Página 1 dos resultados de 86 itens digitais encontrados em 0.002 segundos

Broadband for Africa : Developing Backbone Communications Networks

Williams, Mark D. J.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
Many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa see information and communication technology (ICT) as a necessary foundation for long-term economic development. While the region has been very successful in increasing access to basic voice communications, there has been no comparable improvement in broadband connectivity. In fact, the broadband access gap between Sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world is getting wider just as the gap in basic voice communications is getting smaller. Increasing access to broadband connectivity is therefore emerging as a high priority for policy makers across the continent. This book begins with a brief review of the ICT market and considers the extent of demand for broadband and the ICT services that high-capacity backbone networks make possible. This is followed by a review of the existing coverage of backbone networks in the region, a discussion of how this compares with other parts of the world, and an analysis of the possible explanations for the current pattern of network development. Finally...

Building Broadband : Strategies and Policies for the Developing World

Kim, Yongsoo; Kelly, Tim; Raja, Siddhartha
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.71%
This book suggests an ecosystem approach to broadband policy that could help in the design of strategies, policies, and programs that support network expansion, have the potential to transform economies, improve the quality and range of services, enable application development, and broaden adoption among users. To identify emerging best practices to nurture this ecosystem, this volume analyzes the Republic of Korea and other leading broadband markets. It identifies three building blocks to support the growth of the broadband ecosystem: defining visionary but flexible strategies, using competition to promote market growth, and facilitating demand. An important but often neglected building block is demand facilitation. This includes raising awareness about the benefits of broadband and improving affordability and accessibility for the largest number of users. Successful countries have often focused on creating a suite of useful applications that increase the relevance of broadband to the widest base of users. Programs to mainstream information and communication technology (ICT) use in education...

The Little Data Book on Information and Communication Technology 2011

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Since the late 1990s access to information and communication technologies has seen tremendous growth, driven primarily by the wireless technologies and liberalization of telecommunications markets. Mobile communications have evolved from simple voice and text services to diversified innovative applications and mobile broadband internet. The number of mobile cellular subscriptions reached approximately 4.7 billion globally, including people in remote and rural areas. The number of Internet users has risen constantly and now tops 1.8 billion people, with the number of broadband connections more than 470 million in 2009. The little data book on information and communication technology 2011 charts the progress of this revolution for 213 countries around the world. It provides comparable statistics on the sector for 2000 and 2009 across a range of indicators, enabling readers to readily compare countries. This book includes indicators covering the economic and social context, the structure of the information and communication technology sector...

Options to Increase Access to Telecommunications Services in Rural and Low-Income Areas

Muente-Kunigami, Arturo; Navas-Sabater, Juan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
Recent evidence suggests that increasing overall service coverage and promoting access to telecommunications services have a high economic benefit. Overall, it is estimated that a ten percent increase in mobile telephony penetration could increase economic growth by 0.81 percent in developing countries, whereas a ten percent increase in broadband penetration could increase economic growth by 1.4 percent. In rural and low-income areas in particular, not only do basic telephony services and broadband access allow population to connect with relatives and friends, but they have also introduced a dramatic increase in productivity and in many cases have become the only way for small and medium enterprises in rural areas to access national and, in some cases, global markets. Moreover, the impact of access to telecommunications in rural areas on health, education, disaster management, and local governments has allowed better and more rapid responses, improved coordination, and more effective public management. It is therefore worthwhile to take a second look at all possible policy options...

Internet Access : Regulatory Levers for a Knowledge Economy

Mustafa, Mohammad A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.33%
Internet access depends on four critical players: First, providers of telecommunications infrastructure (bandwidth capacity) for international access to the global Internet backbone. Second, providers of national long-distance telecommunications transmission capacity (such as leased lines) to connect Internet service providers (ISPs) with one another and with international connectivity nodes. Third, providers of local loop access (narrowband and analogue, such as traditional copper wire connections, or broadband and digital, such as digital subscriber lines [DSL], cable television modems, and fixed wireless service). Fourth, ISPs, which provide Internet services to customers using these layers of networks. Expanding Internet access requires cooperative behavior by these players, and regulators have a key role in ensuring such behavior. A regulatory strategy for doing so focuses on promoting the telecommunications infrastructure, enabling viable ISPs, ensuring efficient pricing, maintaining appropriate service quality...

