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Petroleum Product Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa : Comparative Efficiency Analysis of 12 Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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16.4%
Petroleum products are used across the entire economy in every country. Gasoline and diesel are the primary fuels used in road transport. Oil is used in power generation, accounting for eleven percent of total electricity generated in Africa in 2007. Adequate and reliable supply of transport services and electricity in turn are essential for economic development. Households use a variety of petroleum products: kerosene is used for lighting, cooking, and heating; liquefied petroleum gas for cooking and heating; and gasoline and diesel for private vehicles as well as captive power generation. Prices users pay for these petroleum products have macroeconomic and microeconomic consequences. At the macroeconomic level, oil price levels can affect the balance of payments, gross domestic product (GDP), and, where fuel prices are subsidized, government budgets, contingent liabilities, or both. At the microeconomic level, higher oil prices lower effective household income in three ways. First, households pay more for petroleum products they consume directly. Seventy percent of Sub-Saharan Africans are not yet connected to electricity; most without access rely on kerosene for lighting. Second...

Bosnia and Herzegovina - The Road to Europe : Annex 4. Urban Transport - A Need for Safe, Clean, and Affordable Transport

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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26.74%
This report highlights deficiencies and indicates priorities for a prospective national transport strategy and action plan for further consideration by key stakeholders. The overall objective should be the development of a transport system, and an institutional framework, that facilitates rather than constrains, economic development in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A strong transport system contributes to economic growth by reducing the economic distance to markets by expanding opportunities for trade, by improving the competitiveness of national locations for production and distribution, and by facilitating mobility for a country s citizens; while minimizing the social and environmental costs of the transport sector. The report concludes by recommending actions that aim to improve the institutional framework, improve the sustainability of the transport sector, facilitate broad based economic growth, and mitigate the social and environmental detriments associated with transport. Specific policy recommendations are presented to accomplish these conclusions.

Institutional Labyrinth : Designing a Way Out for Improving Urban Transport Services--Lessons from Current Practice

Kumar, Ajay; Agarwal, O. P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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26.78%
Severe congestion, poor air quality, increases in road accidents, and explosive growth in energy consumption are manifestations of rapid motorization in cities around the globe, especially in the developing world. The tendency in most developing cities has been to deal with these problems in a piecemeal fashion, largely through supply side interventions, such as widening roads, constructing flyovers, or building high-cost mass transit systems. It is becoming increasingly recognized that effective solutions lie in comprehensive and holistic approaches that integrate what would normally be patchwork efforts and, in addition, combine supply side efforts with demand side measures. In general, this means that multiple, well-integrated actions need to be taken. Integrated and comprehensive thinking and implementation is required across multiple subsystems and disciplines, such as land use planning, environmental quality, energy efficiency, and services for the poor and physically disadvantaged. The ability to undertake comprehensive planning and execution that is integrated functionally...

Results in the Latin America and Caribbean Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.75%
A focus on development results is at the heart of the Latin America and Caribbean Region s approach to delivering programs and policy advice with partners in middle-income and low income countries alike. Through knowledge, convening activities, and financial services we strive to help people across the region create better opportunities and build a better future for themselves, their families and their country. Documenting, measuring and evaluating results of what we do, helps us and our partners to engage more effectively, learn from our experiences and apply lessons to the design and implementation of future interventions. This collection of result stories shows our continuous efforts to adopt and integrate technical analysis, timely policy advice, and a variety of financial instruments into programs that are aligned with client priorities. Results show the increased demand and the effectiveness of peer-to-peer learning, have led to a scaling up our support for South-South exchange activities and the use our convening power to support successful partnerships and mobilize additional resources to finance development work.

Guatemala : Elements of a Transport and Logistics Strategy

Dumitrescu, Anca C.; Smith, Graham; Osborne, Theresa K.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.4%
This document has been produced by the World Bank to support the Government of Guatemala as it improves its transport and logistics sector management in pursuit of enhanced country competitiveness. It identifies and defines elements of a National Transport and Logistics Strategy (NTLS) through the development of a methodology which analyzes bottlenecks and related costs along the main logistics corridors. It does so with a view to (a) mobilizing support in the trading community (essentially private sector) for logistic service improvements, (b) identifying the need for broader public-sector reforms in transport which indirectly impact logistics performance, and (c) helping the Government to set sector priorities and hence to prioritize public investment. At the same time, it points out where improved data and monitoring of performance are needed in order to better quantify economic costs, diagnose key logistics issues, and track improved performance. It thereby proposes, as part of the set of recommended activities...

Sophia City Strategy

Zeijlon, Anders
Fonte: Sofia Municipality and the Cities Alliance/World Bank, Sofia Publicador: Sofia Municipality and the Cities Alliance/World Bank, Sofia
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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26.51%
The purpose of the Sofia City Strategy (SCS) is to combat poverty and provide the basis for sustainable development of the local economy and the welfare of city residents. SCS is driven by the need to reevaluate the increased role of Bulgarian local authorities that resulted from the country's transition from socialism to a market economy. Launching a long-term strategy for Sofia will provide the municipality with an opportunity to effectively implement the goals that it set out to achieve in the three to five year period ahead. Sofia's city management initiated work on the strategy in 2000 after cities alliance committed to support the initiative. The strategy draws upon the preferences and expectations of the population that were identified through analyses, consultations and surveys undertaken by international organizations and experts during strategy development. Five broad areas have been identified as key components of the strategy: i) the role of the municipality in the development and growth of the city economy; ii) the provision of infrastructure...

