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Teorias e dinâmicas migratórias internacionais: algumas experiências africanas de "brain drain", "brain circulation" e "brain gain"

Có, João Ribeiro Butiam
Fonte: ISEG - SOCIUS Publicador: ISEG - SOCIUS
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
A formação de quadros superiores que pudessem assegurar o progresso dos (novos) estados africanos constituíra uma preocupação da política de educação e desenvolvimento do continente africano nos anos sessenta. Mais recentemente, as Convenções de Lomé - exemplo da convenção de Lomé III (1986-1990) - trouxeram (mais) oportunidades de cooperação entre os países da UE (União Europeia) e os países da ACP (Países da África, Caraíbas e Pacifico), em matéria de valorização dos recursos humanos e promoção das suas identidades culturais (Michéle et al., 1989; Psacharopoulos et al., 1985). Não obstante essas políticas, milhares de profissionais africanos têm abandonado o continente - desde os anos sessenta - em direcção aos países do Norte (desenvolvidos), constituindo o fenómeno brain drain. Isto tem levado à acumulação de quadros superiores não regressados, muitos deles os chamados overstayers. Esta realidade tem afectado a África, constituindo um dos obstáculos ao desenvolvimento e progresso do continente. Por consequência, a partir dos anos oitenta, várias políticas nacionais (africanas) e iniciativas regionais, intergovernamentais e internacionais têm sido levadas a cabo, de forma a minimizar os impactos (negativos) do fenómeno da fuga dos cérebros no continente (Meyer et al....

Migração internacional de trabalho qualificado e o fenômeno do brain drain no Brasil

Faria, Bruna Maia de; Hidalgo, Álvaro Barrantes (Orientador)
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
Tipo: Outros
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
Maia de Faria, Bruna; Barrantes Hidalgo, Álvaro. Migração internacional de trabalho qualificado e o fenômeno do brain drain no Brasil. 2008. Dissertação (Mestrado). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Economia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, 2008.

Colombia: Entre el brain drain y el brain gain

Niampira Avendaño, Wilmer Alejandro
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de Grado Pregrado Formato: Pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.58%
El presente trabajo de grado busca analizar los programas o acciones que se han implementado desde el Estado colombiano con la participación de diferentes instituciones (Principalmente Colciencias y Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores) para manejar el fenómeno de la fuga de cerebros y las medidas que se tienen en cuenta en la política exterior para vincular a estos cerebros una vez se han desarrollado en otro país. El trabajo analiza los principales programas que se han desarrollado desde el Programa de retorno de profesionales y tecnólogos nacido del decreto N° 1397 del 16 de agosto de 1972 hasta el programa de Diplomacia Científica, entendiendo el enfoque que se le ha dado por parte del Estado colombiano a los diferentes proyectos, que varían entre una visión de brain drain y otros de brain gain , evidenciando la falta de una directriz de política única.; "This paper seeks to analyze the degree programs or actions that have been implemented since the Colombian state involving different institutions (mainly Colciencias and Ministry of Foreign Affairs) to handle the phenomenon of ""brain drain"" and the measures considered in foreign policy to link these brains have evolved once in another country. The paper analyzes the main programs that have developed since the return program professionals and technologists born Decree No. 1397 of August 16...

Eight Questions about Brain Drain

Gibson, John; McKenzie, David
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.7%
High-skilled emigration is an emotive issue that in popular discourse is often referred to as brain drain, conjuring images of extremely negative impacts on developing countries. Recent discussions of brain gain, diaspora effects, and other advantages of migration have been used to argue against this, but much of the discussion has been absent of evidence. This paper builds upon a new wave of empirical research to answer eight key questions underlying much of the brain drain debate: 1) What is brain drain? 2) Why should economists care about it? 3) Is brain drain increasing? 4) Is there a positive relationship between skilled and unskilled migration? 5) What makes brain drain more likely? 6) Does brain gain exist? 7) Do high-skilled workers remit, invest, and share knowledge back home? and 8) What do we know about the fiscal and production externalities of brain drain?

The Economic Consequences of “Brain Drain” of the Best and Brightest : Microeconomic Evidence from Five Countries

Gibson, John; McKenzie, David
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.36%
Brain drain has long been a common concern for migrant-sending countries, particularly for small countries where high-skilled emigration rates are highest. However, while economic theory suggests a number of possible benefits, in addition to costs, from skilled emigration, the evidence base on many of these is very limited. Moreover, the lessons from case studies of benefits to China and India from skilled emigration may not be relevant to much smaller countries. This paper presents the results of innovative surveys which tracked academic high-achievers from five countries to wherever they moved in the world in order to directly measure at the micro level the channels through which high-skilled emigration affects the sending country. The results show that there are very high levels of emigration and of return migration among the very highly skilled; the income gains to the best and brightest from migrating are very large, and an order of magnitude or more greater than any other effect; there are large benefits from migration in terms of postgraduate education; most high-skilled migrants from poorer countries send remittances; but that involvement in trade and foreign direct investment is a rare occurrence. There is considerable knowledge flow from both current and return migrants about job and study opportunities abroad...