Broadband Wireless Access in Egypt

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
This paper discusses current and future developments in wireless technology and infastructure in Egypt. One of the important regulatory decisions made in Egypt is that policy related to broadband wireless will be technology neutral. Consequently, the regulator cannot decide about which operators should use specific technologies. This approach is beneficial for the overall development of the market and deployment of networks because: It allows operators and service providers to decide on which technology or mix of technologies is best for given service and market requirements, budget outlays, and deployment scenarios. Such an approach promotes technical and economic efficiency since each service providerwill attempt to maximize revenues and their subscriber base. The flexibility allows the regulator to ensure that the market can deploy the latest technology with the least regulatory overhead. Allowing only one technology into the market place will restrict the range of choices available to consumers.

Socio-Economic Assessment of Broadband Development in Egypt

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
The Government of Egypt has recognized broadband as being of strategic importance to the country´s economic and social development and it is developing a new strategy to develop access and use of broadband networks and services. As a specific target of this strategy, the government seeks to increase broadband penetration to 20 connections per 100 inhabitants by 2013. This report is the result of the second part of the existing reimbursable technical assistance on communications by which the World Bank has been providing assistance to the government of Egypt in the development of this broadband strategy. The objective of this particular assignment is to support the policy making process to develop broadband services and infrastructure throughout Egypt and achieve substantial economic impact in the economy including specific intermediary sectors. This assignment builds of the outcomes of the previously delivered study (strategic options for broadband development, 2010) and it uses both qualitative and quantitative approaches to provide specific advisory outputs.

ICT Sector Policy Note for Panama : Enabling Inclusive Development through Information and Communications Technologies

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
The Government of Panama and the private sector recognize the importance of information and communications technology (ICT) as an enabler of national development. This ICT sector policy note seeks to identify opportunities and challenges for growth of the ICT sector in Panama, particularly on rural access to broadband services and on cybersecurity, and potential for spillover impacts across other sectors. It provides a brief overview of the ICT sector in Panama and outlines a series of strategic actions and recommendations aimed at leveraging ICT as an engine of growth by targeting connectivity infrastructure, policies, regulation, e-Services, public data, and skills. The report is organized as follows: section one presents ICT sector in the economy. Section two deals with offer for connectivity. Section three presents demand. Section four describes the sector status from the cybersecurity point of view. Based on these analyses, section five identifies challenges that are hindering the growth of the industry, and section six presents policy options to overcome them. Finally...

A Sector Assessment : Accelerating Growth of High-Speed Internet Services in Azerbaijan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
Azerbaijan s development at the beginning of the XXI century is characterized by the great success story of its petroleum industry, which has propelled Azerbaijan to the level of the most rapidly growing economies in Europe and Central Asia. While oil and gas reserves are finite and their extraction and transportation is largely impacted by exogenous factors the Government of Azerbaijan has recently focused its policies on economic diversification, which, among others, prioritizes public investment spending to boost the information and communication technologies (ICT) sector. It is envisaged that by 2020 Azerbaijan s ICT sector should become one of the main contributors to the non-oil GDP and should facilitate country s transition into the knowledge economy. Telecommunications liberalization, modernization and extension of the national telecom infrastructure, implementation of e-government, and other sector-specific policies have helped stimulate the growth of the local ICT sector which since 2005 has been expanding at an average rate of 25-30 percent. The telecom industry...

