Página 1 dos resultados de 1396 itens digitais encontrados em 0.003 segundos

Seychelles - Selected Issues : Social Protection, Labor Market and Public Enterprise Reforms - Public Expenditure Review 2

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
Until 2008, Seychelles pursued a state-led economic model of self sufficiency which ultimately proved unsustainable. In 2008, precipitated by rising global commodity prices, Seychelles entered a balance of payments and debt crisis, as international reserves were virtually depleted and external debt service payments were missed. The Government of Seychelles responded quickly by floating the rupee and liberalizing the foreign exchange regime, and agreeing a program with the International Monetary Fund under a 2 year stand-by agreement in November 2008. Although the liberalization of the exchange rate in November 2008 led to initial inflation rates in excess of 60 percent, the relative prices shock was quickly absorbed. Annual inflation fell from a high of positive 63.3 percent in December 2008 to negative 1.0 in August 2010. As the price and foreign exchange controls were lifted, the informal market in foreign currency quickly disappeared. This Public Expenditure Review (PER) also provided the Bank with an analytical basis to inform development policy lending in 2010. The specific objectives of the review are to: (i) provide an update on the macroeconomic stabilization efforts and changes to the fiscal policy for medium term debt sustainability and a more efficient and affordable public sector; (ii) analyze key public enterprise reform issues...

Belarus Public Expenditure Review : Fiscal Reforms for a Sustainable Economic Recovery

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
Belarus faces significant fiscal challenges, stemming from the structural features of its economic model. As of mid-2011, under a severe exchange rate and balance of payments crisis, the Government needs to pursue a carefully sequenced strategy of macroeconomic adjustment coupled with a strong program of structural reforms. This programmatic Public Expenditure Review (PER) fiscal policy options to simultaneously tackle the need for fiscal consolidation as well as the structural challenges with significant fiscal linkages. The options for fiscal reform proposed in this report are estimated to generate average net fiscal savings of 3.9 percent of Gross Domestic product (GDP) annually over the medium term. Given the implied structural changes in the expenditure program, the fiscal impact of these reforms extends beyond the four year projection period.

Strengthening Local Government Budgeting and Accountability

Schaeffer, Michael; Yilmaz, Serdar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
In many developing and middle-income countries, decentralization reforms are promoting changes in governance structures that are reshaping the relationship between local governments and citizens. The success of these decentralization reforms depends on the existence of sound public financial systems both at the central and local levels. This paper focuses on the role of budgeting as a critical tool in reform efforts, highlighting problems that might impede successful local government budget development and implementation. The attainment of effective local government accountability and transparency is not an end itself, but rather it represents the means to support better decision-making on national and local budgeting. Community based schemes for enhancing local government accountability need to combine legal, political, and administrative mechanisms with proactive community involvement. Of particular importance are the legal and budgetary instruments that require input from local community members on certain local government decisions and instruments that increase accessibility for the press or the general public at large to information on government activities.

Tajikistan - Second Programmatic Public Expenditure Review : Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.68%
This report, Second Programmatic Public Expenditure Review (PPER 2), is a sequel to PPER, which was published in July 2007. PPER 2 provides a detailed analysis of key public expenditure issues in Tajikistan and reports on the nonlending policy dialogue and technical assistance programs managed and coordinated by the World Bank. PPER 2 has a special focus on social sectors, especially the health and education sectors. Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys (PETS) carried out for the first time in Tajikistan in 2007 contributed to the findings in this report. The report also updates the macroeconomic and fiscal situation to take account of important developments in 2007 and analyzes the implications of energy sector reforms and investments for fiscal sustainability. This report is intended to contribute to improving the quality of life in Tajikistan through a comprehensive reform program. It spells out the macroeconomic, energy, and budget reforms necessary to achieve the growth the country seeks and, at the same time (and frequently via the same measures) the social welfare targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Public Financial Management Reform in the Middle East and North Africa : An Overview of Regional Experience

