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Supercritical steam cycles and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles for sugarcane mills

PELLEGRINI, Luiz Felipe; OLIVEIRA JUNIOR, Silvio de; BURBANO, Juan Carlos
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
Back in 1970s and 1980s, cogeneration plants in sugarcane mills were primarily designed to consume all bagasse, and produce steam and electricity to the process. The plants used medium pressure steam boilers (21 bar and 300 degrees C) and backpressure steam turbines. Some plants needed also an additional fuel, as the boilers were very inefficient. In those times, sugarcane bagasse did not have an economic value, and it was considered a problem by most mills. During the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s, sugarcane industry faced an open market perspective, thus, there was a great necessity to reduce costs in the production processes. In addition, the economic value of by-products (bagasse, molasses, etc.) increased, and there was a possibility of selling electricity to the grid. This new scenario led to a search for more advanced cogeneration systems, based mainly on higher steam parameters (40-80 bar and 400-500 degrees C). In the future, some authors suggest that biomass integrated gasification combined cycles are the best alternative to cogeneration plants in sugarcane mills. These systems might attain 35-40% efficiency for the power conversion. However, supercritical steam cycles might also attain these efficiency values, what makes them an alternative to gasification-based systems. This paper presents a comparative thermoeconomic study of these systems for sugarcane mills. The configurations studied are based on real systems that could be adapted to biomass use. Different steam consumptions in the process are considered...

Leaf antioxidant fluctuations and growth responses in saplings of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazilwood) under an urban stressing environment

BULBOVAS, Patricia; MORAES, Regina Maria de; RINALDI, Mirian Cilene Spasiani; CUNHA, Adriana Luiza; DELITTI, Welington Braz Carvalho; DOMINGOS, Marisa
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
We intended to establish how efficient the leaf antioxidant responses of C. echinata are against oxidative environmental conditions observed in an urban environment and their relations to growth and biomass parameters. Plants were grown for 15 months in four sites: Congonhas and Pinheiros, affected by pollutants from vehicular emissions; Ibirapuera, affected by high O(3) concentrations; and a greenhouse with filtered air. Fifteen plants were quarterly removed from each site for analysis of antioxidants, growth and biomass. Plants growing in polluted sites showed alterations in their antioxidants. They were shorter, had thicker stems and produced less leaf biomass than plants maintained under filtered air. The fluctuations in the levels of antioxidants were significantly influenced by combined effects of climatic and pollution variables. The higher were the antioxidant responses and the concentrations of pollutant markers of air contamination in each site the slower were the growth and biomass production. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP - Fundac ao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo

Análise de crescimento, produção de biomassa, fotossíntese e biossíntese de aminoácidos em plantas transgênicas de tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) que expressam o gene Lhcb1*2 de ervilha.; Growth analysis, biomass production, photosynthesis and amino acid biosynthesis in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants over expressing the pea lhcb1*2 gene.

Romano, Marcelo Ribeiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/01/2002 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
A biomassa vegetal, seja como produto de interesse econômico ou do ponto de vista ecológico, é estritamente dependente do processo fotossintético. O advento das técnicas de biologia molecular e transformação genética de plantas trouxe boas perspectivas para a alteração do processo fotossintético, já que pouco foi conseguido com o melhoramento vegetal tradicional. Modificações genéticas nos LHCs (estruturas responsáveis pela captação e transferência da energia luminosa) mostram-se promissoras. Plantas transgênicas de tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum, L.) que expressam o gene quimérico Lhcb1*2 de ervilha têm sido estudadas por apresentarem uma série de alterações no metabolismo fotossintético, além de um ganho genético em relação à planta selvagem original. Vários autores observaram mudanças morfológicas, fisiológicas, bioquímicas e adaptativas que favorecem estas plantas em diversas condições de cultivo. Diversos experimentos foram realizados no intuito de melhor caracterizar as plantas transformadas com o gene Lhcb1*2 de ervilha. O potencial produtivo foi avaliado através da análise de crescimento e produção de massa seca. O metabolismo fotossintético foi analisado através de medidas de assimilação de CO2...

Influência da aplicação do lodo de esgoto (Biossólido) sobre a concentração e o estoque de nutrientes na biomassa do sub-bosque, na serapilheira e no solo de um talhão de E. grandis.; Influence of sewage sludge application (biosolids) on the concentration and stock of nutrients in the understory biomass, litter and soil in a stand of Eucalyptus grandis.

