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A organização da informação em sebos de Porto Alegre

Antunes, Graciele Andrea da Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Os sebos, estabelecimentos que comercializam livros usados, utilizam formas de organização em seus acervos. A presente monografia tem como objetivo principal analisar as formas de organização da informação utilizadas pelos sebos em Porto Alegre. O referencial teórico deste estudo define o sebo como um comércio de livros usados e aborda as redes de comércio virtual de sebos. Com ênfase na Estante Virtual, portal iniciado no ano de 2005, que reúne 1.800 sebos e livreiros. Apresenta a história do comércio de livros no mundo, desde a Roma e Grécia Antiga até a Idade Moderna, época em que o comércio se desenvolve de maneira regionalizada. Seguido da história do livro no Brasil, com início no período colonial, com livrarias pobres até o período atual, de grandes megastores. Define informação como um dado dotado de relevância e propósito ao seu receptor e conhecimento como internalização de informações. Explica que as expressões ”Organização da Informação” e “Organização do Conhecimento” são utilizadas de forma indiscriminada e sugere que estudos terminológicos sejam realizados a fim de que se possa esclarecer se há ou não diferenças entre os conceitos. Apresenta a história das classificações bibliográficas...

Connecting Landlocked Developing Countries to Markets : Trade Corridors in the 21st Century

Arvis, Jean-François; Carruthers, Robin; Smith, Graham; Willoughby, Christopher
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
The importance of transport corridors for trade and development, including for some of the poorest countries in the world, is widely recognized in this book. A new consensus has also emerged that reducing trade costs and improving access to corridors is not just a matter of building infrastructure. The policies that regulate transport services providers and the movement of goods along corridors are important determinants of the social rate of return on such infrastructure investment. This book avoids optimistic assumptions regarding the prospects for new high-level agreements and decisions to facilitate transit or the possible benefits from increased use of technology. Instead, the authors argue that much can be done through the implementation of readily available existing tools. The use of these tools is often hampered by not only capacity constraints; but, equally if not more important, a lack of commitment. Political economic factors in both the landlocked countries and their transit neighbors must be recognized and addressed. This book offers examples of possible implementation strategies that...

Financial Services and Preferential Trade Agreements : Lessons from Latin America

Haddad, Mona; Stephanou, Constantinos
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
This book deals with financial liberalization issues in the context of trade negotiations. The liberalization of trade and investment in financial services is only a subset of the broader financial liberalization agenda. The purpose of trade and investment liberalization is to increase financial market access and remove discriminatory and other access-impeding barriers to foreign competition. By contrast, the main purpose of financial liberalization is to remove distortions in domestic financial systems that impede competition and the allocation of capital to its most productive and profitable uses. In turn, financial liberalization can be divided into domestic financial reform and capital account opening, and there is a rich literature on its appropriate speed and sequencing. The first part of the book covers the fundamental principles that affect trade liberalization in financial services at both the multilateral and the regional levels. It analyzes the various models of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) used by negotiators and the architectural differences of these models. The second part of this book provides concrete examples of how countries have negotiated these agreements by focusing on the specific country experiences of Chile...

International Trade in Services : New Trends and Opportunities for Developing Countries

Cattaneo, Olivier; Engman, Michael; Sáez, Sebastián; Stern, Robert M.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
International trade in services also provides an assessment of how policy makers can further bolster their service industries by leveraging the changes prompted by technological advancements. The book provides policy recommendations that include the reduction of barriers to services trade across all sectors and the promotion of health- and environment-related development policies that should be promoted in parallel with a burgeoning services market. The first recommendation is considered the most important, because it focuses on the need to ensure trade openness, which helps ensure the access to services and promotes the quality of services provision through foreign and domestic competition. Moreover, the issue of temporary movement of labor is another focus of this book, given that it is one of the most important means of service exports for developing countries. This is an issue that is considered technically complex and politically sensitive because of its political and security implications. The book examines mechanisms that have been used by various countries to liberalize the temporary movement of persons and concludes that regardless of the negotiating forum- multilateral...

Trade in Services Negotiations : A Guide for Developing Countries

Sáez, Sebastián
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
The aim of this book is to help policy makers, especially in the least developed countries, address the complexities of the organization, formulation, and implementation of trade-related reforms in the service sector. The book provides a conceptual framework for trade policy making and negotiation and practical tools that may be used to guide negotiations on policies that affect the trade and investment in services. The aim is not to be prescriptive, but to provide practical recommendations and tools that may be applied in the pursuit of negotiations on services, including consultations and regulatory audits. Negotiators often have little basic information regarding existing regulations and the purpose of these regulations. This problem is compounded by the difficulty of translating existing regulations into the terminology and concepts used in trade agreements. Different methodological approaches are needed to manage different sets of laws and regulations. This book offers a simple tool to help countries organize information to address these challenges. The book also provides practical examples and negotiation exercises that aim to enhance understanding of ways to use the conceptual framework and related tools.

