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Crossing Over: Drug Network Characteristics and Injection Risk Along the China–Myanmar Border

Williams, Chyvette T.; Liu, Wei; Levy, Judith A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
Border areas are important locations for understanding HIV transmission. This study examines individual and network correlates of border crossing and equipment sharing among methadone maintenance clients in Ruili City, a Chinese city on the Myanmar border. Data are from 298 clients enrolled in the Ruili Methadone Treatment Center. Clients were interviewed about drug use, HIV/AIDS knowledge, treatment motivation, and their social networks. Multinomial and logistic regression analysis were performed. Thirty percent of clients reported injecting in Myanmar. Compared to drug networks that usually inject in China, networks that inject equally in both places (border crossing) are more likely to share equipment. The association between HIV positive status and border-crossing was marginally significant and robust. Results indicate some added degree of risk among clients and drug networks who border-cross to use drugs. More research is needed to understand this phenomenon.

DataView: Medicare Spending by State: The Border-Crossing Adjustment

Basu, Joy; Lazenby, Helen C.; Levit, Katharine R.
Fonte: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Publicador: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
As the first step in a pioneering effort by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) to measure interstate border crossing for services used by both Medicare and non-Medicare beneficiaries, the authors study the spending behavior of Medicare beneficiaries for 10 Medicare-covered services. Based on interstate flow-of-expenditure data developed for calendar year 1991, the authors analyze the spending patterns of State residents by studying the inflow and outflow rates and the net flow ratios of expenditures incurred by Medicare patients. The report also provides per capita expenditure estimates with residence-based adjustments and evaluates the impact of the border-crossing adjustment for individual services and States.

Facilitating Cross-Border Trade between the DRC and Neighbors in the Great Lakes Region of Africa : Improving Conditions for Poor Traders

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
This report looks at the current situation and opportunities for cross-border trade between Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and neighbors with a focus on agricultural products. It recognizes that much of current trade across these borders is informal and carried by individual traders, most of whom are poor women. The report shows that it is very important that informality not be equated with illegality. The large numbers of traders that cross the border every day do so through official border crossings. The aim of the report is to provide information on the current state and the potential for cross border trade between the DRC and Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda, to document the conditions and problems that traders face in crossing the borders and provide suggestions to policy makers on the priorities for trade facilitating measures at the border. Exploiting the potential for cross-border trade will be an important element of growth and poverty reduction in the region and a key mechanism for enhancing stability. Comparing prices for food products in a range of markets in the three countries...

Border Crossing Monitoring along the Northern Corridor

Fitzmaurice, Mike; Hartmann, Olivier
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.64%
Border-crossing times in East Africa have been identified as a major constraint for smooth trade flows, both for regional trade and for international transit. Delays at borders disrupt efficient trade logistics, impacting on the transport costs and prices, and ultimately on trade competitiveness. In order to improve the efficiency of border crossings in East Africa, the East Africa Community (EAC) has resolved to convert the main border crossings into a Stop Border Post (OSBP), in which all border agencies from the two sides of the border coordinate their interventions, thus reducing documentation processing time. This program is supported by several multilateral and bilateral donors as component of their assistance to regional integration in the EAC. The paper is divided into four sections. The first section provides background information on the Northern Corridor. The second section presents the conclusions that can be drawn from the survey, presented in the Northern Corridor context with the key issues that will require further discussion among stakeholders and further action. From a wider perspective...

Estimating Trade Flows, Describing Trade Relationships, and Identifying Barriers to Cross-Border Trade Between Cameroon and Nigeria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
Cameroon and Nigeria share a common border of nearly 1,700km and both countries have strong historical and cultural ties. However, the partnership between the two countries has had its difficult periods, most recently when the relationship turned hostile over the disputed Bakassi Peninsula, and economic linkages between the economies remain limited. Expanding trade between the two countries could play a critical role in accelerating economic development and regional integration by opening up new markets for producers, and allowing them to benefit from economies of scale. This will require reducing barriers to cross-border trade, allowing increased trade flows to reach the larger market, and permitting private sector producers to increase the scale of their activities. Removing barriers to trade between the two neighbors is likely to benefit particularly relatively remote areas of both countries. The study finds that regulatory and security barriers at the border and along the road remain key impediments to trade. The remainder of this report proceeds as follows. Section one describes drivers for cross border trade such as historical relations...

