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Romania : Public Expenditure and Institutional Review : Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
The government has embarked upon a comprehensive and difficult medium term program for reforming the public sector aimed at rebalancing the relation between revenue and spending and enhancing the efficiency and efficacy of service delivery. The Romanian economy has been hit hard by the global economic downturn. Latest estimates suggest that real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) may have contracted by around 7 percent in 2009, before modestly recovering in 2010. The severe decline in output has had a significant adverse effect on consolidated budget revenues, which fell substantially below the initial target in 2009. To prevent a further deterioration of the already large fiscal deficit, the shortfall in revenue has led to adjustments in spending. Consolidation of expenditure needs however continue in order to put public finances on a sustainable trajectory over the medium term. The report is structured in two volumes. The first volume synthesizes the menu of options suggested to reduce the short term gap between budget expenditure and revenues. It also highlights the key challenges and recommendations for improving efficiency and efficacy of spending in the sectors investigated. Volume two consists of the background analyses...

Romania : Public Expenditure and Institutional Review : Background Papers

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.88%
The government has embarked upon a comprehensive and difficult medium term program for reforming the public sector aimed at rebalancing the relation between revenue and spending and enhancing the efficiency and efficacy of service delivery. The Romanian economy has been hit hard by the global economic downturn. Latest estimates suggest that real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) may have contracted by around 7 percent in 2009, before modestly recovering in 2010. The severe decline in output has had a significant adverse effect on consolidated budget revenues, which fell substantially below the initial target in 2009. To prevent a further deterioration of the already large fiscal deficit, the shortfall in revenue has led to adjustments in spending. Consolidation of expenditure needs however continue in order to put public finances on a sustainable trajectory over the medium term. The report is structured in two volumes. The first volume synthesizes the menu of options suggested to reduce the short term gap between budget expenditure and revenues. It also highlights the key challenges and recommendations for improving efficiency and efficacy of spending in the sectors investigated. Volume two consists of the background analyses...

Regaining Fiscal Sustainability and Enhancing Effectiveness in Croatia : A Public Expenditure and Institutional Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
The report presents the macroeconomic setting, and fiscal developments in the 1990s in Croatia, a country facing an unparalleled opportunity towards sustainable growth, and integration into the European Union. Nonetheless, the country needs to sustain macroeconomic stabilization, and improve the investment climate. To this effect, public sector reform needs to be oriented to diminish the size of the state, and reduce the fiscal deficit to sustain macroeconomic stability in the medium term. Yet, the scope for reducing the deficit through revenue increases is limited, even though a decrease in the tax burden would be highly desirable. This means that most of the adjustment will need to be made in public expenditures, particularly by identifying, and implementing policies that will reduce the level of expenditures, while improving their effectiveness; thus, budgetary management improvement will be critical to this effort. The report analysis indicates that the current budget in Croatia is not a comprehensive measure of all fiscal activity...

Croatia - Regaining Fiscal Sustainability and Enhancing Effectiveness : A Public Expenditure and Institutional Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
The report presents the macroeconomic setting, and fiscal developments in the 1990s in Croatia, a country facing an unparalleled opportunity towards sustainable growth, and integration into the European Union. Nonetheless, the country needs to sustain macroeconomic stabilization, and improve the investment climate. To this effect, public sector reform needs to be oriented to diminish the size of the state, and reduce the fiscal deficit to sustain macroeconomic stability in the medium term. Yet, the scope for reducing the deficit through revenue increases is limited, even though a decrease in the tax burden would be highly desirable. This means that most of the adjustment will need to be made in public expenditures, particularly by identifying, and implementing policies that will reduce the level of expenditures, while improving their effectiveness; thus, budgetary management improvement will be critical to this effort. The report analysis indicates that the current budget in Croatia is not a comprehensive measure of all fiscal activity...

Ukraine - Review of the Budget Process : A Public Expenditure and Institutional Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.7%
This report is a companion report of the Country Financial Accountability Assessment. It presents an institutional analysis of the budget process, which is the process by which the government allocates funds to spending agencies. It analyzes the participants in the decision-making process related to spending and the institutions involved in the budgetary and financial management of government operations, as well as the modalities of preparation and execution of the budget. The report also updates the findings of the 1997 Public Expenditure Review concerning fiscal sustainability and the size and composition of public expenditure, which is discussed in an international context. Finally, the report provides recomendations on how to improve the management of public resources.

