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Circuito de comando de base proporcional isolado auto-oscilante para conversor CC/CC "Half-Bridge": uma metodologia de projeto; Isolated proportional base driver for half-bridge DC/DC converter: a design methodology

Cezare, Marcel Jacon
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/11/2010 PT
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O presente trabalho apresenta o estudo, o equacionamento, a simulação e uma metodologia de projeto para um conversor CC/CC do tipo Half-Bridge, com transformador de potência alimentado por transistores bipolares em semi-ponte, com circuito de acionamento de base proporcional isolado. O circuito possui um controle de sincronismo aplicado ao transformador de pulso responsável pelo controle das chaves semicondutoras do conversor. A metodologia de projeto do circuito de acionamento de base proporcional isolado é discutida e alguns resultados são mostrados. Além disso, pretende-se empregar esse tipo de conversor em veículos aeroespaciais devido a robustez no circuito de acionamento de base, em específico na Unidade de Suprimento de Energia do satélite universitário ITASAT. Utilizando-se o diagrama esquemático do conversor proposto é feito o equacionamento matemático, a fim de se obter a frequência de oscilação livre, ou natural, a partir do qual é proposta uma metodologia de projeto. Ao final do trabalho são comparados os resultados experimentais com a simulação, com o objetivo de melhor avaliar a metodologia proposta.; This work presents the study, equation development, simulation and a design methodology for a Half-Bridge DC/DC converter...

Tabuleiro laminado protendido de Pinus sp. com cordoalhas engraxadas; Stress-laminated Pinus sp. bridge deck with greased wire ropes

Acosta, Caio Cesar Veloso
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.66%
O tabuleiro laminado protendido é uma composição de peças interligadas por uma tensão de compressão aplicada perpendicularmente às lâminas de madeira. Para aplicar tal tensão, são usados elementos de aço tensionados e a cordoalha engraxada aparece no cenário atual como um material econômico para tabuleiros laminados protendidos, em substituição às barras dywidag, que são comumente utilizadas neste tipo de estrutura em outros países. O funcionamento mecânico do tabuleiro é caracterizado como uma placa ortotrópica, e este trabalho visou determinar as relações entre as constantes elásticas do tabuleiro com a utilização da cordoalha engraxada. Foram analisadas também as perdas de protensão ocorridas ao longo do tempo, causadas pela fluência e relaxação dos materiais e, a partir dos resultados, foi proposta uma equação para determinação teórica da perda de protensão nos tabuleiros. O estudo experimental foi realizado em um modelo em escala reduzida construído no LaMEM (Laboratório de Madeiras e Estruturas de Madeira) para determinar as constantes elásticas e as perdas de protensão. Ao fim do trabalho são apresentados os resultados e comparações com estudos anteriores; também foi confeccionado um Manual de Boa Execução para Tabuleiros Laminados Protendidos de Madeira com Cordoalha engraxada.; The stress-laminated bridge deck is a composition of parts...

Ação estática do vento em tabuleiros de pontes : caracterização aerodinâmica em túnel de vento; Static action of wind on bridge decks: aerodynamic characterization in a wind tunnel

Standerski, Rita
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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As pontes são importantes elementos no desenvolvimento da infraestrutura de uma nação, possibilitando conexões de pessoas e bens. A ação do vento em pontes é um dos fatores determinantes no seu projeto. O efeito da ação do vento em tabuleiros de pontes pode, no limite, levar uma estrutura ao colapso. São inúmeras as formas das seções transversais que os tabuleiros podem apresentar; para cada uma delas os coeficientes de pressão são diferentes. Na Norma Brasileira de pontes (NBR 7187, 2003), a carga de vento é indicada no item 7.2.3 como uma ação variável que deve ser calculada de acordo com a Norma Brasileira de vento (NBR 6123, 1988). Entretanto, nesta não há considerações em relação à ação do vento em tabuleiros de pontes. Ou seja, em nossas normas há uma lacuna que precisa ser preenchida. Faltam informações, as quais são imprescindíveis para a elaboração de projetos e resolução de problemas existentes. Atualmente, a realização de ensaios em túnel de vento é a melhor forma de estimar a resposta de pontes sob a ação do vento. Esta pesquisa visa a aprimorar a fase de projeto de pontes através da sugestão, para complementação da Norma Brasileira de ventos NBR6123/88, de um item específico referente a coeficientes aerodinâmicos de distintas seções transversais de tabuleiros de pontes. Foram realizados ensaios em túnel de vento no Laboratório de Aerodinâmica das Construções da UFRGS (Porto Alegre...