Beschel, Robert P. Jr.; Ahern, Mark
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.9%
One of the most important functions that governments perform is mobilizing financial resources and deploying them to achieve their objectives. According to the most recent World Bank data, governments throughout the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region spent approximately US$407 billion dollars in 2007 in delivering their policy, regulatory and service functions. This report is divided into two volumes. The first volume summarizes the results and presents the conclusions of this analysis. The second provides the individual economy case studies and templates upon which many of these conclusions are based. This report seeks to reflect upon this experience and better understand the nature of the Public Financial Management (PFM) challenges confronting the economies of the MENA region. Turning to the substance of these reforms, it asks where are they performing well and where are they struggling? To what extent are these economies dealing with common problems stemming from similar administrative traditions and comparable levels of development, or unique challenges grounded within their own particular historical or bureaucratic experience? The analysis also seeks to understand the type of PFM reforms that have been implemented across the region in the last decade...

Performance-Based Budgeting and Medium-Term Expenditure Frameworks in Emerging Europe

Kąsek, Leszek; Webber, David
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.87%
In recent years, governments in many regions have adopted a wide range of reforms to make fiscal policies more consistent and effective over the medium-term and emphasize the impact of policies and spending. Two reforms - performance budgeting (PBB) and medium-term expenditure frameworks (MTEF) - have been central elements in improving the management of public finances. Both of these budget reforms have been on the agenda of most new European Union (EU) Member States and candidate countries. Six of these countries have been selected for this study: Bulgaria, Croatia, Latvia, Poland, Slovakia, and Turkey (Emerging Europe). The main purposes of this study were to (1) compile a comprehensive stock-take of the implementation of major budget reforms, including MTEF and PBB in particular; (2) identify the lessons from these experiences, including the constraints faced by these countries and some of their major challenges for the future; and (3) enable these and other countries in the region to better understand and compare these experiences and to identify some of the good practices and ideas they have developed in implementing PBB and MTEF reforms. The country reports and analysis contained in this study were based on responses to a questionnaire filled out by World Bank experts...

Syrian Arab Republic : Modernization of Public Financial Management

Radev, Dimitar; Fouad, Manal; Gardner, John; Messali, Pierre; Petrie, Murray; Webber, David
Fonte: International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
The authorities have made good recent progress in important public financial management (PFM) areas. They have strengthened the overall regulatory framework of the budget process by adopting a new basic finance law, and further deepened budget integration by transferring the responsibilities for the capital budget from the State Planning Commission (SPC) to the Ministry of Finance (MoF). They have also improved the budget presentation by providing information to parliament for selected ministries on the base of a simple program structure.The main purpose of this report is to assist the authorities in advancing their reform agenda for modernization of the PFM system. To this end, the report: Develops an action plan for PFM reform. The plan sets out specific activities in a selection of reform areas identified as priorities in discussion with the Minister of Finance, as well as the suggested timing and possible requirement of technicalassistance (TA); and elaborates, in detail, actions that need to be undertaken in four broad PFM areas as identified in the plan: (i) medium-term orientation of the budget; (ii) budget integration reforms; (iii) budgetary treatment of public economic entities; and (iv) treasury reforms. Key recommendations of the report include:Prepare a three-year fiscal forecast and link fiscal projections to an approved debtsustainability and fiscal strategy framework; present as part of the budget documentation information on the revenues and expenditures of the public economic entities; and progressively strengthen governance of the sector; gradually extend the use of programs for presentation purposes in the budget by adding up to five to six new ministries in 2010...

The Republic of Uganda - Public Expenditure Review : Report on the Progress and Challenges of Budget Reforms

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
This PER emphasizes the importance of the government and its development partners developing a systematic program and a sequenced approach to address identified concerns to allow Uganda to achieve macrostability, fiscal sustainability, and poverty reduction. The report is organized in seven chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the macro challenges Uganda faces and how these are linked to fiscal considerations. Macrostability has largely been achieved with satisfactory growth rates higher than in the previous year. But the unprecedented terms of trade shock has resulted in the decline of total receipts from exports. The reduction of foreign exchange revenues in combination with lower revenue collections has led to fiscal constraints. Chapter 2 notes the need to ensure stakeholder contribution to the budget process and to improve quality of budget planning, choices, and predictability. Chapter 3 analyzes the health, education, and water and sanitation sectors and describes the great progress made in aloocative efficiency --although these sectors are experiencing major challenges in achieving operational efficiency. Chapter 4 discusses how the government has "commitment control systems (CCSs)" to address the problem of arrears. Chapter 5 identifies how Uganda uses tracking systems to identify problems in flow of funds. Chapter 6 discusses the growing challenges for budget preparation...

