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An epidemiologic investigation of the relationship between DBCP contamination in drinking water and birth rates in Fresno County, California.

Wong, O; Whorton, M D; Gordon, N; Morgan, R W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1988 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
This report describes an epidemiologic investigation of the relationship between DBCP (dibromochloropropane) contamination in drinking water and birth rates between 1978 and 1982 in Fresno County, California. Census tracts in the county were categorized according to DBCP level in their drinking water. Standardized birth ratios and relative birth ratios (adjusted for age, race, per cent Hispanic, and parity) were calculated for these census tracts. No relation between birth ratios and DBCP contamination in drinking water was found.

Increasing Cesarean Birth Rates: A Clash of Cultures?

Moore, Mary Lou
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
Cesarean birth rates in the United States reached a high of 27.6% in 2003, a 6% increase over 2002. A cultural conflict appears to exist between the views of those who believe that birth is normal and many cesareans are unnecessary and the views of those who feel that higher rates are justifiable. Childbirth educators can share cultural concepts of normal birth in their classroom.

Rising Preterm Birth Rates, 1989-2004: Changing Demographics or Changing Obstetric Practice?

VanderWeele, Tyler J.; Lantos, John D.; Lauderdale, Diane S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Preterm birth rates are higher in the United States than in most industrialized countries, and have been rising steadily. Some attribute these trends to changing demographics, with more older mothers, more infertility, and more multiple births. Others suggest that changes in obstetrics are behind the trends. We sought to determine what the preterm birth rate in 2004 would have been if demographic factors had not changed since 1989. We examined complete US birth certificate files from 1989 and 2004 and used logistic regression models to estimate what the 2004 preterm birth rates (overall, spontaneous, and medically induced) would have been if maternal age, race, nativity, gravidity, marital status, and education among childbearing women had not changed since 1989. While the overall preterm births increased from 11.2% to 12.8% from 1989-2004, medically induced rates increased 94%, from 3.4% to 6.6%, and spontaneous rates declined by 21%, from 7.8% to 6.2%. Had demographic factors in 2004 been what they were in 1989, the 2004 rates would have been almost identical. Changes in multiple births accounted for only 16% of the increase in medically induced rates. Our analysis suggests that the increase in preterm births is more likely to be due primarily to changes in obstetric practice...

The impact of sex ratio and economic status on local birth rates

Chipman, A.; Morrison, E.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/04/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
Human mating and reproductive behaviour can vary depending on various mechanisms, including the local sex ratio. Previous research shows that as sex ratios become female-biased, women from economically deprived areas are less likely to delay reproductive opportunities to wait for a high-investing mate but instead begin their reproductive careers sooner. Here, we show that the local sex ratio also has an impact on female fertility schedules. At young ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the poorest areas, whereas the opposite is true for the richest areas. At older ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the richest, but not the poorest areas. These patterns suggest that female–female competition encourages poorer women to adopt a fast life-history strategy and give birth early, and richer women to adopt a slow life-history strategy and delay reproduction.

Exploration of Preterm Birth Rates Using the Public Health Exposome Database and Computational Analysis Methods

Kershenbaum, Anne D.; Langston, Michael A.; Levine, Robert S.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Oyana, Tonny J.; Kilbourne, Barbara J.; Rogers, Gary L.; Gittner, Lisaann S.; Baktash, Suzanne H.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Recent advances in informatics technology has made it possible to integrate, manipulate, and analyze variables from a wide range of scientific disciplines allowing for the examination of complex social problems such as health disparities. This study used 589 county-level variables to identify and compare geographical variation of high and low preterm birth rates. Data were collected from a number of publically available sources, bringing together natality outcomes with attributes of the natural, built, social, and policy environments. Singleton early premature county birth rate, in counties with population size over 100,000 persons provided the dependent variable. Graph theoretical techniques were used to identify a wide range of predictor variables from various domains, including black proportion, obesity and diabetes, sexually transmitted infection rates, mother’s age, income, marriage rates, pollution and temperature among others. Dense subgraphs (paracliques) representing groups of highly correlated variables were resolved into latent factors, which were then used to build a regression model explaining prematurity (R-squared = 76.7%). Two lists of counties with large positive and large negative residuals, indicating unusual prematurity rates given their circumstances...