Broadband in Russia

Rossotto, Carlo Maria; Gelvanovska, Natalija; Hohlov, Yuri; Maciule, Vaiva; Shaposhnik, Sergei
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
It is widely recognized that broadband is of fundamental importance to the social and economic development of a nation. The focus of the paper is on infrastructure-related actions; measures to stimulate demand for broadband are, therefore, only marginally addressed. This paper aims to provide a platform for debate with the Russian counterparts in the sector, and to discuss the measures needed to develop broadband in support of actions aimed at economic growth. This paper examines the broadband market in Russia and preconditions for its sustainable development. It begins by presenting arguments demonstrating the importance of broadband to the overall economic development of Russia, including from the perspective of diversification of the economy and new job creation. The paper benchmarks Russia s broadband performance with Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) comparators, as well as with other nations leading the way in broadband diffusion. The paper takes stock of the existing broadband market structure in Russia and its main players as they stand today...

Key Pathways to High-Speed Internet in the Middle East and North Africa

Gelvanovska, Natalija; Rogy, Michel; Rossotto, Carlo Maria
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
Most countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are falling behind in their quest to develop high-speed Internet for rapid socioeconomic development. Despite young adults’ rising use of social networking tools and solid progress in a few countries, most of the region’s Internet remains hobbled by monopolized, inadequate infrastructure; weak investment incentives; and high costs. High-speed (broadband) Internet can drive economic and social transformations. To realize that potential, a recent World Bank study finds that MENA countries must pursue a three-pronged approach: reduce costs by fully liberalizing access to the existing Internet infrastructure; support the resulting competition with independent national regulators working within a harmonized regional framework of regulation; and promote investments in new fiber-optic networks and other ultrafast broadband infrastructure (including Long-Term Evolution or LTE) alongside existing technologies. With these measures, plus aggressive strategies for sharing public works infrastructure and subsidies for rural access...

The Mobile Broadband and Fixed Broadband Battle in Swedish Market: Complementary or substitution?

SRINUAN, Pratompong; SRINUAN, Chalita; BOHLIN, Erik
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.43%
This paper aims to investigate the current broadband situation in Swedish market, in particular whether the mobile broadband (MBB) is a complementary or substitute service to fixed broadband (FBB) by using multinomial logit model. The data is collected from the Post- och telestyrelsen (PTS) survey in 2009 together with a secondary data on price of broadband service for each service providers. The findings indicate that price and type of housing are the major determinant for broadband connections. In addition, the living area and service provider affect the probability of using broadband. Considering the own price elasticities, cable is more inelastic compared to DSL, LAN/Fiber and MBB while the cross price elasticities show that MBB is complementary service to FBB in Sweden at this stage. However, the cross price elasticities of FBBs and MBB report that there is high possibility that MBB could be substitution service to FBB in the near future.

Implementation considerations for a Virtual Private Network (VPN) to enable broadband secure remote access to the Naval Postgraduate School Intranet

Cote, Richard Scott.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
As broadband connections to the home become more prevalent, through Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL) and cable modems, students and faculty will desire to access the NPS Internet via these new means instead of their 56K modems. The introduction of these new technologies will require NPS to re- evaluate how to allow remote access to their internal resources in a secure way, while still allowing for the use of broadband technologies. This thesis will examine the alternative methods for implementing VPNs, from simple use of Point to Point Protocols (PPP) to high end specialized internet appliances and gateways. Pros and cons of each will be discussed. A mock-up of the schools network will be created to test each of the discussed methods. Final recommendations will be made for a model that can be used by the NPS to implement a VPN. Also discussed will be how that model may be altered to fit other commands throughout the US Navy who desire similar secure remote access to their internal network resources.

Compare affordability, capability and availability of broadband services between Australia and Canada and evaluate how these demand factors, government initiatives and regulation determine broadband deployment

Lowe, Arianwyn
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
Broadband is seen as a key driver of future national productivity however Australia is ranked 19th out of the 23 OECD countries for broadband take-up. In contrast, Canada has a strong broadband penetration rate of approximately 40%. The two countries have the same legal, economic and telecommunications frameworks, and contain relatively small populations within vast expanses of land and yet the positioning of the Canadian information economy is by far superior. This report asserts that Australia's pricing of broadband services is relatively expensive when compared to Canadian prices for equivalent services however there is no significant price differential associated with dial-up fees between the two countries. Broadband service contracts drawn up by Australian ISPs include monthly charges which often exceed the $60 mark and are full of restricting additional fees. These packages are no match for Canadian firms' enticing low-entry monthly charges of approximately $AUD27.15. Broadband services allow faster, dedicated connections which do not interfere with the phone line. However, customers need a more compelling benefit then a new, better way of doing things to persuade them to pay twice as much as dial-up services. A 'killer application' which is indispensable to many consumers and exclusive to broadband is required to boost demand. Research in the field of broadband content should be encouraged and content producers...