Reforms under Fiscal Stress : A Policy Note on the Priorities for Fiscal and Budget Reform in Nepal

Bajracharya, Roshan Darshan; Biletska, Nataliya; Rajaram, Anand
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.88%
This note, first of the several on fiscal management and policy option notes planned, provides a concise assessment of the achievements to date of the ongoing reforms to budget management in Nepal and concludes with some guidance on the key focus areas of fiscal policy and expenditure management over the near and medium term. It is a selective assessment that looks at major aspects of the policy and budget process with a view to identifying areas for strategic focus, rather than a detailed rendering of the reforms. The note highlights the fiscal challenges that are assuming increasing prominence and which must be addressed by policy decisions and medium term reforms. While recognizing the uniqueness of Nepal's initial conditions, capacities and current security related challenges, the note takes account of international experience in implementing such reforms. The note starts with the economic and political background. The second section reviews fiscal trends and outlines issues to be considered by a fiscal strategy. The third section discusses institutional issues to strengthen the budget process.

Tajikistan : Public Expenditure and Institutional Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
his Public Expenditure and Institutional Review is part of a package of analytical and advisory service products aimed at assisting the government and Tajikistan's other development partners to develop a medium- to long-term strategy for public sector reform to support the government's poverty reduction objectives. Specifically, this review aims to contribute to the developing a reform strategy by examining four cross-cutting areas for public expenditure management system: (1) policy formulation and organization of the government, including public administration and human resource issues; (2) the budget development and management process; (3) intergovernmental issues and local government reforms; and (4) public investment program planning and process. The report makes short- and long-term recommendations, including establishing a formal priority setting structure, appointing a head of the reform management structures with a clear mandate, amending the legal framework, restructuring the President's administration, reforming the civil service, setting budget ceilings, making all public documents and reports available to the public, improving the external audit framework, amending the public finance law, developing methods to evaluate and select public investment and centralized state investment project...

Russia : Fiscal Costs of Structural Reforms

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.84%
This Report discusses the challenge of budget financing of core structural reforms, within a broader framework of fiscal management reforms in Russia. It argues that explicit financing of structural reforms is fully justifiable because these are the investments in the institutional infrastructure with a high rate of return. Furthermore, Russia currently appears to have fiscal room for some incremental spending. However, the number of simultaneous reform initiatives, should be kept limited to ensure that the accumulation of new liabilities do not undermine fiscal sustainability. In addition, the Government's commitment to explicit reform financing should be accompanied by additional steps in strengthening the fiscal management system. The adoption of formal fiscal rules could strengthen the government's ability to manage external shocks, as well as provide budget support for the reform process in a predictable and affordable way. The Report develops estimates for fiscal costs of three key structural reforms (in civil service, housing, and the pension system), reviews the feasibility of different reform options, and provides recommendations related to their planning and sequencing. Key structural reforms are seen as medium-term projects/programs...

Republic of Burundi - Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review (PEMFAR) : Improving Allocative Efficiency and Governance of Public Expenditure and Investing in Public Capital to Accelerate Growth and Reduce Poverty; Burundi - Revue de la Gestion des Depenses Publiques et de la Responsabilite Financiere (PEMFAR) : ameliorer l'efficacite des allocations el de la gouvernance des depenses publiques et investir dans Ie capital public pour accelerer la croissance et reduire la pauvrete

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
This report addresses key issues on macroeconomic stability, efficient allocation of public expenditures, public sector staffing, and public finance management. The fiscal sustainability analysis carried out for this report indicates that serious adjustments will be needed to improve Burundi's fiscal stance; reforms that are complicated by the challenges of rebuilding the country's social and physical infrastructure after years of conflict. The report also examines the measures necessary to establish a sound public expenditure management system aimed at promoting fiscal discipline and the efficient and effective operational performance of the public sector to ensure appropriate allocation of resources based on agreed strategic priorities, with particular attention to key economic and social sectors (education, health, and infrastructure). The report also identifies constraints to effective implementation of Public Finance Management (PFM) reforms and defines the elements of a short and medium-term action plan to overcome these constraints. The action plan matrix...

