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Determinantes do consumo de famílias com idosos e sem idosos com base na pesquisa de orçamentos familiares de 1995/96.; Determinants of consumption from families with and without elderly basead on a household budget survey 1995/96.

Almeida, Alexandre Nunes de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/10/2002 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
Com o aumento no número de pessoas idosas devido ao aumento da expectativa de vida e diminuição das taxas de natalidade, esse trabalho partiu da hipótese de que o idoso, além de apresentar uma forte demanda por cuidados médicos, também têm uma demanda crescente por outros tipos de bens e serviços, como, por exemplo, cosméticos e viagens. Ademais, a importância desse grupo, com sua renda mais estável oriunda dos benefícios da seguridade social e uso de ativos ou bens acumulados, altera de forma significativa a estrutura de consumo da família na qual pertence, criando uma forte relação de interdependência com os filhos e netos. O objetivo principal do presente trabalho foi analisar, através de alguns determinantes sócio-econômicos, o comportamento de consumo das famílias com idosos chefes e famílias que não apresentavam nenhum indivíduo com mais de 60 anos, nas principais áreas metropolitanas brasileiras, Distrito Federal e Goiânia. A base de dados utilizada corresponde a Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 1995/96 do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Inicialmente, na revisão de literatura, foram mencionados os principais aspectos demográficos que estão causando o envelhecimento populacional...

Orçamento público : o instrumento da gestão; Public Budget: the instrument management

Costa, Marcelo Luis da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
Este trabalho objetivou analisar a relevância do orçamento como instrumento da gestão pública, demonstrando o impacto das informações contábeis, onde e quando se possibilita o acréscimo de sua eficiência e a identificação imediata de distorções que podem gerar problemas aos gestores públicos. Para maior correlação entre orçamento, informações contábeis e administração pública que favoreça a comunidade, será apresentada uma breve análise da importância das informações contábeis e da escrituração nas gestões públicas, ressaltando entre outros aspectos o papel das informações nas modalidades de gestão e as vantagens dessas informações para o orçamento público. Por fim, o orçamento público é tratado como recurso democrático para que a comunidade possa participar da administração pública valendo-se dos princípios orçamentários, os quais são concebidos como premissas a serem observadas na concepção e execução das leis orçamentárias e, desta forma, favorecendo a participação da sociedade na gestão da máquina pública.; This study aimed to analyze the relevance of the budget as an instrument of public management, demonstrating the impact of accounting information, when and where possible the increase of its efficiency and immediate identification of distortions that can cause problems for public managers. For greater correlation between budget and accounting information administration that favors the community...

Determinants of fiscal budget volatility in old versus new EU member states

Mara, Eugenia-Ramona
Fonte: ISEG - Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG - Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
In this study we perform an analysis of the volatility of the budget deficit for EU countries. We address this issue starting from the new requirements of fiscal discipline imposed by the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance adopted by 25 European Union member states and taking into account the economic crisis impact. The major purpose of this study is to identify the most significant determinants of budget deficit volatility in a comparative study for old EU member states and New Member States (NMS). This study aims to test the impact of macroeconomic variables such as public expenditures, economic growth rate, and unemployment on the budget balance volatility, based on panel data. The final purpose of the article is to reveal the strategies to stop the immense increase in fiscal deficits and to regain fiscal stability to fulfil the new rules of fiscal governance. We anticipate that the implementation of this new fiscal discipline requires a more efficient public sector for both old and NMS and a reconsideration of state intervention in the economy.

Reducing the Transaction Costs of Development Assistance : Ghana’s Multi-Donor Budget Support (MDBS) Experience from 2003 to 2007

Cavalcanti, Carlos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
This paper examines whether the structure of the Multi-Donor Budget Support (MDBS) in Ghana evolved over time to minimize transaction costs commonly found in accessing and delivering development assistance in multi-donor settings. While the MDBS was expected to reduce the transaction costs involved in dealing with multiple development agencies, it created three additional sources of transaction costs: coordination failures, the costs of collective action, and measurement costs. The answer that emerges from this paper is that the structure of the MDBS evolved to mitigate these transaction costs. The problems associated with coordination was addressed by delegating the policy dialogue to sector-specific groups aimed at reaching agreements over a narrower set of issues and amongst a smaller group of participants. Also, the MDBS reduced the cost of collective action by devising rules that allowed all the participating agencies to have a role in the decision-making process, and, in doing so, encouraged these agencies to increase the share of their contribution coming through the MDBS...

