Página 1 dos resultados de 167 itens digitais encontrados em 0.003 segundos

Unauthorized Border Crossings and Migrant Deaths: Arizona, New Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, 2002–2003

Sapkota, Sanjeeb; Kohl, Harold W.; Gilchrist, Julie; McAuliffe, Jay; Parks, Bruce; England, Bob; Flood, Tim; Sewell, C. Mack; Perrotta, Dennis; Escobedo, Miguel; Stern, Corrine E.; Zane, David; Nolte, Kurt B.
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2006 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2006
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
Objectives. We examined the major causes of and risk factors for death among migrants who died while making unauthorized border crossings into the United States from Mexico.

TEMPORAL-SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF U.S.- MEXICO BORDER ENVIRONMENTAL FINE AND COARSE PM AIR SAMPLE EXTRACT ACTIVITY IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

Lauer, Fredine T.; Mitchell, Leah A.; Bedrick, Edward; McDonald, Jacob D.; Lee, Wen-Yee; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Amaya, Maria A.; Berwick, Marianne; Gonzales, Melissa; Currey, Robert; Pingitore, Nicholas E.; Burchiel, Scott W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Particulate matter less than 10 μm (PM10) has been shown to be associated with aggravation of asthma and respiratory and cardiopulmonary morbidity. There is also great interest in the potential health effects of PM 2.5. Particulate matter (PM) varies in composition both spatially and temporally depending on the source, location and seasonal condition. El Paso County which lies in the Paso del Norte airshed is a unique location to study ambient air pollution due to three major points: the geological land formation, the relatively large population and the various sources of PM. In this study, dichotomous filters were collected from various sites in El Paso County every seven days for a period of one year. The sampling sites were both distant and near border crossings, which are near heavily populated areas with high traffic volume. Fine (PM2.5) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) PM filter samples were extracted using dichloromethane and were assessed for biologic activity and polycyclic aromatic (PAH) content. Three sets of marker genes human BEAS2B bronchial epithelial cells were utilized to assess the effects of airborne PAHs on biologic activities associated with specific biological pathways associated with airway diseases. These pathways included in inflammatory cytokine production (IL-6...

Border crossings in Mercosur countries: obstacles and their cost

Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
In a recent ECLAC study of inefficiency at border crossings in Mercosur countries, it was found that the cost of delays in traffic between Argentina and Brazil amounted to a minimum of US$ 170 per truck for the most problematic border crossing. This is over 10 % higher than the typical price of freight between Buenos Aires and Sao Paulo or Porto Alegre. It was estimated that the extra-cost on this border crossing may amount to a maximum of US$ 273 per truck. These problems, which have to do more with organization than with infrastructure, cause serious losses to the sectors involved in international transport, and especially to end users of intermediate or consumer goods transported.This edition of the Bulletin includes a summary of a soon-to-be-published study entitled Identificación de obstáculos al transporte terrestre internacional de cargas en el Mercosur: los casos de Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay.For further information, please contact Ricardo J. Sánchez or Georgina Cipoletta T. trans@eclac.cl .

Facilitating Cross-Border Trade between the DRC and Neighbors in the Great Lakes Region of Africa : Improving Conditions for Poor Traders

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.72%
This report looks at the current situation and opportunities for cross-border trade between Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and neighbors with a focus on agricultural products. It recognizes that much of current trade across these borders is informal and carried by individual traders, most of whom are poor women. The report shows that it is very important that informality not be equated with illegality. The large numbers of traders that cross the border every day do so through official border crossings. The aim of the report is to provide information on the current state and the potential for cross border trade between the DRC and Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda, to document the conditions and problems that traders face in crossing the borders and provide suggestions to policy makers on the priorities for trade facilitating measures at the border. Exploiting the potential for cross-border trade will be an important element of growth and poverty reduction in the region and a key mechanism for enhancing stability. Comparing prices for food products in a range of markets in the three countries...

Automating the Control of Goods in International Transit : Implementing the TIM in Central America

Sarmiento, Alvaro; Lucenti, Krista; Garcia, Aurelio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
In 2008, the Integration and Trade Sector (INT) of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) designed an innovative project in Central America called International Goods in Transit (or TIM, its Spanish acronym), which has dramatically improved the speed and efficiency of border clearance for goods in transit. The TIM is an electronic system for managing and controlling the movement of goods in transit that harmonizes previously cumbersome procedures into a single electronic document, consolidating information and certifications from various authorities including migration, customs, and health/agriculture. The project is based on three main pillars: (1) process reengineering: TIM harmonizes multiple paper-based declarations into a unique and comprehensive electronic document that gathers all data needed by customs, migration, and phytosanitary agencies; (2) information technology: TIM connects the intranet systems of all agencies participating in the project. It includes state-of-the-art risk analysis and cargo control systems; and (3) cooperation: TIM improves cooperation within the country and between the different agencies operating at border crossings in the Mesoamerican region.