Ukraine : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
Ukraine has several strengths, such as an educated workforce, strong bookkeeping skills, and commitment to reforms, and a long-term vision of joining the European Union. In order to strengthen existing public financial accountability, Ukraine will need to build on its strength by undertaking several measures. Experience in many other countries shows that several required changes entail reaching political consensus, reforming existing institutions, or creating new institutions. This suggests that a realistic timetable for improvement in public financial accountability will have to stretch over several years and will depend on strong leadership from the top. The most important areas for action are: bringing revenues under the scope of independent external auditors; introducing the concept of internal audit; strengthening the capacity of the Accounting Chamber to conduct financial statement audits; strengthening the accountability of state owned enterprises; introducing international accounting standards for selected enterprises; adopting international best practices for licensing of audit professionals; and strengthening the disciplinary committee of the Chamber of Auditors to provide effective oversight. Other measures needed are to: train deparmtnetal staff in implementing program budgeting; fully implementing the Budget Code; expediting the implementing of the Treasury modernization project; and implementing standardized automated accounting and reporting systems.

The Republic of Uganda - Public Expenditure Review : Report on the Progress and Challenges of Budget Reforms

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%
This PER emphasizes the importance of the government and its development partners developing a systematic program and a sequenced approach to address identified concerns to allow Uganda to achieve macrostability, fiscal sustainability, and poverty reduction. The report is organized in seven chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the macro challenges Uganda faces and how these are linked to fiscal considerations. Macrostability has largely been achieved with satisfactory growth rates higher than in the previous year. But the unprecedented terms of trade shock has resulted in the decline of total receipts from exports. The reduction of foreign exchange revenues in combination with lower revenue collections has led to fiscal constraints. Chapter 2 notes the need to ensure stakeholder contribution to the budget process and to improve quality of budget planning, choices, and predictability. Chapter 3 analyzes the health, education, and water and sanitation sectors and describes the great progress made in aloocative efficiency --although these sectors are experiencing major challenges in achieving operational efficiency. Chapter 4 discusses how the government has "commitment control systems (CCSs)" to address the problem of arrears. Chapter 5 identifies how Uganda uses tracking systems to identify problems in flow of funds. Chapter 6 discusses the growing challenges for budget preparation...

The Fiscal Management of Natural Resource Revenues in a Developing Country Setting (or How to Design a Fiscal Rule If You Are Not Norway)

Eckardt, Sebastian; Sarsenov, Ilyas; Thomas, Mark Roland
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
The exhaustibility and volatility of natural resource revenues pose well-known economic challenges, of which those facing oil producers are the most prominent. If oil revenues represent an important share of export earnings and of government revenues, then they can be part of overheating during booms and costly adjustments during downturns, making fiscal policy exacerbate volatility. At the same time, considerations of intergenerational equity suggest that fiscal policy should also preserve part of current oil revenues for future generations. To address both of these challenges, resource-rich countries commonly establish commodity funds, into which part of their resource-linked revenues are deposited and invested in income-generating assets (usually offshore financial assets). A key question in designing such funds is what share of current revenues should be spent and what share saved. Based on recent advisory services offered to the Ministry of Economy and Trade in Kazakhstan, this note summarizes one possible approach...

Increasing Accountability through Budget Transparency at the Subnational Level in Cameroon

Alton, Martin Luis; Agarwal, Sanjay
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.77%
Improving governance is a major development challenge for Cameroon and for many other developing countries, and making public financial management more transparent is a central part of it. While budgets are public documents, accessible to citizens in principle, in practice, budget information is difficult to come by as a result of political, administrative, capacity, and logistical constraints as well as cost barriers at all tiers of government, including the national, regional, and municipal level and at service-delivery points like schools and health centers. In two of Cameroon s 10 regions, a World Bank-supported initiative has piloted a citizen-centered approach for disseminating simplified budget information of 151 schools, 58 health centers, and 28 municipalities and the two regional administrations. Budgets were made public and awareness was raised through various activities, including public community meetings at which the budgets of institutions were read aloud, poster campaigns, art competitions...

Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Assessment

Government of Nepal Ministry of Finance
Fonte: World Bank, Kathmandu Publicador: World Bank, Kathmandu
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
The objective of this assessment is to update the public expenditure and financial accountability (PEFA) assessment published in early 2008. The assessment is expected to assist the Government of Nepal to: (a) establish indicator led assessment of the country’s public financial management (PFM) system, (b) update the fiduciary environment of the PFM systems and processes of the country, and (c) assist in identifying those parts of the PFM system that may need further reform and development. The institutional and organizational approach taken by the Government of Nepal ensured coordination among various government institutions. The assessment included collection of additional documentation, including meeting minutes, and interviews with government counterpart teams and main stakeholders. The report was updated and refined following advice from a World Bank team. A specialist in the use of PEFA methodology assisted in the later drafts and visited Nepal in August 17-20, 2014. Meetings were held with the PEFA Secretariat at the Financial Comptroller General Office (FCGO) and with the Ministry of Finance (MoF) Budget Division. This final draft of the report addresses all the comments received up to November 31...