Population Age Structure and the Budget Deficit

Chen, Derek H. C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
The author focuses on the effects of age structure changes on the size of budget deficits of national governments. More specifically, he determines whether differences in age structure can account for the observed differences in budget deficits across countries as well as across time. By way of an extension of the untested theory of negative bequest motives advocated by Cukierman and Meltzer (1989), the author argues that the commonly accepted notion that population aging tends to increase the budget deficits of economies is theoretically consistent. However, preliminary results from country and time fixed-effects panel regressions, estimated from 1975 to 1992 over 55 industrial and developing countries, indicate statistical evidence for this postulation is present only in the developing countries but not in the industrial countries.

Political Budget Cycles and the Organization of Political Parties

Hanusch, Marek; Keefer, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
This paper introduces a new explanation for political budget cycles: politicians have stronger incentives to increase spending around elections in the presence of younger political parties. Previous research has shown that political budget cycles are larger when voters are uninformed about politician characteristics and when politicians are less credible. The effects of party age can be traced to organizational differences between younger and older parties that also affect voter information and politician credibility. Parties organized around particular individuals, rather than around policy labels or a party machine, are less likely to survive the departure of party leaders, to adopt organizational attributes that promote voter information and political credibility, and to limit political budget cycles. Previous research has also shown larger political budget cycles in younger democracies. Evidence presented here indicates that party age accounts for this effect.

Cameroon Budget Transparency Initiative : Lessons Learned and Recommendations for Local Councils

Agarwal, Sanjay; Alton, Martin Luis; Bove, Abel; Ngounoue, Victoire; Perrot, Vincent
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
From 2011 to 2013, the World Bank-financed Budget Transparency Initiative1 has conducted a number of activities in the North-West and Adamawa Regions to make local council budgets more transparent and accessible to citizens. The pilot project developed and tested a number of tools and activities to increase the budget transparency of local councils and, in the process, to learn lessons about their efficacy. Based on the lessons learned dur¬ing the implementation of the pilot, this brief summarizes recommendations that are relevant to policy makers interested in scaling up efforts at increasing budget transparency at the local level.

Empowering Citizens through Budget Transparency in the North-West and Adamawa Regions

Agarwal, Sanjay
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
Citizens often lack information on the use of public funds. They are usually left out of allocation decisions and do not have opportuni¬ties to provide adequate and timely feedback on the use of scarce resources. Transparency in budgetary processes reduces opportu¬nities for wasteful and corrupt spending. As a consequence, and because it can increase trust in authorities and lead to enhanced tax collections, budget transparency could increase resources avail¬able to fight poverty. Therefore, with support from the World Bank, two regions in Cameroon (the North-West and Adamawa) piloted an initiative to promote greater budget transparency with three objectives: simplification, analysis, and disclosure of budgets at multiple levels (national, regional, divisional, municipal, school, and health center); awareness and capacity-building of government officials and local/regional institutions to promote public dialogue about public expenditures by encouraging demand-side governance; and documentation and dissemination of activities. In both the regions...

The Army's readiness crisis: the cost of doing too much with too little

Wilberding, David J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 83 p.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; To improve its declining combat readiness the Army is requesting a significant budget increase. The Army plans to use the increase for primarily improving quality of. life issues. This thesis argues that this plan is inadequate and will result in only marginal readiness gains. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the underlying causes of the readiness crisis and to offer an alternative framework for reversing the decline. This thesis begins by defining readiness from the perspectives of operational and structural readiness. It then explores the critical readiness questions of: What should be ready? What should it be ready for? and When should it be ready? The thesis also examines the impact of the drawdown and commitments to peace operations (POs) on Army readiness. To illustrate the influence of these variables on readiness, this thesis develops a readiness threshold model that measures the capacity of a given force to participate in POs before its readiness deteriorates. By using the model to analyze the current size of the force in relation to its PO commitments, this thesis finds that the cost of doing too much with too little is a reduction in the Army's combat readiness. The thesis concludes by examining both policy implications and prescriptions derived from this study.; http://www.archive.org/details/armysreadinesscr00wilb; Captain...