Telecommunications Regulation Handbook : Tenth Anniversary Edition

Blackman, Colin; Srivastava, Lara
Fonte: World Bank and the International Telecommunication Union, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank and the International Telecommunication Union, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
Communications are an essential means for reaching the, bottom of the Pyramid, and enabling individuals to reduce poverty and improve the quality of their lives. We currently live in a world in which more Africans have access to a mobile phone than to any other utility or infrastructure service. This widespread technological dissemination creates new opportunities across all segments of society, but also presents new challenges requiring adaptable strategies. Today's communications landscape is vastly different from the environment in which we developed the first telecommunications regulation handbook ten years ago. Competitive and open communications markets have created opportunities in countries that previously lagged behind. Competitively priced and technologically varied service offerings have allowed businesses to compete and thrive globally. However, there are still serious market gaps (such as providing widespread high speed broadband services at affordable prices and connectivity to remote areas), that, when coupled with evolving and converging technologies, pose challenges to policymakers and regulators. This new edition of the telecommunications regulation handbook captures the new market and regulatory strategies to optimize investment in broadband networks and Information and Communication Technology...

A FRAMEWORK FOR EFFICIENT BANDWIDTH MANAGEMENT IN BROADBAND WIRELESS ACCESS SYSTEMS

Al-Manthari, Bader
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1864297 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
Broadband Wireless Access Systems (BWASs) such as High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), pose a myriad of new opportunities for leveraging the support of a wide range of “content-rich” mobile multimedia services with diverse Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. This is due to the remarkably high bandwidth that is supported by these systems, which was previously only available to wireline connections. Despite the support for such high bandwidth, satisfying the diverse QoS of users while maximizing the revenues of network operators is still one of the major issues in these systems. Bandwidth management, therefore, will play a decisive role in the success of such wireless access systems. Without efficient bandwidth management, network operators may not be able to meet the growing demand of users for multimedia services, and may consequently suffer great revenue loss. Bandwidth management in BWASs is, however, a challenging problem due to many issues that need to be taken into consideration. Examples of such issues include the diverse QoS requirements of the services that BWASs support, the varying channel quality conditions of mobile users, and hence the varying amount of resources that are needed to guarantee certain QoS levels during the lifetime of user connections...

Quality of Service Monitoring: Performance Metrics Across Proprietary Content Domains

Donahue, Hugh Carter; O'Donnell, Sean; Ferrigno-Stack, Josephine
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 121341 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.29%
We propose a quality of service (QoS) monitoring program for broadband access to measure the impact of proprietary network spaces. Our paper surveys other QoS policy initiatives, including those in the airline, and wireless and wireline telephone industries, to situate broadband in the context of other markets undergoing regulatory devolution. We illustrate how network architecture can create impediments to open communications, and how QoS monitoring can detect such effects. We present data from a field test of QoS-monitoring software now in development. We suggest QoS metrics to gauge whether information "walled gardens" represent a real threat for dividing the Internet into proprietary spaces. To demonstrate our proposal, we are placing our software on the computers of a sample of broadband subscribers. The software periodically conducts a battery of tests that assess the quality of connections from the subscriber's computer to various content sites. Any systematic differences in connection quality between affiliated and non-affiliated content sites would warrant research into the behavioral implications of those differences. If, however, the data shows that there are no chronic biases in connection quality, then it would be fair to conclude that the walls on the garden are low enough not to be detrimental to public communications. QoS monitoring is timely because the potential for the Internet to break into a loose network of proprietary content domains appears stronger than ever. Recent court rulings and policy statements suggest a growing trend towards relaxed scrutiny of mergers and the easing or elimination of content ownership rules. This policy environment could lead to a market with a small number of large...