Patterns of Foreign Direct Investment Flows and Trade-Investment Inter-Linkages in Southern Africa : Linking Middle-Income and Low-Income Neighbors

Isik, Gozde; Yoshino, Yutaka
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
This report discusses the patterns of foreign direct investment flows and trade-investment inter-linkages in Southern Africa. It will discuss how cross-border investment flows create a possible channel of growth spillover from South Africa and other MICs to LICs in the subregion, and identify the roles of subregional trade and investment flows in generating these neighborhood effects with LICs. After an introduction with background on the subregion of Southern Africa, Section 2 provides facts on the patterns of trade in Southern African countries to illustrate how much (or little) the Southern African subregion is integrated today and whether or not intraregional trade is growing. Section 3 presents aggregate trends in foreign direct investment flows (and stocks) in SSA, discusses how SASR is situated in such trends, and analyzes the emerging trends of intra-SASR cross-border investments, largely driven by South Africa. Section 4 analyzes trade-investment linkages in Southern Africa at the firm level. Section 5 discusses areas of domestic policies in enhancing trade and foreign direct investment in Southern Africa. Section 6 summarizes the findings from this analysis and discusses their policy implications.

Global Economic Prospects 2005 : Trade, Regionalism and Development

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
The proliferation of regional trade agreements is fundamentally altering the world trade landscape. The number of agreements in force surpasses 200 and has risen eight-fold in two decades. Today as much as 40 percent of global trade takes place among countries that have some form of reciprocal regional trade agreement. Global Economic Prospects 2005: Trade, Regionalism, and Development addresses two questions: 1) What are the characteristics of agreements that most promote-or hinder-development for member countries? 2) Does the proliferation of agreements pose risks to the multilateral trading system, and if so, how can these risks be managed? The report argues that agreements leading to open regionalism-that is, deeper integration of trade as a result of low external tariffs, increased services competition, and efforts to reduce cross-border and customs delays costs-are effective as part of a larger trade strategy to promote growth. Such regional agreements can complement a strategy that, on the one hand...

Border Crossing Monitoring along the Northern Corridor

Fitzmaurice, Mike; Hartmann, Olivier
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.97%
Border-crossing times in East Africa have been identified as a major constraint for smooth trade flows, both for regional trade and for international transit. Delays at borders disrupt efficient trade logistics, impacting on the transport costs and prices, and ultimately on trade competitiveness. In order to improve the efficiency of border crossings in East Africa, the East Africa Community (EAC) has resolved to convert the main border crossings into a Stop Border Post (OSBP), in which all border agencies from the two sides of the border coordinate their interventions, thus reducing documentation processing time. This program is supported by several multilateral and bilateral donors as component of their assistance to regional integration in the EAC. The paper is divided into four sections. The first section provides background information on the Northern Corridor. The second section presents the conclusions that can be drawn from the survey, presented in the Northern Corridor context with the key issues that will require further discussion among stakeholders and further action. From a wider perspective...

Estimating Trade Flows, Describing Trade Relationships, and Identifying Barriers to Cross-Border Trade Between Cameroon and Nigeria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
Cameroon and Nigeria share a common border of nearly 1,700km and both countries have strong historical and cultural ties. However, the partnership between the two countries has had its difficult periods, most recently when the relationship turned hostile over the disputed Bakassi Peninsula, and economic linkages between the economies remain limited. Expanding trade between the two countries could play a critical role in accelerating economic development and regional integration by opening up new markets for producers, and allowing them to benefit from economies of scale. This will require reducing barriers to cross-border trade, allowing increased trade flows to reach the larger market, and permitting private sector producers to increase the scale of their activities. Removing barriers to trade between the two neighbors is likely to benefit particularly relatively remote areas of both countries. The study finds that regulatory and security barriers at the border and along the road remain key impediments to trade. The remainder of this report proceeds as follows. Section one describes drivers for cross border trade such as historical relations...

Baltic States and Poland Trade Logistics Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
The Baltic States; Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and Poland are situated along strategic trade corridors within Europe, constituting the EUs eastern border with Russia and other CIS countries. EU membership has triggered rapid economic growth for the Baltic States and Poland due to the removal of trade barriers and reduced transaction costs. A heavy influx of EU grants has targeted development and improvement of transport infrastructure, and this support will continue until 2015. The EU grants are largely used for development of international corridors, which play a key role in strengthening the competitiveness of these new member states. Since their accession to the EU in 2004, these countries enjoyed remarkable growth. While the countries underwent varying degrees of contractions in 2009, signs of recovery are showing albeit with considerable uncertainty in the future. Growth in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in recent years has been unsustainable and was driven by a disproportionate increase in the non-tradable sector (construction...