Analysis of Camp Pendleton California Medical Treatment Facility budget and execution process

Constantino, Dominador D.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xii, 93 p. ; 28 cm.
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
MBA Professional Report; This research project evaluates the budgeting and execution process of Camp Pendleton Medical Treatment Facility (MTF) and how the proposed prospective payment system (PPS) impacts the traditional way of funding MTFs. The research analyzes the budgetary policies and practices of MTF, how the MTF fits in the overall budgeting process of the Navy via Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (BUMED), how the MTF formulate and execute budgets, how to validate increase in departmental budget request, what are the budgetary responsibilities of Comptroller and major stakeholders (i.e. MTF Department Heads, Branch Medical Clinic Officer in Charge, OPTAR Holders), and what internal controls are in place to monitor obligation and execution of funds. BUMED is currently in the state of changing the methods it employs in funding MTFs to efficiently control the ever increasing cost of health care and be able to support its mission and align Defense Health Program (DHP) with the Department of Defense's budget which is facing budgetary constraints. Assistant Secretary of Defense Health Affairs plans to implement the PPS which is similar to a performance based budgeting process that focuses on value rather than cost of health care. The research also evaluates how the MTF prepares for the transition into the new budgeting process.

Navy advertising -- from budget to execution: a trend analysis of national advertising awareness

Tannahill, Sheryl L.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 67 p.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; Military recruiting and advertising expenditures by the United States Navy totaled $42.6 million in 1995. Commander, Navy Recruiting Command (CNRC) is responsible for executing the Navy's advertising budget. The problems faced by CNRC lie in determining if the FY 1994 and FY 1995 increases in advertising dollars fulfilled their objective of increasing national awareness. This study examines the increases in Navy national general enlisted advertising budgets to determine if additional spending resulted in (1) an increase in national awareness among the target population, as measured by the number of leads, or inquiries, generated, and (2) an increase in the influence of advertising on new recruits, as measured by the New Recruit Survey (NRS) responses during the period July 1994 through August 1995. To provide an analysis of the effects of advertising expenditures, this thesis investigates national advertising data by media type (television, radio, magazine, and direct mail), and the number of leads generated at the Navy Recruiting District (NRD) level. Due to data limitations, findings of this study are limited. Correlations between advertising expenditures and leads generated at the recruiting district level revealed little interdependence; however...

What are the potential immediate and long-term implications of budget cuts made within Customs and Border Protection and other law enforcement agencies in Australia?

Zeltzer, Anna
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
Australia's national security priorities are currently being placed at risk due to recent budget reductions in law enforcement, specifically in border protection. There are two main reasons for these reductions. The first is a tight fiscal environment and the second is the implementation of a new plan within Customs and Border Protection that is intended to create a more efficient agency that relies on a 'risk-based intelligence-lead' approach. Unfortunately, this plan has yet to prove its worth. On the contrary, it has not yet been properly reviewed or assessed by the Government for proficiency but several weaknesses have been found in its operational profiling and alerts system that have made Australia's border particularly vulnerable to terrorist organizations and international crime syndicates. No longer are cargo consignments or passengers being mass screened, rather the new plan has reduced air cargo inspections by 76% and sea cargo inspections by 24%. Reductions in inspections are dangerous now and will only become more so in the future as passenger and cargo numbers are predicted to increase dramatically over the next decade. Reduced inspections mean that more illicit substances and people smugglers are likely to cross our borders. Illicit substances include drugs...