Globalization for Development : Trade, Finance, Aid, Migration, and Policy

Goldin, Ian; Reinert, Kenneth
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
Globalization and its relation to poverty reduction and development are not well understood. The book identifies the ways in which globalization can overcome poverty or make it worse. The book defines the big historical trends, identifies main global flows-trade, finance, aid, migration, and ideas-and examines how each can contribute to undermine economic development. By considering what helps and what does not, the book presents policy recommendations to make globalization more effective as a vehicle for shared growth and prosperity.

Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries

Aksoy, M. Ataman; Beghin, John C.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
This book explores the outstanding issues in global agricultural trade policy and evolving world production and trade patterns. Its coverage of agricultural trade issues ranges from the details of cross-cutting policy issues to the highly distorted agricultural trade regimes of industrial countries and detailed studies of agricultural commodities of economic importance to many developing countries. The book brings together the background issues and findings to guide researchers and policymakers in their global negotiations and domestic policies on agriculture. The book also explores the key questions for global agricultural policies, both the impacts of current trade regimes and the implications of reform. It complements the recent agricultural trade handbook that focuses primarily on the agricultural issues within the context of the World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations (Ingco and Nash 2004).

Domestic Regulation and Service Trade Liberalization

Mattoo, Aaditya; Sauve, Pierre
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
International barriers to services trade are deeply intertwined with national regulatory, investment, and immigration policies. Accordingly, the liberalization of trade in services is considerably more complex that the liberalization of trade in goods. Sector-specific issues abound. This book sheds much light on the challenges facing the trading community in this area, through essays from a distinguished group of authors. Services liberalization has been, and will continue to be the engine of trade liberalization, if that outcome is to occur at all. The book provides one of the best guides to services trade, and all its technicalities, ups and downs, and the future of the world trade order.

Trade facilitation: defining, measuring, explaining and reducing the cost of international trade

Sourdin, P.; Pomfret, R.
Fonte: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited; United Kingdom Publicador: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited; United Kingdom
Tipo: Livro
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
This up-to-date and informative book provides a comprehensive treatment of the costs of trading across borders and of trade facilitation policies. While traditional tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade have been reduced, international trade continues to involve higher costs in money and time than domestic trade. These include not only transport costs, that are determined by distance and commodity characteristics, but also at-the-border and behind-the-border costs which can be reduced by appropriate policies. Research on trade costs has flourished since the turn of the century, and this book by Patricia Sourdin and Richard Pomfret, takes stock of our increased knowledge of the nature and magnitude of trade costs, analysing why they are high and how they can be reduced to increase the gains from trade. Trade Facilitation will appeal to economists and policymakers at the national level and in multinational institutions, researchers and postgraduate students interested in international trade and trade policy, as well as students in international business.; Patricia Sourdin and Richard Pomfret

Theory and practice of EC external trade law and policy

LEAL ARCAS, Rafael
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
Both the European Community (EC) and its Member States agree that it is in their best interest to coordinate their action vis-à-vis the rest of the world in international trade agreements. Theory and Practice of EC External Trade Law and Policy looks at the intricacies of the institutional framework of EC trade law, and with special emphasis on services trade, examines the law and practice of EC external trade relations from a policy, economic, legal and an overarching European constitutional perspective. The objective of the author’s analysis is not only to find ways to nurture and preserve the unitary character of EC external trade relations in areas of shared competence between EU Member States and EU institutions, but also to understand the management of the EC’s external trade relations. The book begins with an analysis of the evolution of the EC common commercial policy, through which the author examines the checks and balances at the micro, meso and macro levels. The author then proceeds to analyse the problems faced by the EU in its external relations and the legal complexity of mixed agreements. This unique legal phenomenon is tackled from an intra-EC perspective as well as from an extra-EU perspective taking into account various implications for third parties. The major EU institutions are examined: the Commission as the negotiator of international trade agreements...