Nigeria - A Fiscal Agenda for Change : Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review, Volume 2. Executive Summary

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Integrated Fiduciary Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.81%
This report reviews the trends in expenditure patterns in public financial management (PFM) in Nigeria since 2001, and assesses the impact thus far of the ongoing government reform efforts. The public expenditure management and financial accountability review (PEMFAR) covers areas that have been traditionally undertaken by separate Bank reports such as the public expenditure reviews (PER), the country financial accountability assessment (CFAA), and the country procurement assessment review (CPAR). This analysis covers fiscal policies and performance at both federal and state government levels. The PEMFAR is a consolidated diagnostic tool designed to enhance Bank, development partners' and member countries' knowledge of PFM arrangements and reform challenges. The core objective of the Nigeria PEMFAR is to advise the Government (federal and participating states) on how (i) to better focus and sequence its PFM, including the procurement reform agenda within a broader economic reform framework, and (ii) identify directions and instruments of restructuring its expenditure patterns on both macro and sectoral levels. The PEMFAR also aims to inform international development partners on how they could provide more efficient support for the PFM reforms in Nigeria by identifying the main bottlenecks within the existing reform process.

FYR of Macedonia : Public Expenditure and Institutional Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
The review was undertaken, and completed against a background of substantial political economic disruption: the Kosovo crisis of 1999 threatened to undermine the country's accomplishments in building macroeconomic, and fiscal stability; and, the security crisis of 2001, tested once again Macedonia's political, and economic integrity. Both instances were successfully surpassed, showing significant steps towards becoming a market oriented state within the European context, and, in its willingness to accept, and ratify the Peace Agreement of November 2001. But, expenditure pressures rose, leading to additional spending, while revenues declined owing to economic weakness, and decreased tax enforcement; clearly, fiscal stability stands on the balance. Not surprising, the quality of expenditures became an important issue, for although acceptable aggregate targets were being achieved, the budget's economic composition was not suited for promoting economic growth. Institutional aspects show that budget preparation...

Incentive Compatible Reforms : The Political Economy of Public Investments in Mongolia

Hasnain, Zahid
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
Why do politicians distort public investments? And given that public investments are poor because presumably that is what is politically rational, what types of reforms are likely to be both efficiency improving and compatible with the interests of politicians? This paper explores these two questions in the context of Mongolia. It argues that Mongolian members of parliament have an incentive to over-spend on smaller projects that bring benefits to specific geographical localities and to under-spend on large infrastructure that would bring economic benefits to Mongolia on the whole. The incentive for the former is that members of parliament internalize the political benefits from the provision of particular, targeted benefits to specific communities. The disincentive for the latter is that large infrastructure carries a political risk because the political faction in control of that particular ministry would have access to huge rents and become politically too powerful. The identity of these "winners" is uncertain ex ante...

Uganda - Public Expenditure Review 2003 : Supporting Budget Reforms at the Central and Local Government Levels

World Bank
Fonte: Washington DC Publicador: Washington DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.64%
This 2003 Public Expenditure Review (PER) report addresses budget process challenges, at both the central and local government (LG) levels, highlighting the progress made, and identifying challenges for the future. The first chapter reviews country economic performance over the previous year and its implications for fiscal performance. In addition to tracking the various macroeconomic indicator trends, the chapter highlights areas of challenge in the economy, and includes an expanded section on the challenges of managing the recent fiscal deficit trends. Chapter 2 discusses the budget process, including issues concerning the preparation of the budget, the roles of the sector working groups, and progress made in the preparation of sector budget framework papers. The chapter also comments on the quality and depth of participation of various stakeholders in the budget process. Chapter 3 addresses budget execution challenges in Uganda during the last budget cycle. Problems encountered in budget execution - non-programmed allocation of resources during the course of the year...