Baltic States and Poland Trade Logistics Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
The Baltic States; Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and Poland are situated along strategic trade corridors within Europe, constituting the EUs eastern border with Russia and other CIS countries. EU membership has triggered rapid economic growth for the Baltic States and Poland due to the removal of trade barriers and reduced transaction costs. A heavy influx of EU grants has targeted development and improvement of transport infrastructure, and this support will continue until 2015. The EU grants are largely used for development of international corridors, which play a key role in strengthening the competitiveness of these new member states. Since their accession to the EU in 2004, these countries enjoyed remarkable growth. While the countries underwent varying degrees of contractions in 2009, signs of recovery are showing albeit with considerable uncertainty in the future. Growth in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in recent years has been unsustainable and was driven by a disproportionate increase in the non-tradable sector (construction...

Class in Classrooms: The Challenges Public Librarians Face as Border Crossing Educators

Hernanadez, Eduardo
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
In border crossing pedagogy, educators help students negotiate identity and cultural issues. Public librarians help special populations of patrons improve on class issues through education. This study explored the issues public librarians face when they teach and border cross across social classes.

BIOPASS Study on Automated Biometric Border Crossing Systems for Registered Passenger at Four European Airports

RIHA Zdenek; VAN DEN STEEN MARTIN; LOESCHNER JAN
Fonte: Frontex Publicador: Frontex
Tipo: Articles in books Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
This report concerns a case study of automated border crossing systems based on biometrics at the four largest European airports: Schiphol, Frankfurt, Charles de Gaulle, and Heathrow. All four systems are fully working and enable the registered passengers to cross the border in a convenient way. Both iris-based and fingerprint-based systems operate well without significant differences. The encountered problems do not concern the biometrics, but rather the practical design of the checkpoints and the human interfaces. However, all systems operate on a small scale and cover only about one percent of the passenger flow. Furthermore, the systems are highly different in many ways including how they store the data, what token the passenger needs, and the design of the gates. As a consequence, the systems are currently specific to the respective airport with no interoperability at all. Despite the limited scale of the studied systems, they prove the concept of automated biometric border crossing.; JRC.G.6-Sensors, radar technologies and cybersecurity

Rail Electronic Data Interchange in a Border Crossing Point in South East Europe; An Assessment of Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.73%
Within the European Union (EU) rail transport is currently the least integrated transport mode. This leads to delays, extra costs, and insufficient use of rail freight, especially for time-sensitive cargo. This also represents a missed opportunity in terms of moving towards a greener transport modal split within the EU. Rail freight, for which international activity represents 50 percent of total activities, will not be able to develop fully if border crossing rail operations do not deliver a better service for shippers and freight operators who require seamless trans-national transport as is possible by road, air and sea. Observing that the modal split of rail in the EU is stagnating at around 16 percent after years of decline, the European Commission proposed a regulation on a European rail network for competitive freight to be based on a number of rail freight corridors which entered into force on November 9, 2010. Regulation No 913/2010 makes it mandatory to create a European rail network for competitive freight based on international freight corridors...

Border Management Modernization

McLinden, Gerard; Fanta, Enrique; Widdowson, David; Doyle, Tom
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
This book provides border management policymakers and reformers with a broad survey of key developments in and principles for improving trade facilitation through better border management, including practical advice on particular issues. In contrast to the traditional border management reform agenda, with its focus on improving customs operations, this book addresses both customs reform and areas well beyond customs-a significant broadening of scope. The book thus presents a new, more comprehensive approach to trade facilitation through border management reform: an approach that embraces a much wider, 'whole of government' perspective. The objective of this book is to summarize and provide guidance on what constitutes good practices in border management-looking beyond customs clearance. The contributions to the volume make clear that there are no simple or universally applicable solutions. Instead, the aim is to provide a range of general guidelines that can be used to better understand the complex border management environment and the interdependencies and interrelationships that collectively need to be addressed to secure meaningful change and improvement.