Rezende, Cláudia Irene de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/04/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
O aumento da população urbana está gerando a necessidade de se dispor, de forma ecologicamente adequada, o lodo de esgoto produzido nas estações de tratamento (ETEs). O uso do lodo tratado (biossólido) como fertilizante e condicionador de solo em plantações florestais pode trazer soluções e benefícios ambientais e silviculturais. Existe, contudo, a necessidade de estudos prévios visando avaliar os eventuais impactos ambientais, tais como a possível disseminação de patógenos e o acúmulo de metais pesados no solo e nas plantas, principalmente das espécies que constituem o sub-bosque da floresta e que podem servir como suprimento alimentar para os herbívoros. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a influência do biossólido, 68 meses após sua aplicação, no estoque de nutrientes do sistema “solo- sub-bosque - serapilheira” em parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus grandis localizadas na E. E. de Ciências Florestais de Itatinga – SP (clima Cwa, segundo a classificação de Köeppen) e plantadas sobre Latossolo Vermelho Escuro, franco argilo arenoso. Para tal finalidade, foram quantificados os estoques dos nutrientes no solo, até 60 cm de profundidade, na fitomassa aérea do sub-bosque e na biomassa da serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo dos tratamentos: T1 – testemunha...

Uma metodologia para gestão da eficiência energética de centrais de cogeração a biomassa: aplicação ao bagaço de cana.; A methodology for energy efficiency management of biomass cogeneration plants: application to sugarcane bagasse.

Paro, André de Carvalho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/08/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
Em função do crescimento populacional e econômico brasileiro, o sistema elétrico nacional está sempre em modificação a fim de atender às necessidades do país. Na última década, ganhou destaque o aumento da geração termoelétrica na matriz elétrica nacional, primeiro proveniente do gás natural, e mais recentemente de fontes renováveis, como a cogeração termoelétrica proveniente do bagaço de cana. Em virtude desta realidade, é importante que, frente ao volume significativo e crescente de centrais de cogeração no país, seja pensada uma forma de administrar esta parcela da geração de maneira a se aprimorar de forma constante o desempenho destes sistemas. No entanto, verifica-se que os programas de eficiência energética no Brasil e no mundo estão geralmente associados aos usos finais de energia elétrica e praticamente inexiste uma ação estruturada de gestão da eficiência nas transformações energéticas para geração de eletricidade ao longo de sua operação. Portanto, este trabalho tem como objetivo, propor uma metodologia de gestão continuada da eficiência energética de centrais de cogeração a biomassa que operam em ciclo Rankine no Brasil. A metodologia está baseada no ciclo de melhoria contínua da qualidade...

Dimensionamento de plantas Biomass-to-Liquids para produção de óleo diesel sintético no Brasil; Sizing of Biomass-to-Liquid plants for synthetic diesel oil production in Brazil.

Duarte, Aires
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/12/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
Há uma demanda global pelo abastecimento de combustíveis veiculares menos poluentes, tanto por questões energéticas quanto sócio-ambientais. Uma potencial alternativa, que traduz a possibilidade de um biocombustível sem as limitações da Primeira Geração, é a rota tecnológica conhecida como Biomass-to-Liquids (BTL) que, através da gaseificação e da síntese Fischer-Tropsch, possibilita a obtenção de biocombustíveis líquidos, como o óleo diesel sintético, provenientes da biomassa moderna, nesse estudo, a biomassa lignocelulósica. Para a produção em escala comercial de um biocombustível da Segunda Geração, um complexo planejamento e altos investimentos são demandados dado seu pioneirismo e ausência de histórico de mercado ou modelos precisos. Uma metodologia desenvolvida em 2006 pelo pesquisador Harold Boerrigter propõe o dimensionamento ideal de uma planta BTL a partir de uma planta Gas-to-Liquids (GTL); são aqui propostas correções e atualizações para esta metodologia, sugerindo-se uma curva capaz de apontar a influência da economia de escala em plantas BTL e uma fórmula para o cálculo estimado do Total Capital Investment (TCI) destas plantas até o momento o Brasil não dispõe de nenhuma planta que opere pela rota BTL. Segue-se com considerações sobre a oferta de resíduos florestais no território brasileiro e a constatação de que a mesma seria insuficiente como matéria-prima para sustentar grandes plantas BTL...