Probabilistic life-time oriented multi-objective optimization of bridge maintenance : single maintenance type

Neves, Luís A. C.; Frangopol, Dan M.; Cruz, Paulo J. S.
Fonte: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Publicador: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2006 ENG
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The main objective of a bridge manager is to find the best maintenance plan for a group of bridges over a prescribed time horizon. The bridge manager usually faces conflicting ob- jectives, as nlaintenance plans resulting in safer and less deteriorated structures also lead to higher costs. In general, the problem is posed as a deterministic single-objective optimiza- tion where cost is minimized keeping performance above pre-defined thresholds. However, single-objective optimization results in only one optimal solution that does not provide the advantages or disadvantages of considering other objectives and constraints. In addition, the effects of uncertainties are not taken into account or are included in a very simplified way. The bridge manager obtains, in this way, only one deterministic optimum maintenance plan, and not a set of different probabilistic maintenance solutions from which the best, for each particular situation, can be chosen. In this paper, a full probabilistic multi-objective approach to bridge maintenance con- sidering single maintenance types is developed. This approach is based on the latest de- velopments in bridge management by considering probabilistic continuous performance in- dicators and probabilistically defined objectives and constraints. The problem is solved by using multi-ob jective genetic algorithms and Latin hypercube sampling technique. Multi- objective applications to existing reinforced concrete bridge components under probabilistic deterioration and probabilistic-defined single maintenance types are presented and discussed.; United Kingdom Highways Agency.; United States National Science Foundation - Grant Nos. CMS-0217290; CMS-0509772.; Netherlands Ministry of Transport...

Luiz Bandeira bridge : assessment of a historical rc bridge

Sena-Cruz, José; Ferreira, Rui Miguel; Ramos, Luís F.; Fernandes, Francisco; Miranda, F.; Castro, F.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis, Inc. Publicador: Taylor & Francis, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 ENG
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The Luiz Bandeira Bridge is located along the Portuguese national road EN333-3, breaching the valley of the Vouga River, just northeast of the small village Sejães, in the district of Oliveira de Frades. It is considered to be the oldest concrete bridge in use in Portugal, and one of the oldest in Europe. Since this bridge is at risk of disappearing due to a construction of a dam, the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Minho decided to launch a comprehensive study of Luiz Bandeira Bridge, in an attempt to preserve the memory of the past cataloguing the heritage for future reference. These studies include historical, geometrical and damage surveys, the physical and chemical characterization of existing structural materials, the assessment of the reinforcement detailing, dynamic characterization by determining the main frequencies and vibration modes and safety level. This work presents a comprehensive overview of the most important results of these studies.

Assessment of the bôco historical RC bridge

Sena-Cruz, José; Araújo, José Carlos; Castro, F.; Jorge, Marco
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2012 ENG
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The Bôco Bridge is located along the portuguese road EM595-1, breaching the valley of the Cávado river and dividing the regions of Amares and Vieira do Minho, in the district of Braga. This bridge was designed by the architect Sebastião Lopes and built in between the years of 1909 and 1910 by the company Moreira de Sá & Malevez, dealers of the patented Hennebique system in Portugal. It is considered the fourth oldest reinforced concrete (RC) bridge in Portugal. The original bridge was 33 m long and 4.55 m wide. The two parallel arches with a rectangular cross-section of 0.30 m by 0.70 m are supported at each end by abutments directly casted on the rock. A comprehensive study of Bôco Bridge was carried out including historical, geometrical and damage surveys, as well as the physical and chemical characterization of existing structural materials (steel and concrete). This paper presents and analyses the most important results of this study.

Seismic assessment and strengthening of an existing steel bridge in Portugal

Fernandes, C.; Varum, H.
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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This article presents the seismic vulnerability assessment of the S. João de Loure bridge, in Portugal. The single span steel bridge has riveted joints, commonly affected by corrosion, which can lead to a significant stiffness reduction. With the objective of evaluating the influence of the joints stiffness in the structural response of the bridge, a structural model of the bridge was created, and natural frequencies, maximum axial forces and maximum stresses, and maximum mid-span deflection were analysed. Four possible element rupture scenarios where also studied. Two of them where proved to be a risk for the structural safety of the bridge. A commonly used strengthening solution intending to reduce the bridge’s mid-span deflection with external pre-stressing cables was studied.