Rail Electronic Data Interchange in a Border Crossing Point in South East Europe; An Assessment of Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.79%
Within the European Union (EU) rail transport is currently the least integrated transport mode. This leads to delays, extra costs, and insufficient use of rail freight, especially for time-sensitive cargo. This also represents a missed opportunity in terms of moving towards a greener transport modal split within the EU. Rail freight, for which international activity represents 50 percent of total activities, will not be able to develop fully if border crossing rail operations do not deliver a better service for shippers and freight operators who require seamless trans-national transport as is possible by road, air and sea. Observing that the modal split of rail in the EU is stagnating at around 16 percent after years of decline, the European Commission proposed a regulation on a European rail network for competitive freight to be based on a number of rail freight corridors which entered into force on November 9, 2010. Regulation No 913/2010 makes it mandatory to create a European rail network for competitive freight based on international freight corridors...

Catastrophic Terrorism at the Border The Case of the Canada-United States Border

Hataley, Todd
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Center for Homeland Defense and Security
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
This article appeared in Homeland Security Affairs (2007), Supplement no. 1; Land border crossings between Canada and the United States are a critical component of Canada's modern trade routes, representing a vital strategic link to the economic viability of Canada. A catastrophic terrorist event at the Canada- United States border would be an event having the potential to seriously disrupt those economic linkages, vital to the well-being of Canadians and the Canadian state. The outcome of a catastrophic terrorist incident along the border could impact Canada in a number of ways. This paper will look at two issues with regards to the border and terrorism, and briefly discuss the impact on Canada specifically, and Canada-United States relations indirectly. Those two issues are border infrastructure as the target of a terrorist attack and the potential for the transnational movement of terror groups for the purpose of delivering an attack.

Border Management Modernization

McLinden, Gerard; Fanta, Enrique; Widdowson, David; Doyle, Tom
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.83%
This book provides border management policymakers and reformers with a broad survey of key developments in and principles for improving trade facilitation through better border management, including practical advice on particular issues. In contrast to the traditional border management reform agenda, with its focus on improving customs operations, this book addresses both customs reform and areas well beyond customs-a significant broadening of scope. The book thus presents a new, more comprehensive approach to trade facilitation through border management reform: an approach that embraces a much wider, 'whole of government' perspective. The objective of this book is to summarize and provide guidance on what constitutes good practices in border management-looking beyond customs clearance. The contributions to the volume make clear that there are no simple or universally applicable solutions. Instead, the aim is to provide a range of general guidelines that can be used to better understand the complex border management environment and the interdependencies and interrelationships that collectively need to be addressed to secure meaningful change and improvement.

West Bank and Gaza - Transport Sector Strategy Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
The purpose of this Transport Sector Note (TSN) is to assist the Palestinian Authority (PA) in developing a strategy for the sector that can aid in addressing the immediate constraints and transport issues in support of the PA's effort to revive the national economy, improve mobility and reduce poverty. The TSN also aims to assist the responsible sector ministries prepare a coherent strategic framework and program for the sector. Secondary objectives are to update the Bank's knowledge of the transport sector priorities and identify priority interventions and support for the donor community s consideration. The scope of this TSN encompasses the transport infrastructure, including the road network, ports, and crossings, as well as the public transport system. After an introductory chapter, the Note includes a review of the following topics: current status of the transport sector; proposed strategic framework for development of the transport sector; and financing the proposed strategic framework.

Borderless Bazaars and Regional Integration in Central Asia : Emerging Patterns of Trade and Cross-Border Cooperation

Kaminski, Bartlomiej; Mitra, Saumya
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Local populations' economic opportunities can be enhanced through special arrangements governing movement of people and goods in neighboring areas. For instance, in the Tajikistan-Uzbekistan border-crossing points (BCPs), preferential treatment accorded to residents in contiguous regions varies from one BCP to another, even within one borderline, restricting the distance allowed for travel into the territory of another country to the closest large city or marketplace. When governments impose restrictions on the movements of individuals, vehicles, or goods or close BCPs or bazaars, they may do so on public policy grounds. Security is often cited as a factor for imposing controls, as is prevention of contraband trade. Such government imposed obstacles are a blunt and expensive instrument to attain such public policy aims. The income and welfare costs levied on poor communities of such public policies may be disproportionate to achieve stated public policy goals. Instead, BCPs and bazaars could be opened but made subject to strict and effective policing, ideally using risk-based criteria; similarly, risk-based surveillance or vehicle searches could take the place of an outright ban. Moreover, a government may find that the security benefits of stronger community ties across borders may be considerable; after all...