Poder calorífico, energia e cinzas da biomassa de cana-de-açúcar irrigada por gotejamento, para diferentes variedades, lâminas e processos de maturação; Calorific value, energy and ash of sugarcane biomass drip irrigated, for different varieties, irrigation depth and maturation processes

Lizcano, Jonathan Vasquez
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/07/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
Atualmente as usinas sucroalcooleiras conseguem exportar à matriz elétrica brasileira os excedentes de eletricidade gerados nelas; essa eletricidade é gerada através da combustão direta da biomassa residual da cana-de-açúcar o que requer menor investimento em equipamentos e controle técnico em comparação aos processos de pirólise e gaseificação. Embora o poder calorífico da cana-de-açúcar seja documentado em diversos trabalhos na literatura, em nenhum deles é registrado o histórico de disponibilidade hídrica no solo durante o crescimento da planta; deste modo levanta-se a hipótese que as plantas sob stress hídrico tendo um maior teor de fibra, apresente um poder calorífico diferenciado das plantas que não passaram por stress hídrico. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar o poder calorífico, a energia útil e cinzas da biomassa particionada seca de oito variedades de cana-de-açúcar (V1, V2, V3, V4. V5, V6, V7 e V8), submetidas a diferentes disponibilidades hídricas no solo durante o processo de crescimento das plantas através da irrigação por gotejamento (L50, L75, L75* e L100) sob diferentes processos de maturação com base em déficit hídrico na fase final de crescimento (M1, M2, M3 e M4). Determinou-se o poder calorifico superior da biomassa particionada em açúcar...

Assessment of forest biomass for use as energy. GIS-based analysis of geographical availability and locations of wood-fired power plants in Portugal

Viana, H.; Cohen, Warren B.; Lopes, D.; Aranha, J.
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Following the European Union strategy concerning renewable energy (RE), Portugal established in their national policy programmes that the production of electrical energy from RE should reach 45% of the total supply by 2010. Since Portugal has large forest biomass resources, a significant part of this energy will be obtained from this source. In addition to the two existing electric power plants, with 22 MW of power capacity, 13 new power plants having a total of 86.4 MW capacity are in construction. Together these could generate a combination of electrical and thermal energy, known as combined heat and power (CHP) production. As these power plants will significantly increase the exploitation of forests resources, this article evaluates the potential quantities of available forest biomass residue for that purpose. In addition to examining the feasibility of producing both types of energy, we also examine the potential for producing only electric energy. Results show that if only electricity is generated some regions will need to have alternative fuel sources to fulfil the demand. However, if cogeneration is implemented the wood fuel resource will be sufficient to fulfill the required capacity demand.

Growth, photosynthesis and leaf water potential in young plants of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Caesalpiniaceae) under contrasting irradiances

Ronquim,Carlos Cesar; Prado,Carlos Henrique B. A.; Souza,João Paulo de
Fonte: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology Publicador: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
Growth and leaf nutrient content were compared in young potted plants of Copaifera langsdorffii in sunny and shaded areas without water stress. Besides, carbon assimilation and leaf water relations were evaluated by net photosynthesis, potential photochemical efficiency and leaf water potential during daily courses in dry and rainy periods under natural conditions in both contrasting irradiances. Higher values of total biomass, height and leaf area occurred in sunny than in shaded area. On the other hand, all young plants survived in shade under natural water stress probably by reason of fast and intense biomass accumulation in favor of roots in early development. There was no significant difference about nutrient concentration in leaves between plants growing in sunny and shaded areas. Net photosynthesis in shade increased occasionally when bunches of direct light reached the leaves. Theses sunflecks took place more frequently and at high intensity in dry period but they were more effective for net photosynthesis in rainy period. The ability of young plants to persist under natural conditions in contrasting irradiance up to 1,230 days after sowing could explain the wide distribution of C. langsdorffii in Cerrado physiognomies and in different types of forest.

Biomass production and mineral element content of selected useful tropical plants.

SCHMIDT, P.; LIEBEREI, R.; PREISINGER, H.; GASPAROTTO, L.; BAUCH, J.
Fonte: In: SHIFT WORKSHOP, 2., 1995, Cuiaba. Summaries of lectures and posters... Cuiaba: UFMT, 1995. Publicador: In: SHIFT WORKSHOP, 2., 1995, Cuiaba. Summaries of lectures and posters... Cuiaba: UFMT, 1995.
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Formato: p. 160.
EN
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This current investigation is part of the project "Recultivation of degraded and abandoned monocultures in stable mixed cultures with special reference to soil biological factors" situated in the CPAA/EMBRAPA in Manaus. In this study the biomass production and the mineral element content of selected useful tropical plants will be determined. Parallel to it the availability of nutrient elements in the soil will be analysed. These experiments may allow an evaluation, in which way a sustainable growth of the suggested plant system under the prevailing site conditions is possible. For this study the biomass of six-months and 2 1/2-year-old plants of Swietenia macrophylla King (mogno), Theobroma grandiflorum (Spreng.) K.Schum. (cupuacu), Bixa orellana L. (urucum),Schizolobium amazonicum Ducke (parica) and Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.(pupunha) was determined gravimetrically. For a high differentiation of the element content (Ca,Mg,K,P,S,N,Fe,Al) and to reveal physiological sinks within the plants, up to 30 fractions (leaves, wood, bark etc.) were separated and in time series the alterations of the fractions were exhibited. The element content was determined by Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), and for selected tissues on a subcellular level with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS)(exception: N with Kjeldah). Preliminary results are illustrated for Swietenia. In particular the data for Ca show that the mineral element supply at this experimental area has to be sustainably maintained...