North-South Trade-related Technology Diffusion, Brain Drain and Productivity Growth : Are Small States Different?

Schiff, Maurice; Wang, Yanling
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.66%
The economies of small developing states tend to be more fragile than those of large ones. This paper examines this issue in a dynamic context by focusing on the impact of the brain drain on North-South trade-related technology diffusion and total factor productivity growth in small and large states in the South. There are three main findings. First, productivity growth increases with North-South trade-related technology diffusion and education and the interaction between the two, and decreases with the brain drain. Second, the impact of North-South trade-related technology diffusion, education, and their interaction on productivity growth in small states is more than three times that for large countries, with the negative impact of the brain drain thus more than three times greater in small than in large states. And third, the greater loss in productivity growth in small states has two brain drain-related causes: a substantially greater sensitivity of productivity growth to the brain drain, and brain drain levels that are more than five times greater in small than in large states.

The Impact of EU Accession on Human Capital : Formation - Can Migration Fuel a Brain Gain?

Farchy, Emily
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
Can a brain drain be good for development? Many studies have established the theoretical possibility of such a brain gain. Yet it is only recently that the relaxation of data constraints has allowed for sound empirical assessments. In utilizing the dramatic policy change that accompanied European Union accession as a natural experiment, this paper is able to assuage fears of reverse causality between migration and human capital formation. The results highlight a significant impact of European Union accession on human capital formation indicating that the prospect of migration can indeed fuel skill formation even in the context of middle-income economies. And, if accompanied by policies to promote return migration, as well as a functioning credit market to enable private investment, international labor mobility could represent a powerful tool for growth.

Remittances and the Brain Drain

Faini, Riccardo
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.36%
This trend is raising considerable concern among policymakers in developing countries, wary of having to bear the cost of educating and then losing their most entrepreneurial and talented workers. The possibility for educated migrants to move abroad should raise the returns to education and, in the end, may even lead to an increase in the number of educated workers who stay at home (Bhagwati and Hamada 1974; Bhagwati 1976; Mountford 1997; Stark, Helmenstein, and Prskawetz 1997, 1998). The European Community Household Panel is a closed panel and therefore cannot easily be used to study return migration. The key finding (table 1, column 3) is that more educated immigrants from non- EU countries are less likely to drop out of the panel, even after controlling for age, gender, employment status, and length of stay in the host country. The Pattern of Attrition in the European Community Household Panel Sample (dependent variable: probability that respondent does not drop out of the panel) Variable Household size Age Highest education Intermediate education Gender Employment Spouse Visitsa Minutesb Immigrant Immigrant EU Immigrant non-EU Lengthc ,5 years Lengthc 6 15 years Lengthc 16 25 years Constant Country dummy variable Time*origin Time dummy variable Number of observations Number of observations censored a Natives 0.012* Assume that the household is composed of two groups...

Eight Questions about Brain Drain

Gibson, John; McKenzie, David
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
The term "brain drain" dominates popular discourse on high-skilled migration, and for this reason, we use it in this article. However, as Harry Johnson noted, it is a loaded phrase implying serious loss. It is far from clear that such a loss actually occurs in practice; indeed, there is an increasing recognition of the possible benefits that skilled migration can offer both for migrants and for sending countries. This paper builds upon a recent wave of empirical research to answer eight key questions underlying much of the brain drain debate: 1) What is brain drain? 2) Why should economists care about it? 3) Is brain drain increasing? 4) Is there a positive relationship between skilled and unskilled migration? 5) What makes brain drain more likely? 6) Does brain gain exist? 7) Do high-skilled workers remit, invest, and share knowledge back home? 8) What do we know about the fiscal and production externalities of brain drain?

International Migration, Remittances, and the Brain Drain : A Study of 24 Labor-Exporting Countries

Adams, Richard H. Jr.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
While the level of international migration and remittances continues to grow, data on international migration remains unreliable. At the international level, there is no consistent set of statistics on the number or skill characteristics of international migrants. At the national level, most labor-exporting countries do not collect data on their migrants. Adams tries to overcome these problems by constructing a new data set of 24 large, labor-exporting countries and using estimates of migration and educational attainment based on United States and OECD records. He uses these new data to address the key policy question: How pervasive is the brain drain from labor-exporting countries? Three basic findings emerge: With respect to legal migration, international migration involves the movement of the educated. The vast majority of migrants to both the United States and the OECD have a secondary (high school) education or higher. While migrants are well-educated, international migration does not tend to take a very high proportion of the best educated. For 22 of the 33 countries in which educational attainment data can be estimated...