Month of Birth and Children’s Health in India

Lokshin, Michael; Radyakin, Sergiy
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
The authors use data from three waves of the India National Family Health Survey to explore the relationship between the month of birth and the health outcomes of young children in India. They find that children born during the monsoon months have lower anthropometric scores compared with children born during the fall and winter months. The authors propose and test four hypotheses that could explain such a correlation. The results emphasize the importance of seasonal variations in affecting environmental conditions at the time of birth and determining the health outcomes of young children in India. Policy interventions that affect these conditions could effectively impact the health and achievement of these children, in a manner similar to nutrition and micronutrient supplementation programs.

Trends in age- and parity-specific fertility in Australia

Kippen, Rebecca
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Conference paper Formato: 137717 bytes; 86240 bytes; 356 bytes; 614 bytes; 356 bytes; 357 bytes; 100 bytes; 358 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
Paper to be presented at the IUSSP Seminar on ‘International Perspectives on Low Fertility: trends, theories and policies’, Tokyo, March 21–23, 2001.; Examination of fertility rates in Australia indicates a fall over time in both period and cohort fertility. Period total fertility has been below replacement level for twenty-five years, while cohorts completing their fertility in the first decade of the 21st century are likely to have around replacement-level fertility. Policy-makers and others in Australia are concerned about the potential for further fertility decline, given the impact this would have on population age structure and growth rates. This paper tests the hypothesis that the recent fall in fertility is due solely to changes in age-specific first-birth rates, resulting from delayed parenthood and increased levels of childlessness. Age- and parity-specific fertility rates for the period 1991–98 are constructed. These show that recent fertility declines are driven by changes in first- and second-birth rates, rather than first-birth rates only, while rates for higher order births remain relatively constant. One implication of this is the increasing prevalence of childlessness and one-child families in Australia. The author uses the 1991–98 age- and parity-specific fertility rates as the basis of four different projections of fertility. The likelihood of each of these projections given past trends in fertility is considered.; no

Paternal body mass index is associated with decreased blastocyst development and reduced live birth rates following assisted reproductive technology

Bakos, H.; Henshaw, R.; Mitchell, M.; Lane, M.
Fonte: Elsevier Science Inc Publicador: Elsevier Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between paternal body mass index (BMI), embryo development and pregnancy, and live birth outcomes after assisted reproductive technology (ART). DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of ART cycles. SETTING: Major assisted reproduction center. PATIENT(S): Three hundred five couples undergoing ART in a private fertility clinic. INTERVENTION(S): No intervention was undertaken in patients involved in this study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Live birth outcomes and clinical pregnancy rates. RESULT(S): No significant relationship between paternal BMI and early embryo development was found. However, increased paternal BMI was associated with decreased blastocyst development, clinical pregnancy rates and live birth outcomes. CONCLUSION(S): To our knowledge, this is the first report linking increased paternal BMI and clinical pregnancy and live birth rates after ART treatment. Further work to elucidate the mechanisms involved is required.; Hassan W. Bakos, Richard C. Henshaw, Megan Mitchell and Michelle Lane

Single blastocyst embryo transfer maintains comparable pregnancy rates to double cleavage-stage embryo transfer but results in healthier pregnancy outcomes

Zander-Fox, D.; Tremellen, K.; Lane, M.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Background: The optimal outcome after IVF is a live, healthy, singleton term baby. This can be achieved by transferring a single embryo, but at the possible expense of reducing pregnancy rates. Recent studies suggest that delaying transfer of embryos to the blastocyst stage (day 4 ⁄ 5), rather than the more traditional cleavage stage (day 2–3), allows for better selection of the best embryo, maximising pregnancy rates from a single embryo transfer (SET). The aim of this study was to assess pregnancy outcomes in relation to changing embryo transfer practices. Methods: A retrospective analysis of pregnancy outcomes was made between IVF cycles conducted in 2007 when blastocyst SET became standard practice, with IVF cycles in 2003 when double cleavage-stage embryo transfer was the norm. Results: The implementation of a blastocyst SET policy resulted in a significant decrease in multiple birth rates, while maintaining live birth delivery rate comparable to double cleavage-stage transfer (27.2% versus 24.8%, respectively, N.S.). Conclusion: Improvements in culturing protocols have facilitated extended culture, increasing embryo selection capability. These results indicate that it is now possible to maintain excellent pregnancy rates with SET blastocyst culture...

Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Smith, C.; De Lacey, S.; Chapman, M.; Ratcliffe, J.; Norman, R.; Johnson, N.; Sacks, G.; Lyttleton, J.; Boothroyd, C.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
BACKGROUND: IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET). Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. METHODS: We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks...

On the Contribution of Demographic Change to Aggregate Poverty Measures for the Developing World

Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Recent literature and new data help determine plausible bounds to some key demographic differences between the poor and non-poor in the developing world. The author estimates that selective mortality-whereby poorer people tend to have higher death rates-accounts for 10-30 percent of the developing world's trend rate of "$1 a day" poverty reduction in the 1990s. However, in a neighborhood of plausible estimates, differential fertility-whereby poorer people tend also to have higher birth rates-has had a more than offsetting poverty-increasing effect. The net impact of differential natural population growth represents 10-50 percent of the trend rate of poverty reduction.

The Demographic Benefit of International Migration : Hypothesis and Application to Middle Eastern and North African Contexts

Fargues, Philippe
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
The view that international migration has no impact on the size of world population is a sensible one. But the author argues, migration from developing to more industrial countries during the past decades may have resulted in a smaller world population than the one which would have been attained had no international migration taken place for two reasons: most of recent migration has been from high to low birth-rate countries, and migrants typically adopt and send back to their home countries models and ideas that prevail in host countries. Thus, migrants are potential agents of the diffusion of demographic modernity, that is, the reduction of birth rates among nonmigrant communities left behind in origin countries. This hypothesis is tested with data from Morocco and Turkey where most emigrants are bound for the West, and Egypt where they are bound for the Gulf. The demographic differentials encountered through migration in these three countries offer contrasted situations-host countries are either more (the West) or less (the Gulf) advanced in their demographic transition than the home country. Assuming migration changes the course of demographic transition in origin countries, the author posits that it should work in two opposite directions-speeding it up in Morocco and Turkey and slowing it down in Egypt. Empirical evidence confirms this hypothesis. Time series of birth rates and migrant remittances (reflecting the intensity of the relationship kept by emigrants with their home country) are strongly correlated with each other. Correlation is negative for Morocco and Turkey...

Community remoteness and birth outcomes among First Nations in Quebec

Wassimi, Spogmai
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
OBJECTIF: Chez les Autochtones, la relation entre le degré d'éloignement et les issues de naissance est inconnue. L’objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer cet impact parmi les Premières Nations du Québec. MÉTHODE : Nous avons utilisé les données vitales de Statistique Canada pour la province du Québec pour la période 1991-2000. L’ensemble des naissances géocodées parmi les communautés des Premières Nations groupées en quatre zones en se basant sur le degré d'éloignement a été analysé. Nous avons utilisé la régression logistique multi-niveaux pour obtenir des rapports de cotes ajustés pour les caractéristiques maternelles. RESULTATS : Le taux de naissances prématurées varie en fonction de l’éloignement de la zone d’habitation (8,2% dans la zone la moins éloignée et 5,2% dans la Zone la plus éloignée, P<0,01). En revanche, plus la zone est éloignée, plus le taux de mortalité infantile est élevé (6,9 pour 1000 pour la Zone 1 et 16,8 pour 1000 pour la Zone 4, P<0,01). Le taux élevé de mortalité infantile dans la zone la plus éloignée pourrait être partiellement expliqué par le fort taux de mortalité post-natale. Le taux de mort subite du nourrisson est 3 fois plus élevé dans la zone 4 par rapport à la zone 1. Cependant la mortalité prénatale ne présente pas de différences significatives en fonction de la zone malgré une fréquence élevée dans la zone 4. La morbidité périnatale était semblable en fonction de la zone après avoir ajusté pour l’âge...