Plantas de cobertura do solo e época de poda na videira em região tropical; Plants ground cover and epochs of pruning the vine in tropical region

Campos, Luiz Fernandes Cardoso
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Agronomia (EAEA); Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos - EAEA (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Agronomia (EAEA); Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos - EAEA (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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36.33%
The cultivation of the vine in the State of Goiás is already a reality and has good growth prospects, but there is little information about soil management, particularly regarding the use of cover crops in the vineyards soil. The use of management techniques aimed at improving the production system, accordingly the proper management of soil and vine canopy can influence yield and quality of grape. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the development, the rate of decomposition and accumulation of nutrients in the shoots of ground cover grown intercropped with vine, besides the chemical characteristics of the soil and the nutritional status, growth and production of fruit species as well as the qualitative characteristics of the fruits. The experiment consisted of six treatments established in a randomized block design, in 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with five replicates. The first factor with three levels, was composed of the following plant species cover crops: bean-to-pig (Canavalia ensiformis L. DC), lab-lab (Dolichos lab lab L.) and weeds. The second factor, with two levels of pruning were carried out based on the seeding of cover crops. Ie, the first season pruning was done 25 days after sowing (DAS) of the cover crop and the second season of pruning performed at 55 DAS. Each plot of 9 m2 (2 x 4.5 m) contained two vine plants. Pruning times do not influence the rate of soil cover and biomass production by cover crops. The weeds provide the highest rates of soil cover. The bean-to-pig has higher production of plant biomass (dry and green). Plants have evaluated coverage rate similar decomposition...

Unleashing the Potential of Renewable Energy in India

Sargsyan, Gevorg; Bhatia, Mikul; Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Raghunathan, Krishnan; Soni, Ruchi
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
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India has 150 GW of renewable energy potential, about half in the form of small hydropower, biomass, and wind and half in solar, cogeneration, and waste-to-energy. Developing renewable energy can help India increase its energy security, reduce the adverse impacts on the local environment, lower its carbon intensity, contribute to more balanced regional development, and realize its aspirations for leadership in high-technology industries. This diagnostic note draws on a detailed analysis conducted by a PricewaterhouseCoopers India consulting team in 2008-09 for the World Bank. The data are based on information on about 180 wind, biomass, and small hydropower projects in 20 states, as well as information from and norms of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) and the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC). The study is intended to provoke discussions of the feasibility of renewable energy development in India. Why is renewable energy development relevant? How much development is economically feasible? What needs to be done to realize the potential? Each of these topics is addressed in a separate chapter...

China - Biomass Cogeneration Development Project : Fuel Supply Handbook for Biomass-Fired Power Projects

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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This handbook provides an overview of the main topics that need consideration when managing the supply of biomass to large biomass power plants. It will help investors in China to develop, with assistance of local biomass supply experts, their own solutions. The focus is on biomass residues, in particular agricultural residues (mainly straw and stalks) and forestry residues (mainly residues from forestry operations). This handbook covers a wide range of topics related to biomass fuel supply risk in the planning and preparation stages for a biomass-fired power plant. Chapter two introduces the use of biomass as an energy source, including fuel selection considerations and the fuel standards and specifications required to match a particular fuel supply to a power generation system. Chapter three describes the use of biomass resource assessments at the project planning stage. Chapters four and five give insight into the biomass supply from straw and forestry residues, respectively. Finally, fuel supply management is covered in chapter six...