Comprehensive Public Expenditure Review 2013 : Eye on Budget - Spending for Results; Kenya - Toleo lililorahisishwa uchunguzi wa matumizi ya pesa za umma : tathmini ya bajeti - matumizi yenye matokeo bora

Ministry of Devolution and Planning
Fonte: Government of Kenya, Nairobi Publicador: Government of Kenya, Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
This public expenditure review (PER) provides an assessment of the extent to which expenditure addresses national priorities in an effort to strengthen the link between government policies, planning, and budgeting. This report is prepared to provide a critical assessment of public spending, challenges, weaknesses, and successes in the past three years (2009 to 2012). The report subsequently informs current and future expenditure through policies that influence budget decisions. It links public expenditure to performance of key sectors in the economy for the three year period; while giving policy and performance outlook focusing on the implementation of the constitution of Kenya 2010 in general and devolution in particular. This report gives an outline on sector performance of programs and reviews expenditures for the period. It provides recommendations to improve implementation of the budget in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, timeliness, and target for better service delivery. This report accentuates the institutional reforms underpinned in the constitution of Kenya 2010 and explores the opportunities to catalyze Kenya's growth as envisaged in the economic blue print...

Vietnam Fiscal Transparency Review : Analysis and Stakeholder Feedback on State Budget Information in the Public Domain

World Bank
Fonte: Hanoi Publicador: Hanoi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Accountability Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
Vietnam has come far in improving fiscal transparency. Building on these gains could help strengthen macroeconomic management, improve market perceptions of risk, and increase accountability for service delivery. Fiscal transparency is an important element of the Government's policy dialogue with development partners, particularly in the context of ongoing budgetary support. External reviews of PFM and fiscal transparency in Vietnam have noted important progress though highlighted considerable scope for improvement. This report aims to complement ongoing PFM reviews, including the Government's Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessment, to help identify relatively low cost measures to strengthen fiscal transparency. It draws on existing diagnostic approaches to carry out a technical review on the public availability of fiscal information (section B), and the coverage, comprehensiveness and presentation of fiscal reports (sections C and D).

Budget Rules and Resource Booms : A Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Analysis

Devarajan, Shantayanan; Dissou, Yazid; Go, Delfin S.; Robinson, Sherman
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
This paper develops a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model to analyze and derive simple budget rules in the face of volatile public revenue from natural resources in a low-income country like Niger. The simulation results suggest three policy lessons or rules of thumb. When a resource price change is positive and temporary, the best strategy is to save the revenue windfall in a sovereign fund, and use the interest income from the fund to raise citizens' consumption over time. This strategy is preferred to investing in public capital domestically, even when private investment benefits from an enhanced public capital stock. Domestic investment raises the prices of domestic goods, leaving less money for government to transfer to households; public investment is not 100 percent effective in raising output. In the presence of a negative temporary resource price change, however, the best strategy is to cut public investment. This strategy dominates other methods, such as trimming government transfers to households...

Cape Verde - Enhancing Planning and Control to Increase Efficiency of Public Spending : Synthesis; Melhorar o planeamento e o controlo para aumentar a eficiencia da despesa publica : revisao das despesas publicas

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
A Public Expenditure Review (PER) update was conducted in 2006 which highlighted: (i) the large and increasing weight of non-discretionary expenditures in the total budget; (ii) the importance of improving coordination among the various planning instruments; (iii) the need to strengthen public finance management; (iv) the fiscal risks that emerge from the energy sector; and (v) the need to further progress with the pension reform. During 2006-07 the Government implemented several of the 2006 PER update recommendations. Building on the findings of the 2006 PER update, in mid 2007 the Government and the World Bank decided to prepare jointly an updated PER that would inform the preparation of the second Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (GPRSP-2) and the Country Assistance Strategy (CAS). The objectives of the PER were to: (i) examine recent macro and fiscal developments (chapter one and two); (ii) provide an update of the strengths and shortcomings of the public finance management system, the recent reforms implemented in this area and the new emerging challenges (chapter three); (iii) conduct an analysis of the fiscal decentralization issues...

Cape Verde - Enhancing Planning to Increase Efficiency of Public Spending : Background chapters

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
A Public Expenditure Review (PER) update was conducted in 2006 which highlighted: (i) the large and increasing weight of non-discretionary expenditures in the total budget; (ii) the importance of improving coordination among the various planning instruments; (iii) the need to strengthen public finance management; (iv) the fiscal risks that emerge from the energy sector; and (v) the need to further progress with the pension reform. During 2006-07 the Government implemented several of the 2006 PER update recommendations. Building on the findings of the 2006 PER update, in mid 2007 the Government and the World Bank decided to prepare jointly an updated PER that would inform the preparation of the second Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (GPRSP-2) and the Country Assistance Strategy (CAS). The objectives of the PER were to: (i) examine recent macro and fiscal developments (chapter one and two); (ii) provide an update of the strengths and shortcomings of the public finance management system, the recent reforms implemented in this area and the new emerging challenges (chapter three); (iii) conduct an analysis of the fiscal decentralization issues...