From Gas to Cash; Policy Options for Transferring Resource Revenues to Citizens in Mozambique

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.81%
Mozambique has enjoyed strong economic growth but poverty levels are still unacceptably high. Mozambique is now in a transition period with an opportunity to plan for how resource revenues can contribute to poverty reduction and inclusive growth. Any policy to scale-up a cash transfer program will operate with a limited budget, meaning that decisions will need to be made on the optimal design choice in Mozambique. The objective of this policy note is to generate debate on implementing a scaled-up cash transfer in Mozambique’s future resource-rich environment, as part of a broader strategy to reduce poverty. The scope of this note is focused on distributing resource revenues through a scaled-up cash transfer program, and not the broader management of resource revenues. Section one discusses growth and poverty dynamics. Section two presents the existing social protection system. Section three discusses policy options for implementing a scaled-up cash transfer program using a simulation exercise to estimate poverty and welfare effects for a given fiscal envelope. Section four discusses how to address the risks of financing a scaled-up cash transfer program from resource revenues. Section five focuses on the practicalities of how the social protection system should be strengthened to implement scaled-up cash transfer program and the final section concludes.

Socioeconomic and Fiscal Impact of Large-Scale Gold Mining in Mali

Sanoh, Aly; Coulibaly, Massaoly
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
This paper analyzes the socioeconomic, fiscal, and governance impact of gold mining in Mali. The analysis finds that, at the national level, mining plays an important role by contributing to export earnings and overall government fiscal revenue. In 2013, the mining sector represented 7 percent of gross domestic product, contributed 1.5 percent to growth in total gross domestic product, and accounted for 65 percent of total export earnings and 25 percent of total government budget revenues. At the local level, despite higher population growth, there is some evidence that outcomes (poverty and infrastructure services) are marginally better in mining communes compared with non-mining communes. Local governments receive fiscal windfalls that are spent significantly on education capital expenditures and current expenditures (salaries and non-salaries). Non-salary current expenditures are 10 times higher in mining areas. Analysis of the political economy of public service provision at the local level suggests that technical or absorptive capacities may be the bottleneck to increasing the local benefit of mining instead of corruption or accountability.

Managing Fiscal Risk in Bulgaria

Brixi, Hana Polackova; Shatalov, Sergei; Zlaoui, Leila
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.77%
To understand the fiscal position of a country, contingent liabilities and other sources of fiscal risk need to be considered. The authors develop a framework to assess and manage fiscal risk in Bulgaria. Bulgaria's Currency Board Arrangement has effectively imposed fiscal discipline, but leaves only limited room to accommodate potential fiscal shocks. Through risks embedded in the portfolio of government contingent and direct liabilities, significant fiscal pressures could arise in the future. Major sources of risk include environmental liabilities and investment requirements, collection capacities of the social protection institutions, and further engagement in off-budget programs, such as government guarantees. To limit the Government's exposure to risks, yet accommodate investment needs crucial to growth and development, Bulgaria must find an optimal strategy for liability management, fiscal reserves, and risk mitigation. Priorities for dealing with existing risks and limiting further accumulation of risks include: 1) Mitigating currency and interest rate risks in the government liability structure. 2) Implementing proposed institutional and finance reform of the country's pension and health care systems. 3) Building adequate contingency reserves. 4) Introducing risk-sharing arrangements. 5) Prioritizing and placing strict limits on the amounts of new guaranteed obligations. 6) Developing government capacity to analyze and manage risks. 7) Fully integrating fiscal risk management with other policy considerations in fiscal management...

Tajikistan : Fiscal Risks from State-Owned Enterprises

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
This policy note is part of the World Bank's Programmatic Public Expenditure Review (PER) work program for FY2012-2014. The PER consists of a series of fiscal policy notes, which aim at providing the Government of Tajikistan with recommendations to strengthen budgetary processes and analysis. This policy note, the fifth in the series continues the fiscal policy dialogue conducted in the previous notes. It is structured as follows. Chapter 2 reviews the role of state-owned enterprises (SOE) in Tajikistan's economy and identifies key issues. Chapter 3 assesses the fiscal risks posed by SOEs, especially those in the energy sector. Chapter 4 puts forth possible solutions. Chapter 5 summarizes the main conclusions of this note: 1) despite privatizations and attempts at restructuring, Tajikistan still has a large, inefficient, and heavily indebted public sector; 2) the lack of comprehensive information about the sector undermines budget credibility and budget integrity; 3) multiple but uncoordinated functions...

FYR Macedonia : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.85%
This Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) reviewed the Government of Macedonia's public expenditure management system, to identify major fiduciary risks of financial management and control. The report builds upon previous in-depth work, conducted by the Bank, and focuses on identifying areas of control risk, and making specific short- and medium-term recommendations to mitigate them. Although significant progress has been made in response to previous recommendations, much remains to be done. The report notes that a significant number of public entities operate outside of budget controls: in 2002, 40 percent of spending by the central government was conducted by extra-budgetary funds (EBFs) that are not fully integrated into the government's budgetary control and reporting processes. The government should take immediate steps to strengthen the governance structures over its EBFs, and implement its plans to bring the EBFs fully into the budget. The Ministry of Finance (MOF) should also establish appropriate oversight over all other entities outside the budget...

