from the World Bank's Enterprise Surveys. The analysis uses an approach in which the responses of firms to questions about the quality of the business environment can be interpreted as shadow prices: estimations by managers of the cost imposed on the firm by inadequacies of an aspect of the business environment -- public inputs such as regulation, physical infrastructure, availability of skilled labor, macroeconomic conditions, rule of law, etc. -- for the growth of their firm. The analysis finds, in line with this approach, that higher-productivity and better-performing firms in the region, and in particular firms that recently expanded their employment and created jobs, report significantly higher constraints in terms of the supply of public inputs. The authors discuss the differences across countries in the importance of various industries...

The Business Environment in Southern Africa : Issues in Trade and Market Integration - Summary

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
This report assesses some of the key barriers to greater trade and factor market integration in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). The SADC has been a free trade area since 2008, and has an ambitious agenda for further trade integration. This report assesses the roles that cross-country differences in business environments have had in impeding cross-border trade flows and the cross-border integration of credit markets and the labor market based on the analysis of microeconomic data on firms and households. The aim of the assessment is to help inform the policy and business environment harmonization agenda of the community. The full report discusses and illustrates the use of price data in monitoring intraregional trade integration. The report evaluates the extent of integration of labor markets among members the statistical agencies of which regularly collect the minimum data required for this purpose, which are South Africa, Mauritius, Tanzania, and Zambia. The results show that, although there is considerable integration of South Africa's labor market with many others in the region...

The Business Environment in Southern Africa : Issues in Trade and Market Integration - Full report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
This report assesses some of the key barriers to greater trade and factor market integration in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). The SADC has been a free trade area since 2008, and has an ambitious agenda for further trade integration. This report assesses the roles that cross-country differences in business environments have had in impeding cross-border trade flows and the cross-border integration of credit markets and the labor market based on the analysis of microeconomic data on firms and households. The aim of the assessment is to help inform the policy and business environment harmonization agenda of the community. The full report discusses and illustrates the use of price data in monitoring intraregional trade integration. The report evaluates the extent of integration of labor markets among members the statistical agencies of which regularly collect the minimum data required for this purpose, which are South Africa, Mauritius, Tanzania, and Zambia. The results show that, although there is considerable integration of South Africa's labor market with many others in the region...

Adaptation to the international business environment: a resource advantage perspective; Adaptação para o ambiente de negócios internacionais: uma perspectiva da vantagem dos recursos

Ferreira, Manuel Portugal; Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão - Instituto Politécnico - Leiria - PT; Serra, Fernando Antonio Ribeiro; UNISUL - Florianópolis - SC; Li, Dan; Kelley School of Business Indiana University - Indiana - USA
Fonte: UFSC Publicador: UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/11/2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.2%
This paper discusses the importance of the adaptation of the firm to the International Business Environment. Using concepts from the literature on resource advantage, is posit that the firms’ adaptation capability to different International Business Environments is a valuable, difficult to imitate, non-tradeable, rare but not scarce and path dependent resource. We further suggest that adaptation to International Business Environment is a non-substitutable core source of competitive advantage for the multinational enterprises, developed over time through the firms experiences and built into their routines. In line with this argument, some propositions are formulated. We conclude with a broad discussion and suggesting some avenues for future research.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8069.2008v5n10p11Este trabalho discute a importância da adaptação da empresa ao ambiente de negócio Internacional. Utilizando conceitos da literatura em vantagem de recursos, é colocado que a capacitação de adaptação das empresas a diferentes ambientes de negócios internacionais é um recurso valioso, difícil de imitar, não comercializável, raro, mas não escasso e, dependente do caminho. Sugerimos adicionalmente, que a adaptação ao ambiente de negócio Internacional...