East Africa's Infrastructure : A Regional Perspective

Ranganathan, Rupa; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
Sound infrastructure is critical for growth in East Africa. During 1995-2005, improvements in infrastructure boosted growth by one percentage point per year, due largely to wider access to information and communication technologies (ICTs). Although power infrastructure sapped growth in other regions of Africa, it contributed 0.2 percentage points per year growth in East Africa. If East Africa's infrastructure could be improved to the level of the strongest performing country in Africa (Mauritius), regional growth performance would be boosted by some six percentage points, with power making the strongest contribution. East Africa's infrastructure ranks behind that of southern and western Africa across a range of indicators, though in terms of access to improved sources of water and sanitation and Internet density, it is comparable with or superior to the subcontinent s leader, southern Africa. By contrast, density of fixed-line telephones, power generation capacity, and access to electricity remain extremely low...

Economic Integration in the Lower Congo Region : Opening the Kinshasa-Brazzaville Bottleneck

Brulhart, Marius; Hoppe, Mombert
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
This working paper assesses cross-border economic integration in the Lower Congo region. It focuses on the Kinshasa-Brazzaville conurbation, which is projected to become Africa's largest urban area by 2025, and is already serving as the gateway to large hinterlands. Despite their size and proximity, formal economic exchanges between the two cities are extremely limited. The volume of recorded passenger travel between Kinshasa and Brazzaville corresponds to about one-fifth of the volume of traffic between East and West Berlin during the time of the Berlin Wall, and formal trade volumes are derisorily small. As a consequence, the authors find evidence of statistically significant differences in retail prices, indicating unexploited scope for cross-river arbitrage. Through a survey of firms, they find that local traders perceive substantial scope for increasing cross-border economic activity if cross-river trade costs were reduced. Trade in locally produced goods and by small firms would especially benefit from such reductions. Existing high trade costs mainly result from a lack of competition in cross-river transport services...

Estimating Informal Trade across Tunisia's Land Borders

Ayadi, Lotfi; Benjamin, Nancy; Bensassi, Sami; Raballand, Gaël
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
This paper uses mirror statistics and research in the field to estimate the magnitude of Tunisia's informal trade with Libya and Algeria. The aim is to assess the scale of this trade and to evaluate the amount lost in taxes and duties as a result as well as to assess the local impact in terms of income generation. The main findings show that within Tunisian trade as a whole, informal trade accounts for only a small share (5 percent of total imports). However, informal trade represents an important part of the Tunisia's bilateral trade with Libya and Algeria, accounting for more than half the official trade with Libya and more than total official trade with Algeria. The main reasons behind this large-scale informal trade are differences in the levels of subsidies on either side of the border as well as the varying tax regimes. Tackling informal trade is not simply a question of stepping up the number of controls and sanctions, because differences in prices lead to informal trade (and to an increase in corruption levels among border officials) even in cases where the sanctions are severe. As local populations depend on cross-border trade for income generation...

Border fusion / Fusión en la frontera : integrating industry, habitation and exchange in a divided city; Fusión en la frontera / Border fusion

Wei, Albert S. (Albert Shuan)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 157 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
The urban fabric of communities along San Diego/Tijuana's la Línea or border wall are characterized by high degrees of spatial fragmentation: -- a condition typical of border interface areas in politically partitioned or divided cities. Despite being centrally located relative to population and activity centers and their economic and social importance as sites for border crossings, these communities are sites of contention which have tended to attract a mixture of conventionally undesirable development programs. The critical interface connecting the US and Mexican halves of the city is, in substantial measure, a "no-man's-land." This thesis considers one such border community, San Diego's Otay Mesa district, and proposes a long-term urban design strategy for its transformation into mixed-use neighborhoods with the border wall itself as a key activating and organizing spatial element. What is a physical expression of urban form in Otay Mesa that simultaneously accommodates frequently conflicting national, local and environmental objectives for the site? How may man-made infrastructures and natural site systems be exploited, restructured and interlaced to facilitate the redevelopment of the site? What design interventions will improve the physical and social connections between San Diego and Tijuana...

An Application of the Bass diffusion model to border security and illegal immigration

Ohene-Asah, Ayeh
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
This research's objective was to apply the Bass Diffusion model to border security and illegal immigration. The Potential Actual Illegal Immigration Population (PAIIP) model was created using the Vensim software program to illustrate and simulate illegal border crossings and assess the impact of detention, deportation, and amnesty on the communication between potential and actual illegal immigrants. This systems modeling approach combined with a secondary analysis method was used for data collection and analysis. Results indicate that no single or combination of policies solves the problem of illegal immigration. This study's conclusions point out that the greater the quality of information communicated between actual illegal immigrants that reside in the United States and potential illegal immigrants that live outside of the United States increases the probability of illegal crossings. Policymakers should ensure that institutions and agencies work in unison at the local, state, and federal level to deter illegal immigration and provide national security.