Experimental determination of effects of water depth on Nymphaea odorata growth, morphology and biomass allocation

Richards, Jennifer H.; Troxler-Gann, Tiffany; Lee, David W.; Zimmerman, Michael S.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Growth, morphology and biomass allocation in response to water depth was studied in white water lily,Nymphaea odorata Aiton. Plants were grown for 13 months in 30, 60 and 90 cm water in outdoor mesocosms in southern Florida. Water lily plant growth was distinctly seasonal with plants at all water levels producing more and larger leaves and more flowers in the warmer months. Plants in 30 cm water produced more but smaller and shorter-lived leaves than plants at 60 cm and 90 cm water levels. Although plants did not differ significantly in total biomass at harvest, plants in deeper water had significantly greater biomass allocated to leaves and roots, while plants in 30 cm water had significantly greater biomass allocated to rhizomes. Although lamina area and petiole length increased significantly with water level, lamina specific weight did not differ among water levels. Petiole specific weight increased significantly with increasing water level, implying a greater cost to tethering the larger laminae in deeper water. Lamina length and width scaled similarly at different water levels and modeled lamina area (LA) accurately (LAmodeled = 0.98LAmeasured + 3.96, R2 = 0.99). Lamina area was highly correlated with lamina weight (LW = 8.43LA − 66.78...

Interactions between rhizosphere microorganisms and plants governing iron and phosphorus availability

Marschner, P.; Crowley, D.; Rengel, Z.
Fonte: CSIRO; DVD Publicador: CSIRO; DVD
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2010 EN
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Because Fe availability is low in most aerobic soil, microorganisms and plants release low molecular-weight compounds (chelators) which increase Fe availability. Microorganisms appear to be far more competitive than plants: they can utilise Fe bound to plant-derived chelators and decompose them, whereas microbial chelators are poor Fe sources for plants. However, some plants, such as grasses, grow well in Fe-deficient soils, which may be explained by the spatially and temporarily concentrated release of phytosiderophores. Plants and microorganisms have developed a number of strategies to increase soil P availability. Microorganisms can increase plant P uptake by mobilising more P than they require and by stimulating root growth and mycorrhizal colonisation. However, microorganisms may also decrease P availability by (i) net P immobilisation in their biomass, (ii) decomposition of P-mobilising root exudates and (iii) decreasing root growth or mycorrhizal colonisation. Depending on the availability of carbon, the microbial biomass can influence Fe and P availability to plants by acting as either a source or a sink. We propose the following hypothesis: at high availability of carbon such as in the zone immediately behind the root tip...

Organic amendments differ in their effect on microbial biomass and activity and on P pools in alkaline soils

Malik, M.; Khan, K.; Marschner, P.; Ali, S.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
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36.29%
Organic amendments could be used as alternative to inorganic P fertilisers, but a clear understanding of the relationship among type of P amendment, microbial activity and changes in soil P fractions is required to optimise their use. Two P-deficient soils were amended with farmyard manure (FYM), poultry litter (PL) and biogenic waste compost (BWC) at 10 g dw kg⁻¹ soil and incubated for 72 days. Soil samples were collected at days 0, 14, 28, 56 and 72 and analysed for microbial biomass C, N and P, 0.5 M NaHCO3 extractable P and activity of dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase. Soil P fractions were sequentially extracted in soil samples collected at days 0 and 72. All three amendments increased cumulative CO₂ release, microbial biomass C, N and P and activity of dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase compared to unamended soils. The increase in microbial biomass C and N was highest with PL, whereas the greatest increase in microbial biomass P was induced with FYM. All three biomass indices showed the same temporal pattern, with the highest values on day 14 and the lowest on day 72. All amendments increased 0.5 M NaHCO₃ extractable P concentrations with the smallest increase with BWC and the greatest with FYM...

C4 plants as biofuel feedstocks: optimising biomass production and feedstock quality from a lignocellulosic perspective

Byrt, C.S.; Grof, C.P.L.; Furbank, R.T.
Fonte: Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science Publicador: Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 AA
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The main feedstocks for bioethanol are sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and maize (Zea mays), both of which are C4 grasses, highly efficient at converting solar energy into chemical energy, and both are food crops. As the systems for lignocellulosic bioethanol production become more efficient and cost effective, plant biomass from any source may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Thus, a move away from using food plants to make fuel is possible, and sources of biomass such as wood from forestry and plant waste from cropping may be used. However, the bioethanol industry will need a continuous and reliable supply of biomass that can be produced at a low cost and with minimal use of water, fertilizer and arable land. As many C4 plants have high light, water and nitrogen use efficiency, as compared with C3 species, they are ideal as feedstock crops. We consider the productivity and resource use of a number of candidate plant species, and discuss biomass ‘quality’, that is, the composition of the plant cell wall.; Caitlin Byrt, Christopher P.L. Grof and Robert T. Furbank

Effect of water availability on growth and water use efficiency for biomass and gel production in Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis M.)