Understanding the Benefits of Regional Integration to Trade : The Application of a Gravity Model to the Case of Central America

Gordillo, Darwin Marcelo; Stokenberga, Aiga; Schwartz, Jordan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
The paper identifies the impact of physical barriers to trade within Central America through the use of an augmented and partially constrained Gravity Model of Trade. Adjusting the Euclidian distance factor for Central America by real average transport times, the model quantifies the impact of poor connectivity and border frictions on the region's internal trade as well as its trade with external partners, such as the United States and Europe. In addition, the authors benchmark Central America's trade coefficients against those of a physically integrated region by running a parallel Gravity Model for the 15 core countries of the European Union. This allows for the estimation of potential intra-regional and external trade levels if Central America were to reduce border frictions and time of travel between countries and thus benefit from both the adjacency of each country's neighbors and the gravitational pull of the region's economies. The analysis is conducted for all of Central America's trade and is also disaggregated for three groups of products -- processed fruits and vegetables; steel and steel products; and grains -- by both volume and value. This differentiation tests the consistency of the results while providing insight into the differentiation in trading patterns and potential for these containerized...

Borderless Bazaars and Regional Integration in Central Asia : Emerging Patterns of Trade and Cross-Border Cooperation

Kaminski, Bartlomiej; Mitra, Saumya
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.65%
Local populations' economic opportunities can be enhanced through special arrangements governing movement of people and goods in neighboring areas. For instance, in the Tajikistan-Uzbekistan border-crossing points (BCPs), preferential treatment accorded to residents in contiguous regions varies from one BCP to another, even within one borderline, restricting the distance allowed for travel into the territory of another country to the closest large city or marketplace. When governments impose restrictions on the movements of individuals, vehicles, or goods or close BCPs or bazaars, they may do so on public policy grounds. Security is often cited as a factor for imposing controls, as is prevention of contraband trade. Such government imposed obstacles are a blunt and expensive instrument to attain such public policy aims. The income and welfare costs levied on poor communities of such public policies may be disproportionate to achieve stated public policy goals. Instead, BCPs and bazaars could be opened but made subject to strict and effective policing, ideally using risk-based criteria; similarly, risk-based surveillance or vehicle searches could take the place of an outright ban. Moreover, a government may find that the security benefits of stronger community ties across borders may be considerable; after all...

Canada/U.S. border crossing: facilitation and constraint

Nyarko, Cynthia.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
Abstract The aim of this research project is to draw on accounts of experiences ofborder crossing and regulation at the Canada/U.S. border at Niagara in order to illuminate the dynamics of differentiation and inequality at this site. The research is informed by claims that the world is turning into a global village due to transnational flows oftechnology, infonnation, capital and people. Much of the available literature on globalization shows that while the transfer of technology, information, and capital are enhanced, the transnational movement of people is both facilitated and constrained in complex and unequal ways. In this project, the workings of facilitation and constraint were explored through an analysis often interviews with people who had spent a substantial portion oftheir childhood (e.g. 5 years) in a Canadian border community. The interviewees were at the time ofthe research between the ages of 19 and 25. Because most ofthe respondents were 'white' Canadians of working to upper middle class status, my focus was to explore how 'whiteness' as privilege may translate into enhanced movement across borders and how 'white' people may internalize and enjoy this privilege but may often deny its reality. I was also interested in how inequality is perceived...

Territory and border crossing for livelihoods among (voluntary and forced) migrants from DRC to Swaziland: the re-imagining of a borderless spatial system

Tati, Gabriel
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em 06/02/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.6%
In people’s livelihoods, migration across international borders represents an important strategy for asset accumulation (Moser and Dani, 2008). On the continent, men and women have always migrated to neighbouring countries or further afield in search of opportunities. Taking the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as a case study for the generation of cross-border migration, this paper examines ways in which, through the spatial trajectories of migrants from Democratic Republic of Congo, different meanings are assigned to bordered territories. It interrogates the extent to which (voluntary and forced) migrants create a borderless spatial system that circumvents the geographically defined state. I make use of an interpretive approach to demonstrate the extent to which migrants' experiences with border crossing are a livelihood and asset accumulation strategy within a somewhat borderless spatial system. My core argument is that the interplay of weak institutional policy apparatus along the inter-state borders makes it easy for migrants to create their own rules for free movement to fit their social aspirations and in this process a meaning to cross-border mobility is socially assigned and values are developed over time across geographical boundaries. To empirically substantiate this argument...