Wind tunnel test for vortex-induced vibration of vehicle-bridge system section model

Zhou,Li; Ge,Yaojun
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2008 EN
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Vortex-induced vibration of bridges happens at a relatively low wind speed and while vehicles often run on a bridge at that wind speed. Thus, it is necessary to study how the vehicles influence vortex-induced vibration of vehicle-bridge systems. Based on the project of Shanghai Bridge over Yangtse River, the wind tunnel test for vortex-induced vibrations of vehicle-bridge system of a 1:60 model is presented. The wind tunnel test is introduced in detail including the equipments, test procedures and discussion of results. The results show that the vehicles have much influence on vortex-induced vibration of vehicle-bridge system for the Shanghai Bridge over Yangtse River. With speed increasing, the displacement of the bridge with vehicles fluctuates larger than that of the bridge without vehicles. The frequencies of vibration could be divided into three stages, vertical vibration frequency for the first stage, torsional vibration frequency for the second stage, and suspension system vibration frequency for the third stage. For the bridge with vehicles, vertical vortex-induced vibration was accompanied with torsional vibration and the frequencies of the two vibrations are equal. The displacement of vortex-induced vibration for the bridge with vehicles was larger than that of vortex-induced vibration for the bridge without vehicles. Due to the disturbance of vehicles...

Victoria Bridge; Roof of Bridge

Notman, William (1826-1891)
Fonte: Notman, William (1826-1891), Montreal (Quebec); Notman, William (1826-1891) Publicador: Notman, William (1826-1891), Montreal (Quebec); Notman, William (1826-1891)
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ms(recto): "Victoria Bridge Roof of Bridge"; ms(verso): "Gift/LP Jack Brown Dec/78"; verso: Victoria Bridge | Roof of Bridge | Photographed and Published by W. Notman. Montreal

Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge Company fonds, 1875-1876, 1878, 1884

Cameron, Chantal
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Outros
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.82%
In 1846, the governments of Upper Canada and the State of New York initiated the creation of two companies that would be authorized to build a bridge over the Niagara River. The bridge was to be owned by both companies, respectively known as the Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge Company (Canadian) and the International Bridge Company (American). A suspension bridge was completed in 1848. This bridge was later replaced by a second suspension bridge that accommodated railways, built in 1853-54. However, the increasing weight of trains made it necessary for the bridge to be redesigned, and a third bridge was completed in 1886. Eventually, this bridge was replaced by a steel arch bridge, which was completed in 1897.; Consists of five paid invoices from various businesses and individuals. The invoices were issued by Swan & Low, dealers in coal and wood, the Town of Clifton, the Goat Island Hotel, Albion Medina Stone Co., and A.L. Hawkins, Clifton.

Niagara Falls Bridge Commission Scrapbook and Clippings, 1948, 1950, 1954-1960

Adams, Anne
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Outros
EN
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he Niagara Falls Bridge Commission was created by a joint resolution of the 1938 U.S. Congressional Third Session. The Extra Provincial Corporations Act of Ontario, Canada licenses the Niagara Falls Bridge Commission. Canada and the United States are equally represented on the Commission by an 8 member Board of Commissioners. Canadian commissioners are appointed by the Premier of Ontario. The three Niagara bridges are the Whirlpool Bridge, the Lewiston-Queenston Bridge and the Rainbow Bridge.; 1 scrapbook and loose clippings regarding the Niagara Falls Bridges and Carillon.

Evaluation of stability and integrity of a steel truss bridge in a forensic investigation

BRANDO, FRANCESCA
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The studies presented in this Thesis have been developed in the frame of the forensic investigation into the causes of the collapse of the I-35West Bridge (I-35W) in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA that occurred on August 1 st, 2007. The failure of the I-35W represents a major case-study for the evaluation of stability and integrity of a steel truss bridge. The Thesis has been developed at Columbia University and at the engineering firm Thornton Tomasetti (TT) which was hired by a national law firm, Robins, Kaplan, Miller & Ciresi, to perform a forensic investigation into the cause of the catastrophic collapse. According to the findings of the forensic investigation, the collapse was triggered by the buckling of an element of the main truss bottom chord in the main span close to the pier. The Thesis focused on technical aspects and did not attempt to assign responsibility among the involved parties. In the first part of the thesis, the background and motivation for the forensic investigation are presented together with a description of the I-35W Bridge. The definition of bridge safety and related classifications are given. The concept of structural stability and integrity of steel structures are discussed. The nature of structures and their complexity are considered as well as the methodologies used to study them. An extensive description of the structural decomposition method is presented and detailed for the case study. In this work...