Burkina Faso : The Budget as Centerpiece of PRSP Implementation, Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
This Public expenditure Review (PER) builds on budget procedures and budget implementation, following three years of Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) implementation. It reviews progress in budget management, and budget priorities, proposes a closer institutional integration of programmatic budgeting with the PRSP process, and reviews recent developments, and expenditure policies in the health, and education sectors. The PER focuses on the budget process, which is formally transparent, but reallocations made throughout the budget preparation process are not always based on clear criteria. Budget information is available to the government and donors during the year, but not to the wider public, who has to rely on PRSP progress reports, and budget execution reports. Overall, further progress is needed in providing timely information to the public on budget preparation, and execution. Notably, the PRSP process and the availability of HIPC funds, led to a substantial increase of expenditure in priority areas (education, health, rural development) and similarly, core priority areas (primary education, primary health, and rural development), doubling per-capita spending between 1998 and 2002. However, little of the additional spending was for recurrent expenditure...

Peru’s Comprehensive Health Insurance and New Challenges for Universal Coverage

Francke, Pedro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
This case study analyzes the progress of Peru's Comprehensive Health Insurance (SIS) and evaluates the challenges that remain to achieving universal health care coverage. Peru is an upper-middle-income country with a gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of just over US$10,000 (purchasing power parity). The country has grown rapidly in the last decade; the average growth rate was 6.5 percent. However, 28 percent of the population lives in poverty (2011), which is estimated with regionally differentiated poverty lines between US$1 and US$2 per capita per day. In addition, only one in four individuals has employment with social security coverage. The SIS aims to reduce economic barriers through the elimination of user fees for a package of services. Although its budget has been low, the SIS has played an important role in the reduction of maternal and child mortality. However, the improvements expected to the overall health system have not materialized. Meanwhile, when the decentralization process transferred funds and authority to the regions, it did so in a context of weak management capabilities, and it failed to clearly define the relationship between the national and regional governments. A major effort to strengthen the technical capacity of the Ministry of Health (MOH) should accompany the strategies outlined above. This effort should emphasize a review of health priorities...

Budget and discharges of nutrients to the Gulf of California of a semi-intensive shrimp farm (NW Mexico)

Miranda,Anselmo; Voltolina,Domenico; Frías-Espericueta,Martín Gabriel; Izaguirre-Fierro,Gildardo; Rivas-Vega,Martha Elisa
Fonte: UAM, Unidad Iztapalapa, Publicador: UAM, Unidad Iztapalapa,
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
A previous study conducted in 1998 assessed yearly nutrient discharge by the Sinaloa and Sonora shrimp farms to the coastal areas of the Gulf of California (1,509.4 and 438.7 tons of N and P corresponding to 2.1 and 1.05% of the total nutrient discharges to the Gulf along those two states coastlines). However, that estimate did not take into account other nutrient sources, nor the high daily water exchanges of the farms of Sonora, that are likely to increase the calculated amount of nutrients discharged. The evaluation of the nutrient budget of one semi-intensive shrimp farm of Sonora, including the nutrient sources not measured in other studies, showed that during one production cycle this farm discharged 547 kg N·ha-1 and 73 kg P·ha-1, with respective net exports of 122 kg N·ha-1 and 14 kg P·ha-1. Based on the results of this study, the recalculated totals for Sinaloa and Sonora, including rivers, agricultural runoff, and urban wastewater were 77,007.7 and 38,108.3 tons of N and P, and those of shrimp farms 3,556 tons of N and 620.7 tons of P (4.8 and 1.6%). The total discharges of 2003 may be estimated at 78,798.2 and 38,874.1 tons of N and P. In view of its high groth rate, the contributions of shrimp culture would be 10.1% and 3.3%.