Preterm Birth and Antidepressant Medication Use during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Huybrechts, Krista F.; Sanghani, Reesha Shah; Avorn, Jerry; Urato, Adam C.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
Introduction: Preterm birth is a major contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality and its rate has been increasing over the past two decades. Antidepressant medication use during pregnancy has also been rising, with rates up to 7.5% in the US. The objective was to systematically review the literature to determine the strength of the available evidence relating to a possible association between antidepressant use during pregnancy and preterm birth. Methods: We conducted a computerized search in PUBMED, MEDLINE and PsycINFO through September 2012, supplemented with a manual search of reference lists, to identify original published research on preterm birth rates in women taking antidepressants during pregnancy. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers, and absolute and relative risks abstracted or calculated. Our a priori design was to group studies by level of confounding adjustment and by timing of antidepressant use during pregnancy; we used random-effects models to calculate summary measures of effect. Results: Forty-one studies met inclusion criteria. Pooled adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.53 (1.40–1.66) for antidepressant use at any time and 1.96 (1.62–2.38) for 3rd trimester use. Controlling for a diagnosis of depression did not eliminate the effect. There was no increased risk [1.16 (0.92–1.45)] in studies that identified patients based on 1st trimester exposure. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated unmeasured confounding would have to be strong to account for the observed association. Discussion Published evidence is consistent with an increased risk of preterm birth in women taking antidepressants during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters...

Influence of birth rates and transmission rates on the global seasonality of rotavirus incidence

Pitzer, Virginia E.; Viboud, Cécile; Lopman, Ben A.; Patel, Manish M.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Grenfell, Bryan T.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
Rotavirus is a major cause of mortality in developing countries, and yet the dynamics of rotavirus in such settings are poorly understood. Rotavirus is typically less seasonal in the tropics, although recent observational studies have challenged the universality of this pattern. While numerous studies have examined the association between environmental factors and rotavirus incidence, here we explore the role of intrinsic factors. By fitting a mathematical model of rotavirus transmission dynamics to published age distributions of cases from 15 countries, we obtain estimates of local transmission rates. Model-predicted patterns of seasonal incidence based solely on differences in birth rates and transmission rates are significantly correlated with those observed (Spearman's ρ = 0.65, p < 0.05). We then examine seasonal patterns of rotavirus predicted across a range of different birth rates and transmission rates and explore how vaccination may impact these patterns. Our results suggest that the relative lack of rotavirus seasonality observed in many tropical countries may be due to the high birth rates and transmission rates typical of developing countries rather than being driven primarily by environmental conditions. While vaccination is expected to decrease the overall burden of disease...

The use of socioeconomic data to predict teenage birth rates. An exploratory study in Massachusetts.

Perlman, S B; Klerman, L V; Kinard, E M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1981 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
In an exploratory study of adolescent fertility in 24 Massachusetts cities, age-specific birth rates constructed specifically for the study constituted the dependable variables. Data from the 1980 U.S. Census provided the independent socioeconomic variables for the analysis. The relationships between birth rates and these independent variables were explored through simple and partial correlation analyses. Results of the analyses confirm the assumption that rates of birth to teenagers vary systematically in relation to socioeconomic variables. They also confirm at the macro level the results of several earlier household survey showing an association between family income on the one hand, and adolescent sexual activity, contraception, and abortion on the other. In the current study, economic variables, particularly the median income of all families in the community, were found to be highly significant predictors of fertility among adolescents 15 to 19 years of age. The fertility of the generation to which the teenagers' mothers belonged (that is, women 35 to 44 years old) was also significantly associated with the teenagers' birth rates. The results for teenage mothers 15 through 17 years old and teenage mothers 18 and 19 years old were similar.

Validity of pre and post-term birth rates based on the date of last menstrual period compared to early obstetric ultrasonography

Medeiros,Maria Nilza Lima; Cavalcante,Nádia Carenina Nunes; Mesquita,Fabrício José Alencar; Batista,Rosângela Lucena Fernandes; Simões,Vanda Maria Ferreira; Cavalli,Ricardo de Carvalho; Cardoso,Viviane Cunha; Bettiol,Heloisa; Barbieri,Marco Antonio;
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the last menstrual period (LMP) estimate in determining pre and post-term birth rates, in a prenatal cohort from two Brazilian cities, São Luís and Ribeirão Preto. Pregnant women with a single fetus and less than 20 weeks' gestation by obstetric ultrasonography who received prenatal care in 2010 and 2011 were included. The LMP was obtained on two occasions (at 22-25 weeks gestation and after birth). The sensitivity of LMP obtained prenatally to estimate the preterm birth rate was 65.6% in São Luís and 78.7% in Ribeirão Preto and the positive predictive value was 57.3% in São Luís and 73.3% in Ribeirão Preto. LMP errors in identifying preterm birth were lower in the more developed city, Ribeirão Preto. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of LMP for the estimate of the post-term birth rate was very low and tended to overestimate it. LMP can be used with some errors to identify the preterm birth rate when obstetric ultrasonography is not available, but is not suitable for predicting post-term birth.