Optimizing TCP Performance in Multi-AP Residential Broadband Connections via Mini-Slot Access

Giustiniano, Domenico; Goma, Eduard; Toledo, Alberto Lopez; Athanasiou, George
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
The high bandwidth demand of Internet applications has recently driven the need of increasing the residential download speed. A practical solution to the problem has been proposed aggregating the bandwidth of 802.11 Access Points (APs) backhauls in range via 802.11 connections. Since 802.11 devices are usually single-radio, the communication to multiple APs on different radio-channels requires the introduction of a time-division multiple access (TDMA) policy at the client station. Current investigation in this area supposes that there is a sufficient number of TCP flows to saturate the Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) behind the APs. However, this may be not guaranteed according to the user traffic pattern. As a consequence, a TDMA policy introduces additional delays in the end-to-end transmissions that will cause degradation of the TCP throughput and an under-utilization of the AP backhauls. In this paper, we first perform an in-depth experimental analysis with a customized 802.11 driver of how the usage of multi-AP TDMA affects the observed Round-Trip-Time (RTT) of TCP flows. Then, we introduce a simple analytical model that accurately predicts the TCP RTT when accessing the wireless medium with a Multi-AP TDMA policy. Based on this model...

Social Network Theory, Broadband and the World Wide Web

Sgroi, Daniel
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Formato: 352447 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
EN_GB
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
This paper aims to predict some possible futures for the World Wide Web based on several key network parameters: size, complexity, cost and increasing connection speed thorough the uptake of broadband technology. This is done through the production of a taxonomy specifically evaluating the stability properties of the fully-connected star and complete networks, based on the Jackson and Wolinsky (1996) connections model modified to incorporate complexity concerns. We find that when connection speeds are low neither the star nor complete networks are stable, and when connection speeds are high the star network is usually stable, while the complete network is never stable. For intermediate speed levels much depends upon the other parameters. Under plausible assumptions about the future, we find that the Web may be increasingly dominated by a single intermediate site, perhaps best described as a search engine.

BROADBAND INTERNET: A PROSPECTIVE EXPLORATORY STUDY ON ITS PENETRATION, CONNECTION TECHNOLOGIES, AND IMPACTS ON BRAZIL IN 2020; INTERNET BANDA LARGA: UM ESTUDO PROSPECTIVO EXPLORATÓRIO SOBRE A SUA PENETRAÇÃO, TECNOLOGIAS DE CONEXÃO E IMPACTOS NO BRASIL EM 2020 DOI: 10.5773/rai.v9i2.675

Spers, Renata Giovinazzo; Wright, James Terence Coulter; Silva, Antonio Thiago Benedete
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/07/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
This study aimed to explore the evolution of broadband Internet penetration in Brazil in 2020 and the impacts on the population and the Brazilian economy. The Delphi Method of consultation with experts was used, in which 98 respondents in Round 1 and 72 respondents in Round 2 participated. The results indicate that there will be an increase in broadband penetration in all economic sectors. Such expansion will however depend on the lower cost of services. According to 60% of specialists, the cost of broadband Internet will be a critical factor for the expansion of penetration. The technology that will have more growth in broadband Internet connections by 2020, indicated by 33% of specialists, will be "Connecting via cable modem or wireless (offered by cable TV operators)," followed by "Connection via WiMAX networks," with 31% of predictions. As for 69% of specialists, the main impact on the economy by 2020 will be the increase of the Gross Domestic Product of Brazil, and the principal impacts of broadband Internet penetration in the Brazilian population will be the "Increase of Productivity of Individuals,” as indicated by 49% of experts, and "Improving the Quality of Life," indicated by 46%.; Esta pesquisa buscou prospectar a evolução da penetração da internet banda larga no Brasil em 2020 e os impactos na população e na economia brasileira. Para tanto...