EU preferential trade agreements : commerce, foreign policy and development aspects

Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Livro Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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36.29%
This e-book compiles the written contributions prepared by the speakers of an EUI conference titled ‘Global Europe: The New Generation of EU Preferential Trade Agreements’. The conference took place on May 14-15, 2012, on the EUI premises in San Domenico di Fiesole. It was organized by the EUI Working Group on EU External Relations Law, under the auspices of Professor Marise Cremona and Professor Petros Mavroidis, with generous support provided by the EUI’s Global Governance Programme and the Academy of European Law. The e-book is divided into four parts. In the introductory part, David Kleimann provides a perspective on the European Commission’s efforts to implement the ‘Global Europe’ strategy and outlines the domestic and external challenges that EU leaders face in this process. Part II is devoted to crosscutting issues that generally apply to contemporary PTAs. Against the background of the most recent wave of regional and inter-regional economic integration, Petros Mavroidis argues that the relevance of the WTO for international trade liberalization and rule making is fading. Patrick Messerlin, secondly, considers the various domestic motives for the negotiation of PTAs and identifies the actors that play important roles in the political economy processes associated with the negotiation and conclusion of PTAs. Jean-Pierre Chauffour and David Kleimann...

La compañia de mercaderes de libros de la corte a mediados del siglo XVIII.

García Cuadrado, Amparo
Fonte: Murcia, Universidad de Murcia, Servicio de Publicaciones Publicador: Murcia, Universidad de Murcia, Servicio de Publicaciones
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
A través de una serie de cartelas publicitarias se aborda la formación, desenvolvimiento y actividades desarrolladas desde 1758 a 1763 por la Compañía de Mercaderes de Libros de la Corte. Se analiza la causa que motivó la puesta en marcha de esta entidad ante la precariedad del comercio librario. Se recoge, así mismo, una serie de datos de interés sobre los libreros de Madrid que integraron la Compañía.; ABSTRACT: The growth, development and the activities carried out by the "Compañía de Mercaderes de Libros de la Corte" from 1758 to 1763 is analyzed from a set of commercial brochures. The reasons for the starting of this company despite the precariousness of the book trade are analyzed. Several data of interest for Madrid booksellers who belonged to this company are also gathered.

Safeguards and Antidumping in Latin American Trade Liberalization : Fighting Fire with Fire; Salvaguardias y antidumping en la liberalizacion comercial de America Latina : combatiendo el fuego con fuego

Finger, J. Michael; Nogués, Julio J.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.32%
This book is a report on success-success in trade liberalization and in the removal of trade barriers so as to integrate Latin American economies into the international economy. More particularly, this book is about how several Latin American governments created and managed safeguards and antidumping mechanisms as part of this liberalization. The core of this book is a set of studies describing how seven Latin American countries-Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru-have used these trade instruments. Each country study was conducted by analysts from that country. Many of the analysts were high government officials during their country's liberalization, so they have hands-on experience with the construction and the management of these instruments.

International Trade in Health Services and the GATS : Current Issues and Debates

Blouin, Chantal; Drager, Nick; Smith, Richard
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
Health ministries around the world face a new challenge: to assess the risks and respond to the opportunities of the increasing openness in health services under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). This publication addresses this challenge head-on by providing analytical tools to policymakers in health and trade ministries alike who are involved in the liberalization agenda and, specifically, in the GATS negotiations. This book informs and assists policymakers in formulating trade policy and negotiating internationally. There is ongoing and animated international debate about the impact of GATS on public services in general and health in particular. In response, the book offers different perspectives from more than 15 leading experts. Some of the authors stress opportunities linked to trade in health services, others focus more on the risks. The book offers: Detailed legal analysis of the impact of the agreement on health policy; an overview of trade commitments in health-related services; new empirical evidence from nine country studies; and a simple 10-step explanation on how to deal with GATS negotiations.

Sustaining Trade Reform : Institutional Lessons from Argentina and Peru

Baracat, Elias A.; Finger, J. Michael; Thorne, Raúl León; Nogués, Julio J.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Trade reform in Latin America in the 1980s and 1990s was in significant part a reform of policy-making institutions. The institutions that existed when the reforms began had been created in response to particular protectionist pressures at particular times, and afterward they were controlled by the interests on whose behalf they had been created. This book was prompted by preliminary evidence suggesting that the reforms have been better sustained in Peru than in Argentina. Peru has continued its liberalization whereas Argentina has imposed a number of new trade restrictions. Moreover, decisions on many of Argentina's restrictions have not gone through the new mechanisms. The objective of this book is to draw lessons from Peruvian and Argentine experience that will be useful to governments that want to maintain an open trade regime. From a positive perspective, the authors want to identify what the Peruvian government has done that has kept its liberalization moving forward. The Peru study focuses on how reform leaders in that country have reinforced the evolution of a new management culture and how they have disseminated widely in Peruvian society a positive vision of Peru in the international economy.