Border Crossing for Physician Services: Implications for Controlling Expenditures

Holahan, John; Zuckerman, Stephen
Fonte: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Publicador: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
In this article, the authors explore geographic border crossing for the use of Medicare physician services. Using data from the 1988 Part B Medicare Annual Data (BMAD) file, they find that there is substantial geographic variation across both States and urban and rural areas in border crossing to seek services. As might be expected, there is more border crossing among smaller geographic areas than among States. Predominantly rural areas tend to be major importers of services, but urban areas, on average, export services. Border crossing tends to be greater for high-technology services such as advanced imaging, cardiovascular surgery, and oncology procedures. These results suggest that expenditure-control policies applying to States or metropolitan areas should incorporate adjusters for patients' current geographic patterns of care.

DataView: Border-Crossing Adjustment and Personal Health Care Spending by State

Basu, Joy
Fonte: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Publicador: CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
This article presents the results of a pioneering effort by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) to measure interstate border crossing for services used by Medicare and non-Medicare beneficiaries. A major focus is to provide estimates of per capita expenditures by State for individual services. Such estimates are not possible without adjustment for interstate border-crossing flows. This is HCFA's first attempt to furnish a unified per capita personal health care expenditures data base comprising all services and covering total population. The study also analyzes interstate differences in expenditure flows by computing rates of inflow and outflow of expenditures, and highlights Medicare/non-Medicare flow differences.

Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico

Gudelia Rangel,M.; Martínez-Donate,Ana P.; Hovell,Melbourne F.; Santibáñez,Jorge; Sipan,Carol L.; Izazola-Licea,Jose A.
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs) in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US), and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico)-San Diego (California, US) border region (N=1 429). RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.

The Border as a Life Experience: Identities, Asymmetry and Border Crossing between Mexico and the United States

Velasco Ortiz,Laura; Contreras,Óscar F.
Fonte: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte Publicador: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.77%
This article analyzes the effects of the Mexico-United States geopolitical border in social and cultural differentiation, using the crossing experience as the analytical core. Based in 60 life histories of residents of the Mexico-USA border region, a typology of life experiences structured around border crossing is developed, including a wide range of life experiences, from those that involve never having crossed the border to those that are precisely the product of border crossing. The experienced border encompasses the subjectified experience of the region, integrating both the meaning of crossing and the structural elements that historically have defined the border: proximity, asymmetry, and interaction.

Sexual risk behavior among military personnel stationed at border-crossing zones in the Dominican Republic

Anastario,Michael P.; Tavarez,Maria Isabel; Chun,Helen
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.62%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors among military personnel stationed along major border-crossing zones between the Dominican Republic and Haiti. METHODS: From November 2008 to January 2009, behavioral surveys were administered to 498 active duty military personnel stationed along the three largest border-crossing zones on the western border of the Dominican Republic. Participants were selected using systematic random sampling and asked about their sexual behavior over the past 12 months, alcohol use, and mental health. RESULTS: Forty-one percent reported having casual sex during the past 12 months, 37% of men had a history of having sex with a commercial sex worker (19% during the past 12 months), and 7% of men reported a history of having sex with a transmigrating Haitian (6% during the past 12 months). Among sexually non-monogamous respondents (51%), inconsistent condom use exceeded 60% for those engaging in anal, vaginal, or oral sex. Fifteen percent reported using sexual coercion during the past 12 months. CONCLUSIONS. Sexual risk behaviors were prevalent among military personnel stationed along border-crossing zones between the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Prevention programs targeted at military personnel in this region should incorporate sexual coercion and mental health as key elements of their HIV prevention programs.

Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico

Gudelia Rangel,M.; Martínez-Donate,Ana P.; Hovell,Melbourne F.; Santibáñez,Jorge; Sipan,Carol L.; Izazola-Licea,Jose A.
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs) in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US), and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico)-San Diego (California, US) border region (N=1 429). RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.