The Effect of Occupation-Specific Brain Drain on Human Capital

Heuer, Nina
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: ResearchPaper
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
This paper tests the hypothesis of a beneficial brain drain using occupation-specific data on migration from developing countries to OECD countries around 2000. Distinguishing between several types of human capital allows to assess whether the impact of high-skilled south-north migration on human capital in the sending economies differed across occupational groups requiring tertiary education. We find a robust negative effect of the incidence of high-skilled emigration on the level of human capital in the sending countries, thereby rejecting the hypothesis of a beneficial brain drain. The negative effect was significantly stronger for professionals – the occupational category with the largest incidence of south-north migration and the highest educational requirements – than for technicians and associate professionals.

Brain Drain in Developing Countries

Docquier, Frédéric; Lohest, Olivier; Marfouk, Abdeslam
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.68%
Brain Drain in Developing Countries Frederic Docquier, Olivier Lohest, and Abdeslam Marfouk An original data set on international migration by educational attainment for 1990 and 2000 is used to analyze the determinants of brain drain from developing countries. The analysis starts with a simple decomposition of the brain drain in two multiplicative components, the degree of openness of sending countries (measured by the average emigration rate) and the schooling gap (measured by the education level of emigrants compared with natives). Yet recent theoretical studies emphasize several compensatory effects, showing that a limited but positive skilled emigration rate can be beneficial for sending countries (Commander, Kangasniemi, and Winters 2004; Docquier and Rapoport 2007; Beine, Docquier, and Rapoport 2001, forthcoming; Schiff 2005 provides a critical appraisal of this literature). However, without reliable comparative data Frederic Docquier (corresponding author) is a research associate at the National Fund for Economic Research; professor of economics at the Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium; and research fellow at the Institute for the Study of Labor, Bonn, Germany; his email address is docquier ires.ucl.ac.be. Olivier Lohest is a research is a researcher at the Institut Wallon de l'Evaluation...

HIV Pandemic, Medical Brain Drain, and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

Bhargava, Alok; Docquier, Frédéric
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.65%
Country-level longitudinal data at three-year intervals over 1990–2004 are used to analyze the factors affecting emigration of physicians from Sub-Saharan countries and the effects of this medical brain drain on life expectancy and number of deaths due to AIDS. Data are compiled on emigrating African physicians from 16 receiving Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. A comprehensive longitudinal database is developed by merging the medical brain drain variables with recent data on HIV prevalence rates, public health expenditures, physicians' wages, and economic and demographic variables. A triangular system of equations is estimated in a random effects framework using five time observations for medical brain drain rates, life expectancy, and number of deaths due to AIDS, taking into account the interdependence of these variables. Lower wages and higher HIV prevalence rates are strongly associated with the brain drain of physicians from Sub-Saharan African to OECD countries. In countries in which the HIV prevalence rate exceeds 3 percent, a doubling of the medical brain drain rate is associated with a 20 percent increase in adult deaths from AIDS; medical brain drain does not appear to affect life expectancy. These findings underscore the need to improve economic conditions for physicians in order to retain physicians in Sub-Saharan Africa...

Brain Gain : Claims about its Size and Impact on Welfare and Growth Are Greatly Exaggerated

Schiff, Maurice
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.65%
Based on static partial equilibrium analysis, the "new brain drain" literature argues that, by raising the return to education, a brain drain generates a brain gain that is, under certain conditions, larger than the brain drain itself, and that such a net brain gain results in an increase in welfare and growth due to education's positive externalities. This paper argues that these claims are exaggerated. In the static case, and based on both partial and general equilibrium considerations, the paper shows that (1) the size of the brain gain is smaller than suggested in that literature; (2) the impact on welfare and growth is smaller as well (for any brain gain size); (3) a positive brain gain is likely to result in a smaller, possibly negative, human capital gain; (4) an increase in the stock of human capital may have a negative impact on welfare and growth; and (5) in a dynamic framework, the paper shows that the steady-state brain gain is equal to the brain drain so that a 'beneficial brain drain' cannot take place, and a net brain loss is likely during the transition.