Standards and Global Trade : A Voice for Africa

Wilson, John S.; Abiola, Victor O.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
The book provides information, and guidance for policymakers, the development community, and others in the critical area of "behind the border" barriers to trade. With a view to promoting efforts to strengthen Africa's capacity to meet trade standards, and comply with technical regulations, the book examines the link between those standards, and regulations and export success in case studies of five countries: Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda. Each chapter describe the economic context of trade standards in a country, and examines the mechanisms by which standards, and regulations are established, and revised at the local, and international levels. The authors - local experts in the region - review existing trade regulations, and determine the extent to which they are consistent with international practices. They also analyze each country's physical infrastructure, organizational capacities, and current standard implementation process, and, consider the probable impact of new standards...

Trade, Investment and Development in the Middle East and North Africa : Engaging with the World

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
The book describes why expanding trade, and investment is vital for the Middle East and North Africa region. The greatest economic challenge is to create enough jobs for its rapidly growing labor force, which is increasingly young, and educated, to ward off threats to social, and political stability, inherent in high unemployment rates. This effort requires higher, and more sustainable, economic growth than has been achieved in the past two decades. Expanding trade, and private investment offers the best hope. The potential is enormous, given the region's human resources, skills, location, and opportunities. The book also analyzes why the region has yet to tap fully into the rich stream of global commerce, and investment - and the measures needed to do so, including improvements in the domestic investment climate, and reforms in the policies of the region's trading partners.

Trade, Doha, and Development : A Window into the Issues

Newfarmer, Richard
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
This book traces the development of world trade from the era when the global trading system had been stacked against growth in developing countries to the present time when the membership of the WTO has grown to include most developing countries. It is for this reason that the Doha Round is important: It has given all countries of the world the opportunity to work collectively on barriers of interest to developing countries and to the world's poor. Although the choice is simple, it is not easy. The underlying details of the issues are notoriously complex. Observers have a difficult time penetrating the veil of legal and economic opacity that envelops the negotiations. The details are sufficiently technical and multifarious that experts in one area are often unaware of technical details in another. And details make the difference between opening markets and merely appearing to do so through a vacuous agreement that looks good on the surface but does little or nothing to widen opportunities for poor traders in the global market place. This book provides succinct analyses of the most critical issues facing negotiators...

Globalization for Development : Trade, Finance, Aid, Migration, and Policy, Revised Edition; La mondialisation au service du developpement : commerce, finance, aide, migrations et politiques Globalizacion para el desarrollo : comercio, financiacion, ayuda, migracion y politicas

Goldin, Ian; Reinert, Kenneth
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Globalization has been taking place for centuries, moving from the colonization of the inhabited parts of the world to the appearance of nations, from conquests to independent countries, from sailboats and caravans to steamboats, truck fleets and cargo planes, from trade in a few commodities to global production and distribution networks and to the present explosion of international flows of services, capital, and information. This book also helps to shatter a false dichotomy that holds that policies that favor the poor cannot be pro-market. There is an enormous set of pro-poor and pro-market policies that allow for more equal market competition among and within countries, and that ask that policy take account of externalities as much as possible. The sheer size of today's global economy is a testament to the speed of change: in 2005, world economic output total US$35 trillion an amount likely to double by 2030, assuming modest continued growth. In this book the authors provide a comprehensive introduction to key aspects of globalization trade...

Libraries and the book trade in Portugal: The papers of Marino Miguel Franzino

DeNipoti,Cláudio
Fonte: Universidade do Porto; Brown University Publicador: Universidade do Porto; Brown University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
A number of papers belonging to Marino Miguel Franzini, a man closely connected both with the Liberal Revolution and with nineteenth-century Portuguese political history who was also a scientist and a naval officer and who was educated under the influence of the thought and institutions of the Enlightenment, provide important clues as to how books circulated in Europe in the nineteenth century and how they were perceived by Franzini (in particular) and by his contemporaries. A catalog of his library can help us understand how knowledge itself was being reorganized, while his letters and the commercial papers that he exchanged with several agents from the book trade (bookstore owners, literary agents, ship’s captains, and so on) can shed light on some trade practices that enabled him (and others) to have access to and to read the main body of Enlightened and Liberal thought.