Armenia : Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
This is the first full scale World Bank Public Expenditure Review (PER) for Armenia. The primary objective of the Report was to review the main fiscal trends in Armenia for the period of 1997-2001 and develop recommendations with respect to further fiscal adjustment, expenditure prioritization, and budget consolidation. The report has the following structure. Chapter 1 reviews the main features of the Government's fiscal adjustment effort, initiated in the mid 90-s. It is focused on the analysis of aggregated indicators of fiscal performance such as deficit, public debt, budget arrears, and tax revenues. Chapter 2 looks at the main expenditure trends in the Armenia consolidated budget for 1997-2001 and makes an assessment of the quality and depth of expenditure restructuring undertaken in this period. Chapter 3 looks at the public sector's activities that remain non-reflected in the regular Government budget, which includes extra- budgetary funds, in-kind external grants, subsidies provided by the state-owned companies in the energy and utility sectors...

Public Expenditure Review for Armenia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.81%
This is the first full-scale World Bank Public Expenditure Review for Armenia, which reviews the main fiscal trends in the country for the period 1997-2001, and develops recommendations with respect to further fiscal adjustment, expenditure prioritization, and budget consolidation. The analysis focuses on core issues, i.e., sustainability of fiscal adjustment, fiscal transparency, expenditure priorities, and short-term expenditure management, given the existing economy-wide institutional constraints. The study covers extra-budgetary funds, in-kind external grants, subsidies provided by the state-owned companies in the energy, and utility sectors, and operations of the Social Insurance Fund, as well as regular spending. It suggests a medium-term action plan to address identified weaknesses. Sectoral chapters review health, education, and social protection and insurance. The study also analyzes budget support for core public infrastructure, and the country's public investment program.

Mauritania : Improving Budget Management to Promote Sustainable Development and Reduce Poverty, Public Expenditure Review Update; Mauritanie - Ameliorer la gestion budgetaire pour promouvoir une croissance durable et reduire la pauvrete : revue des depenses publiques actualisee

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
The Public Expenditure Review (PER) has provided a basis for analysis and action under the Public Sector Capacity Building Program(PRECASP), one of components is related to the improvement of public finance management and is expected to support the implementation of the measures proposed in this document. These analyses deal with issues closely related to this review, including (i) the problems faced by the financial sector and their impact on public finances; (ii) the issue of transparency with regards to the management of oil revenues, and (iii) medium-term and long-term macroeconomic projections that determine the prospects for growth and for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Its objectives are to identify ways to improve public financial management in the sector and to alleviate the constraints on agriculture development, with a view to increasing productivity and reducing poverty in rural areas. Moreover, the PRECASP will finance expenditure reviews in priority sectors. Oil-related research...

Uzbekistan : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
The objectives of the Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) for Uzbekistan are to (i) help the government strengthen its public sector financial accountability arrangements; (ii) identify and document the most significant fiduciary risks' in the Government public financial management systems (PFM); (iii) document the existing program of reforms and capacity building to improve transparency and accountability aspects of the PFM, making additional recommendations for capacity building, if necessary. This Report has been prepared with the overriding goal of helping the government in their efforts towards strengthening control and accountability and supporting greater efficiency of public spending. The Report examines all areas of public sector accountability, including accountability and transparency aspects of the budget, accounting and external financial reporting, revenue management, the internal control environment, internal and external audit and governance of public enterprises. The goal has been to present a forward-looking analysis of current issues...

Global Stock-Take of Social Accountability Initiatives for Budget Transparency and Monitoring : Key Challenges and Lessons Learned

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Knowledge Economy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
Budgets are key documents that lay out a government's economic priorities in terms of policies and programs. Budget transparency refers to the extent and ease with which citizens can access information about and provide feedback on government revenues, allocations, and expenditures. Budget monitoring entails using such information to analyze, critique, and track government finances in order to provide this feedback. Budget transparency is a prerequisite for public participation and accountability, which are instrumental for a democratic and legitimate budget process. Both budget transparency and monitoring efforts also help remove institutional bottlenecks that result in delayed budget allocations, thereby jeopardizing the delivery of vital services to people. Even though they have a far-reaching impact on the lives of people, opening up budgets beyond the exclusive domain of policy makers and administrators is a relatively recent phenomenon that has gained momentum in the last two decades. The stock taking exercise illustrates the range of mechanisms involved in Budget Transparency and Monitoring (BT&M) in different contexts and demonstrates significant promise of influencing governance processes and outcomes. Finally...