Francka, N.; Torres, C.; Seguel, O.; Tapia, C.; Sagardía Q., Susana; Cardemil, Liliana; Silva, H.
Fonte: ELSEVIER Publicador: ELSEVIER
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
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The cultivation of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) has achieved economic importance due to the products which are obtained from its leaves. However, there is a scarcity of information about its agronomic management and the effect of water availability for its establishment and production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigation rates on the growth and water use efficiency (WUE) for the production of leaves biomass and gel. We applied four irrigation treatments calculated to be 20, 15, 10 and 5% of the mean evaporative demand (ETo) of last year, equivalent 4 L h−1 during 60, 45, 30 and 15 min (8, 6, 4 and 2 L h−1, respectively), designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4. Plants submitted to the low water availability (T4) produced less new leaves and plantlets per plant. The greatest number of new leaves was produced by the plants T1 and the greatest number of plantlets in an intermediate treatment (T2). The extreme treatments (T1 and T4) had lower values of WUE (10.8 and 10.9 g leaf biomass L−1 water) than the intermediate treatments T2 and T3 (24.5 and 15.6 g leaves biomass L−1 water). The WUE values for gel production were 8.6, 17.1, 13.1 and 6.8 g L−1 in T1, T2, T3 and T4; the T2 plants were the most efficient. The precise water requirement under this edapho-climatic condition was obtained. This requirement...

Using stated preference methods to assess environmental impacts of forest biomass power plants in Portugal

Botelho, Anabela; Gomes, Lina Lourenço; Pinto, Lígia; Sousa, Sara; Valente, Marieta
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em /11/2015 ENG
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As a renewable energy source, the use of forest biomass for electricity generation is advantageous in comparison with fossil fuels, however the activity of forest biomass power plants causes adverse impacts, affecting particularly neighbouring communities. The main objective of this study is to estimate the effects of the activity of forest biomass power plants on the welfare of two groups of stakeholders, namely local residents and the general population and we apply two stated preference methods: contingent valuation and discrete choice experiments, respectively. The former method was applied to estimate the minimum compensation residents of neighbouring communities of two forest biomass power plants in Portugal would be willing to accept. The latter method was applied among the general population to estimate their willingness to pay to avoid specific environmental impacts. The results show that the presence of the selected facilities affects individuals’ well-being. On the other hand, in the discrete choice experiments conducted among the general population all impacts considered were significant determinants of respondents’ welfare levels. The results of this study stress the importance of performing an equity analysis of the welfare effects on different groups of stakeholders from the installation of forest biomass power plants...

ALLOCATION OF BIOMASS IN BAMBOO PLANT IN RESPONSE TO THE MINERAL FERTILIZATION; ALOCAÇÃO DE BIOMASSA EM PLANTAS DE BAMBU EM RESPOSTA A ADUBAÇÃO MINERAL

OLIVEIRA, Dagmar Alves de; BEZERRA NETO, Egídio; UFRPE; NASCIMENTO, Clístenes Willians Araújo do; UFRPE; FERNANDES, Michelangelo Bezerra; SILVA, Tereza Cristina da; UFRPE; OLIVEIRA, Rodrigo Alves de
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/03/2008 ENG
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The present study aims to evaluate the influence of mineral fertilization on the allocation of biomass in the roots, culm and leaves of bamboo plants cultivated in green house. The soil is classified as Quartzipsamment, and it was fertilized with the doses equivalent to 0, 20, 40, 80, and 120 kg ha-1 of nitrogen and 0, 10, 40, 80, and 100 kg ha-1 of phosphorus and potassium. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications. Bamboo plants were grown for 120 days in green house. After this period the plants were harvested and the total biomass was determined as well the biomass allocation in leaves, culm and roots. The highest total dry weight biomass was achieved by the dose of 120, 10 e 100 kg ha-1 of NPK. The highest biomass production in leaves, was obtained with the dose equivalent to 80, 10 and 100 kg ha-1 NPK. The highest culm biomass biomass production was with the doses equivalent to 120, 40 and 100 kg ha-1 NPK. And the highest production in the root was achieved respectively by the doses of 80, 10 and 100 kg ha-1 of NPK. The fertilization whit N and K provided increase in the production of the total biomass of the bamboo plants.; O presente estudo teve como o objetivo avaliar a influência da adubação mineral na alocação de biomassa nas raízes...