Railways in Sub-Saharan Africa

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.51%
The changed role of rail in Africa over the last thirty years has seen it move from a situation where many of the systems were carrying a high share of their country's traffic to one in which their market share has declined, their assets have steadily deteriorated, their quality of service has reduced, and they are in many instances only a minor contributor to solving the transport problems of the continent. The first railways south of the Sahara were built in South Africa in the 1860's and 1870's, with lines heading inland from the ports at Cape Town and Durban. The networks in what were then Cape Province, Natal and Transvaal continued to develop but it was not until the turn of the twentieth century that large-scale railway development began in other parts of the continent. In almost every case, the pattern was the same, with isolated lines heading inland from a port to reach a trading centre or a mine, and a few branch lines then being built over a period of time. As almost all the lines were constructed under colonial administrations...

Petroleum Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa : Analysis and Assessment of 12 Countries

Kojima, Masami; Matthews, William; Sexsmith, Fred
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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16.4%
This regional study takes twelve oil-importing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and asks the following two questions: does each stage in the supply chain, from import of crude oil or refined products to retail, seem to be efficiently run and are the efficiency gains passed on to end-users? And if not, what are the potential causes and possible means of remedying the problems? The study focuses on Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal in West Africa and Botswana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda in East and Southern Africa, covering a wide range of conditions that affect price levels, such as the market size, geography (whether landlocked or coastal), existence of domestic refineries, degree of sector liberalization including pricing, and level of economic development.

Nepal and Bangladesh - Transport and HIV Portfolio Review and Situation Analysis

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.51%
This review report focuses on the HIV component of the World Bank Bangladesh and Nepal transport infrastructure projects as at the end of 2009. This report is prepared with the following three objectives: 1) knowledge improved and lessons learned from HIV and AIDS activities developed within the road projects financed by the World Bank in Bangladesh and Nepal as of the end of 2009; 2) knowledge base built on current HIV and AIDS programs in the transport sector in Bangladesh and Nepal to serve as a reference for future World Bank projects in the transport sector in South Asia; 3) guidance provided to the draft regional strategy for HIV prevention in the transport sector of the Bank's South Asia region. The World Bank has a comparative advantage in promoting the inclusion of a transport sector response within the new national AIDS strategies being formulated for Bangladesh in 2010 and Nepal in 2011. The Bank may consider making the model HIV clause in the transport projects mandatory, consistent with other funders...

Best Operational and Maintenance Practices for City Bus Fleets to Maximize Fuel Economy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.82%
In most large cities in developing countries, buses continue to be the public transport option of choice, carrying a large share of urban travelers. However, transit bus companies in these countries are often cash-strapped. In many cases, the operating cost per bus kilometer exceeds revenues and bus fares are often kept low irrespective of the cost of providing service. Many cities are dominated by old and fuel-intensive buses with high operating costs. Transit systems are also often plagued by overcrowded and undependable service, congested roadways and chaotic operating environments. Across the board, city officials in developing countries are under strong pressure to improve the efficiency and enhance the attractiveness of bus transportation. Fuel makes up a relatively large fraction of total bus operating costs, especially when labor costs are low, as in many developing countries. Fuel costs can be reduced by improving the driving style of bus drivers and through sound maintenance practices. A safe and economical driving style can reduce variable costs...

Harnessing Urbanization to End Poverty and Boost Prosperity in Africa

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.4%
Urbanization is the single most important transformation that the African continent will undergo this century. More than half of Africa's population will live in its cities by 2040. In the face of rapid urbanization, there is a narrow window of opportunity to harness the potential of cities as engines of economic growth, and use this as a powerful leverage to achieve sustainable development and poverty reduction. Despite its rapid urban growth, Africa is less than halfway through the urbanization process and in some countries, a large number of people reside in rural areas. Rapid urbanization, if well managed, can curb urban sprawl, deteriorating access to services, greater inequality, and increased crime. The concentration of people in cities also elevates the risks and costs associated with extreme weather and natural disasters resulting from climate change. The World Bank Group's (WBGs) support will focus on three key areas: metropolitan areas and large cities; secondary and tertiary cities; and informal settlements. This will include both multi-sectoral investment programs that integrate a basket of services (for example...

VELO[city] : rethinking the multi-modal urban station

Dickson, Amanda, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 83, [11] p.; 6635614 bytes; 6635422 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.4%
Train travel was once integral to the urban condition. Railway stations and rural depots were designed as machines for efficiency and it was within the station that one could escape the chaos of the city to become a part of the streamlined systematization of the industrial age. The terminal, it was thought, existed as an extension of the infrastructure of the railroad and as an integral part of the metropolitan corridor. As such, the architecture of the station re sided within the two dimensional network ascribed to the city and to the Western and Midwestern landscape. This thesis explores the amplification of a static rail station typology into a dynamic and multifaceted urban organism that is activated in its integration of multiple infrastructures operating at multiple speeds of travel-- from airplane to high-speed train to subway to bus to car to pedestrian. Its mediation of multiple notions of arrival and departure results in a public space highly charged with activity; it is a connector, a facilitator, a non-place. The station program includes access to three underground subway lines (one proposed), on-grade bus connections, a secure high-speed airport train with baggage and ticket check-in, a portion of the pedestrian walkway which snakes underground through Chicago's loop...