Suppression of the stationary maglev vehicle-bridge coupled resonance using a tuned mass damper

Zhou, D.; Li, J.; Hansen, C.
Fonte: Sage Publications Inc Publicador: Sage Publications Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
The coupled resonance that occurs between a maglev vehicle and an elevated bridge is a unique problem for an electromagnetic suspension maglev system when the vehicle is suspended above the bridge without moving. This problem causes the bridge to vibrate in a large amplitude, it significantly degrades the ride comfort of the maglev train, and it needs to be solved before the commercial application of the system. In this paper, the principle of the stationary vehicle–bridge coupled resonance is investigated, and it is shown that the levitation system is non-passive and it causes self-excited vibration when the first resonance frequency of the bridge approaches the critical frequency of the levitation system. To eliminate the coupled resonance, an approach using a tuned mass damper (TMD) to render passive the levitation control system is presented, and it shows that a TMD with appropriate parameters can stabilize the coupled system. A procedure for seeking out a group of suboptimal parameters of the TMD is also proposed. This procedure ensures that the designed result has a satisfactory performance as well as a reasonable stability margin. The location where the TMD should be mounted to achieve the best performance is discussed. The numerical simulation shows that the designed TMD can completely suppress the vehicle–bridge coupled resonance.; Danfeng Zhou...

Application of Compact, Geometrically Complex Shape Memory Alloy Devices for Seismic Enhancement of Highway Bridge Expansion Joints

McCarthy, Emily Ruth
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.77%
Highway bridges are an important part of transportation networks. They provide connectivity across waterways, ravines and other roadways, reducing commuting times and facilitating social community. The disruption of their effective operation caused by earthquake damage has lasting effects based on repair costs, road closure times, traffic rerouting causing extended commute times and additional CO2 emissions, and the potential prevention of emergency responders being able to reach affected regions. Bridge expansion joints have historically been recognized as the most vulnerable component in the bridge system during these seismic events, causing dramatic disruption to bridge functionality because of their location in bridges (points of discontinuity in deck systems). Expansion joint systems are placed in these locations of discontinuity and accommodate bridge movements from thermal effects while facilitating safe driving surfaces across large gaps in the roadway. Commonly installed systems are not designed to survive seismic events, instead failure is assumed and replacement necessary to return the bridge to its functional state. When damaged, the large gaps they span can be un-crossable without external intervention, resulting in non-functioning bridges even when the structural system remains sound. Expensive and complex expansion systems exist...

DYNAMIC MONITORING OF RAIL AND BRIDGE DISPLACEMENTS USING DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION

Murray, Christopher
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
Rail and bridge infrastructure assets are critical elements of Canada’s transportation network and their continued efficient and safe operation is necessary to ensure the nation’s economic livelihood. Monitoring technologies that can detect changes in performance as well as precursors to failure are an important element of ensuring this efficient and safe operation. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a monitoring technology that has the potential to provide critical data for infrastructure assessment and to replace various conventional sensors with one integrated monitoring solution. In this research, the accuracy of DIC is evaluated using numerical, laboratory and field-based experiments. The sources of error of particular relevance to dynamic measurement using DIC are identified as (i) bias error in the sub-pixel interpolation scheme, (ii) the ratio of sample rate to the frequency of the signal being monitoring and (iii) the signal to noise ratio. It is also shown that the chosen sub-pixel interpolation scheme can greatly affect the accuracy of dynamic measurements. The use of DIC was investigated for field monitoring of both horizontal and vertical railway displacements at sites with good and poor subgrade conditions under dynamic train loading. It is shown that there is a significant benefit to using an absolute displacement measurement system rather than a relative displacement measurement system as the former can capture irrecoverable rail displacements in both the vertical and horizontal directions. Finally...

Experimental and analytical investigations of concrete bridge decks with structural FRP Stay-in-Place forms

Nelson, MARK
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
Stay-In-Place (SIP) formwork systems are widely used for concrete slabs in industry due to their relative ease and speed of construction. Conventionally, corrugated metal sheets or precast panels are used as formwork. In recent years, the SIP formwork technique has been proposed in conjunction with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites. The resulting system combines the construction advantages of SIP formwork with the durability and corrosion resistance of FRP materials. Bridge decks are a particularly enticing application due to their exposure to harsh environmental conditions and the need for rapid construction to minimize traffic disruptions. This study broadly evaluates FRP SIP formwork for concrete bridge decks both experimentally and numerically. In total, 9 full scale bridge deck sections, 32 small scale decks and more than 40 auxiliary tests were conducted, including the construction and testing of a full bridge at scale. Additionally, a numerical model was developed to predict punching shear failure based on the theory of plates and shells. Experimental testing was conducted on two FRP SIP form configurations, namely flat plates with T-shape stiffeners and corrugated plates, and used a variety of different detailing and geometries. Some of the investigated parameters included the width effect of bridge deck section tests...