Intergovernmental Reforms in the Russian Federation : One Step Forward, Two Steps Back?

De Silva, Migara O.; Kurlyandskaya, Galina; Andreeva, Elena; Golovanova, Natalia
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
Intergovernmental reforms in the Russian Federation: one step forward, two steps back? Is a critical analysis of Russia's intergovernmental reform program which began in the early 1990s. It assesses the effects of a broad range of reforms adopted over two tumultuous decades during which the Russian Federation experienced significant, and at times drastic, political regime changes, coupled with a similarly turbulent economic growth trajectory. This environment reshaped intergovernmental relations, requiring certain fiscal responsibilities to be delegated to the sub-national levels. These reforms, however, were not always accompanied by the kinds of administrative and political structures required to support a truly devolved system of intergovernmental fiscal relations. As this study indicates, in recent years there has been a tendency to recentralize some powers that had been granted to sub-national governments under earlier reforms, a trend that may call into question the future of fiscal decentralization in the federation. Moreover...

Nepal : Public Expenditure Review, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
The report is an overview of Nepal's economic development, comprising five volumes, which include the main report, followed by reviews on agricultural and rural development, on the social sectors, and, the transport sector. Although development progress is noteworthy in many areas, considerable evidence of improper resource spending exist, thus, the main objective of this report is to identify the incentives, and institutional factors that contributed to this spending, and propose recommendations. Systemic factors have consistently hindered implementation, and development results, such as deficient budget planning, resource allocation, and expenditure management, coupled with the lack of ownership of projects, and programs which contributed to poor performance. Institutional weakness, and governance issues remain the most critical aspects affecting effectiveness of public spending across sectors in Nepal. The report suggests that traditional budget reforms alone, will not be effective to improve public resource management...

Global Stock-Take of Social Accountability Initiatives for Budget Transparency and Monitoring : Key Challenges and Lessons Learned

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Knowledge Economy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66%
Budgets are key documents that lay out a government's economic priorities in terms of policies and programs. Budget transparency refers to the extent and ease with which citizens can access information about and provide feedback on government revenues, allocations, and expenditures. Budget monitoring entails using such information to analyze, critique, and track government finances in order to provide this feedback. Budget transparency is a prerequisite for public participation and accountability, which are instrumental for a democratic and legitimate budget process. Both budget transparency and monitoring efforts also help remove institutional bottlenecks that result in delayed budget allocations, thereby jeopardizing the delivery of vital services to people. Even though they have a far-reaching impact on the lives of people, opening up budgets beyond the exclusive domain of policy makers and administrators is a relatively recent phenomenon that has gained momentum in the last two decades. The stock taking exercise illustrates the range of mechanisms involved in Budget Transparency and Monitoring (BT&M) in different contexts and demonstrates significant promise of influencing governance processes and outcomes. Finally...

Indonesia : Budget Reform Strategy Priorities

Allen, R.; Eckardt, S.; Jacobs, D.; Kristensen, J.; Lienert, I.; Schiavo-Campo, S.
Fonte: International Monetory Fund and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: International Monetory Fund and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.82%
This report is designed to assist the authorities develop an overall road map for reforming budget preparation. A specific focus is on the steps to be taken to introduce a medium-term framework for the central government's budget and a performance-based budget. These reforms require important preconditions to be in place, and a substantial change in the culture, incentives and behavior of the public service, and are likely to take several years to complete. Successive Indonesian governments have embarked on various reforms in the budget and public financial management system. New laws for governing budget and planning processes were adopted during 2003-04, which are gradually being implemented. The national development planning agency (BAPPENAS) and spending ministries have developed strategic government and ministerial plans that provide a basis for elaborating the framework for performance measurement and evaluation. Reforms are thus starting from a secure base and can also take advantage of the improved and stable macroeconomic and fiscal conditions...