Measuring the International Mobility of Skilled Workers (1990-2000): Release 1.0

Docquier, Frédéric; Marfouk, Abdeslam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
Until recently, there has been no systematic empirical assessment of the economic impact of the brain drain. Despite many case studies and anecdotal evidence, the main reason for this seems to be the lack of harmonized international data on migration by country of origin and education level. An exception is the paper by Carrington and Detragiache (1998), which provided skilled migration rates for 61 developing countries in 1990. This study relies on a set of tentative assumptions. For example, they transpose the skill structure of U.S. immigrants on the OECD total immigration stock. In this paper, the authors provide new estimates of skilled workers' emigration rates for about 190 countries in 2000 and 170 countries in 1990, in both developing and industrial countries. Using various statistical sources, they revisit Carrington and Detragiache's measures by incorporating information on immigrants' educational attainment and country of origin from almost all OECD countries. The set of receiving countries is restricted to OECD nations. The authors' database covers 92.7 percent of the OECD immigration stock. In absolute terms...

International Migration, Remittances, and the Brain Drain

Özden, Çağlar; Schiff, Maurice
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
Knowledge of the economic effects of migration, especially its impact on economic development, is rather limited. In order to expand knowledge on migration, and identify policies and reforms that would lead to superior development outcomes, this volume presents the results of a first set of studies carried out on the subject. Current demographic trends in both developed and developing countries are pointing toward significant, potential economic gains from migration. The labor forces in many developed countries are expected to peak around 2010, and decline by around 5 percent in the following two decades, accompanied by a rapid increase in dependency ratios. Conversely, the labor forces in many developing countries are expanding rapidly, resulting in declines in dependency ratios. This imbalance is likely to create strong demand for workers in developed countries' labor markets, especially for numerous service sectors that can only be supplied locally. There are large north-south wage gaps, however, especially for unskilled and semiskilled labor. Part 1 of this book...

A Gendered Assessment of the Brain Drain

Docquier, Frédéric; Lowell, B. Lindsay; Marfouk, Abdeslam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
This paper updates and extends the Docquier-Marfouk data set on inter-national migration by educational attainment. The authors use new sources, homogenize definitions of what a migrant is, and compute gender-disaggregated indicators of the brain drain. Emigration stocks and rates are provided by level of schooling and gender for 195 source countries in 1990 and 2000. The data set can be used to capture the recent trend in women's skilled migration and to analyze its causes and consequences for developing countries. The .findings show that women represent an increasing share of the OECD immigration stock and exhibit relatively higher rates of brain drain than men. The gender gap in skilled migration is strongly correlated with the gender gap in educational attainment at origin. Equating women's and men's access to education would probably reduce gender differences in the brain drain.

Los emigrantes cualificados del Magreb; “Brain drain” migration in the Magreb region

Cebrián, Juan A.; Charef, Mohammed; Bodega Fernández, María Isabel; Martín Lou, María Asunción
Fonte: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España) Publicador: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (España)
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 165904 bytes; application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
[ES] También en el Magreb se produce una fuga de cerebros hacia países más desarrollados. En este artículo analizamos la componente europea de ese flujo; más concretamente, el establecimiento de graduados magrebíes en la Unión Europea y, más específicamente, en Francia. Utilizamos como indicadores las estadísticas que la UNESCO y EUROSTAT publican sobre estudiantes extranjeros universitarios en los países de la Unión Europea. Por encima de la media mundial, el Magreb destaca por su proporción de estudiantes en el extranjero sobre total de población estudiantil. Esta situación desemboca en una pérdida considerable de cápital humano magrebí, por el establecimiento de muchos de sus graduados universitarios en los países desarrollados donde cursa sus estudios superiores. En el artículo se analizan también las ventajas de este tipo de situaciones para los países de origen, que se benefician del establecimiento de redes transnacionales de individuos muy capacitados. El punto de vista del análisis es dual, a la vez europeo y norteafricano, subrayando claramente las diferencias que existen entre los dos, más allá de un consenso banal.; [EN] This paper addresses the “brain drain” side of the contemporary migration of peoples from the Magreb region to the European Union and...

Plumbing the brain drain

Saravia,Nancy Gore; Miranda,Juan Francisco
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.36%
Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities...

Strategies to discourage brain drain

Kupfer,Linda; Hofman,Karen; Jarawan,Raya; McDermott,Jeanne; Bridbord,Ken
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
Building health research expertise in developing countries often requires personnel to receive training beyond national borders. For research funding agencies that sponsor this type of training, a major goal is to ensure that trainees return to their country of origin: attaining this objective requires the use of proactive strategies. The strategies described were developed under the extramural acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) International Training and Research Program (AITRP) funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) at the National Institutes of Health, United States. This programme supports universities in the United States that provide research training to scientists from developing countries to enable them to address the global epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS and the related tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. This paper describes the strategies employed to discourage brain drain by the principle investigators (PIs) of five of the longest-funded AITRPs (funded for 15 years). Long-term trainees in these programmes spent from 11 to 96 months (an average of 26 months) studying. Using scientific, political and economic strategies that address brain drain issues, PIs working in AITRPs have attained an average rate of return home for their trainees of 80%.