Pedestrian-Induced Bridge Response: Using a modal response model to predict the vibrations of a bridge when subjected to periodic pedestrian loads

Rogers, Samuel
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.77%
The availability and use of new materials and construction techniques are allowing bridges to be built that are longer and more slender to those that have been constructed in the past. This can cause bridges to have lower stiffness and damping, and thus be less able to resist dynamic effects. This is of special concern for pedestrian bridges, because the harmonic loads that pedestrians apply to the bridge have the potential to excite the bridge’s natural frequencies. In addition, pedestrians can be sensitive to these vibrations. A model was developed in order to better understand the effects that a pedestrian can have on these vibration-prone bridges. The model consisted of two parts: a finite element model that used the structural data for the bridge in order to produce mass-normalized mode shapes, and a bridge-pedestrian interaction program that used the structural and modal data, along with pedestrian loading scenarios, to generate the bridge response. A parametric study of two bridges was conducted. The bridges included: a short span bridge that would not be expected to respond excessively to pedestrian loads, and a long-span, lively bridge that had natural frequencies in the range of pedestrian loading. Many loading cases were examined by varying the following parameters: load case...

Pulsed field magnetization of 0?-0? and 45?-45? bridge-seeded Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors

Ainslie, M. D.; Zou, J.; Mochizuki, H.; Fujishiro, H.; Shi, Y.-H.; Dennis, A. R.; Cardwell, D. A.
Fonte: IOP Publishing Publicador: IOP Publishing
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from IOP Publishing via http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-2048/28/12/125002; Large, single-grain (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) bulk superconductors with complicated geometries are required for a variety of potential applications, such as rotating machines, magnetic bearings and magnetic separation. As a consequence, the top multi-seeded melt growth process has been studied over many years in an attempt to deliver large, single grains for practical applications. Among these techniques, the so-called bridge-seeding produces the best alignment of two seeds during melt processing of multi-seed samples. In this paper, the trapped field performance and magnetic flux dynamics of two bridge-seeded, multi-seed samples magnetized by pulsed field magnetization (PFM) are analysed: one with a 45?-45? and another with a 0?-0? bridge seed. Based on an analysis of the flux penetration across the seeds and in-between the seeds of the 45?-45? multi-seed sample, an estimated Jc distribution over the ab-plane was determined, which provides the basis for further analysis via numerical simulation. A 3D finite-element model, developed to qualitatively reproduce and interpret the experimental results...

Testing and operation of Delaware's first permanently instrumented "smart" bridge

Charles, Douglas
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Harry W. Shenton; As many of the nation's bridges reach the end of their design service life, the reliability and safety of these bridges is becoming a major concern. Visual inspections conducted every two years are not thorough enough to fully assess the performance of a bridge. While other inspection methods are available, these processes require more time and many other resources. With this in mind the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) initiated the Long-Term Bridge Performance Program (LTBPP), with its primary goal being to use permanently instrumented bridge monitoring systems throughout the country to gather quantitative data on the long-term performance and deterioration of our bridges. Bridge 1-821, located in Wilmington, DE, is a typical slab on girder steel design. Known as Delaware's first "Smart Bridge," it was instrumented with a structural monitoring system in 2006. The system consists of 61 sensors that include accelerometers, and displacement, temperature, and several types of strain gages. Sensor data is recorded by a Campbell Scientific CR9000X data acquisition system. Two main types of data are collected: monitor data and event data. Monitor data is taken every hour and is used to track bridge behavior from season to season and year to year. Event data is taken for 4 seconds when a predetermined threshold is reached for a trigger gage and is used to study the behavior of the bridge due to the site specific live load traffic...

On the Classification of 3--Bridge Links

HILDEN,HUGH MICHAEL; MONTESINOS,JOSÉ MARÍA; TEJADA,DÉBORA MARÍA; TORO,MARGARITA MARÍA
Fonte: Revista Colombiana de Matemáticas Publicador: Revista Colombiana de Matemáticas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Using a new way to represent links, that we call a butterfly representation, we assign to each 3-bridge link diagram a sequence of six integers, collected as a triple (p/n,q/m,s/l), such that p≥ q≥ s≥2, 0