Effects of the background radiation on radio pulsar and supernova remnant searches and the birth rates of these objects

Ankay, Askin; Guseinov, Oktay H.; Tagieva, Sevinc O.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
In different directions of the Galaxy the Galactic background radio radiation and radiation of complex star formation regions which include large number of OB associations have different influences on radio pulsar (PSR) and supernova remnant (SNR) searches. In this work we analyse the effects of these background radiations on the observations of PSRs at 1400 MHz and SNRs at 1000 MHz. In the interval l=0$^o$$\pm60^o$ the PSRs with flux F$_{1400}$$>$0.2 mJy and the SNRs with surface brightness $\Sigma$$>10^{-21}$ Wm$^{-2}$Hz$^{-1}$sr$^{-1}$ are observable for all values of l and b. All the SNRs with $\Sigma$$>3\times10^{-22}$ Wm$^{-2}$Hz$^{-1}$sr$^{-1}$ can be observed in the interval 60$^o$$<$l$<300^o$. We have examined samples of PSRs and SNRs to estimate the birth rates of these objects in the region up to 3.2 kpc from the Sun and also in the Galaxy. The birth rate of PSRs is about one in 200 years and the birth rate of SNRs is about one in 65 years in our galaxy.; Comment: revised version

Validity of pre and post-term birth rates based on the date of last menstrual period compared to early obstetric ultrasonography

Medeiros,Maria Nilza Lima; Cavalcante,Nádia Carenina Nunes; Mesquita,Fabrício José Alencar; Batista,Rosângela Lucena Fernandes; Simões,Vanda Maria Ferreira; Cavalli,Ricardo de Carvalho; Cardoso,Viviane Cunha; Bettiol,Heloisa; Barbieri,Marco Antonio;
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the last menstrual period (LMP) estimate in determining pre and post-term birth rates, in a prenatal cohort from two Brazilian cities, São Luís and Ribeirão Preto. Pregnant women with a single fetus and less than 20 weeks' gestation by obstetric ultrasonography who received prenatal care in 2010 and 2011 were included. The LMP was obtained on two occasions (at 22-25 weeks gestation and after birth). The sensitivity of LMP obtained prenatally to estimate the preterm birth rate was 65.6% in São Luís and 78.7% in Ribeirão Preto and the positive predictive value was 57.3% in São Luís and 73.3% in Ribeirão Preto. LMP errors in identifying preterm birth were lower in the more developed city, Ribeirão Preto. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of LMP for the estimate of the post-term birth rate was very low and tended to overestimate it. LMP can be used with some errors to identify the preterm birth rate when obstetric ultrasonography is not available, but is not suitable for predicting post-term birth.

Correlation of Cesarean rates to maternal and infant mortality rates: an ecologic study of official international data

Volpe,Fernando Madalena
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
OBJECTIVE: To correlate international official data on Cesarean delivery rates to infant and maternal mortality rates and low weight-at-birth rates; and to test the hypothesis that Cesarean rates greater than 15% correlate to higher maternal and infant mortality rates. METHODS: Analyses were based on the most recent official data (2000-2009) available for 193 countries. Exponential models were compared to quadratic models to regress infant mortality rates, neonatal mortality rates, maternal mortality rates, and low weight-at-birth rates to Cesarean rates. Separate regressions were performed for countries with Cesarean rates greater than 15%. RESULTS: In countries with Cesarean rates less than 15%, higher Cesarean rates were associated to lower infant, neonatal, and maternal mortality rates, and to lower rates of low weightat-birth. In countries with Cesarean rates greater than 15%, Cesarean rates were not significantly associated with infant or maternal mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: There is an inverse exponential relation between countries' rates of Cesarean deliveries and infant or maternal mortality rates. Very low Cesarean rates (less than 15%) are associated with poorer maternal and child outcomes. Cesarean rates greater than 15% were neither correlated to higher maternal nor child mortality...