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Biological control of chestnut blight in Portugal

Martins, Luís; Castro, João Paulo; Gouveia, Eugénia
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
Plant protection is a multi-disciplinary subject and different strategies need to be addressed for sustainable plant health management Biological control is an ecosystem-based approach extending from lab based investigation to fie ld applications. Hipovirulence is a specific method for biological control of Chestnut Blight a lethal disease of the American and European chestnut. The causal pathogen of Chestnut Blight is Cryphonectria parasitica a fungus of Asian origin which is an A2 quarantine organism in Europe. Chestnut Blight was recorded in Portugal since 1990, one of the last European countries where Chestnut Blight has been introduced, and is now well established and widespread with a fast expansion in all regions of chestnut. Biological control with hypovirulent strains of C. parasitica is considered an efficient mean to control the disease and improve chestnut recovered. One of the first goa ls of this study is applying hipovirulence as a biological method for Chestnut Blight control and producing a solid scientific base to extend the method all over the chestnut region. it will have a very high practical impact on crop productivity, and on social perception of applied research. Field records and studies include parameters related to trees (dendrometric parameters and plant health status) and the physical characteristics of the plots (type of soil...

Biphasic positive airway pressure minimizes biological impact on lung tissue in mild acute lung injury independent of etiology

Saddy, Felipe ; Moraes, Lillian ; Santos, Cintia ; Oliveira, Gisele ; Cruz, Fernanda ; Morales, Marcelo ; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; de Abreu, Marcelo ; Baez Garcia, Cristiane Souza Nascimento ; Pelosi, Paolo ; Macêdo Rocco, Patricia Rieke
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
Abstract Introduction Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIVENT) is a partial support mode that employs pressure-controlled, time-cycled ventilation set at two levels of continuous positive airway pressure with unrestricted spontaneous breathing. BIVENT can modulate inspiratory effort by modifying the frequency of controlled breaths. Nevertheless, the optimal amount of inspiratory effort to improve respiratory function while minimizing ventilator-associated lung injury during partial ventilatory assistance has not been determined. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the effects of partial ventilatory support depend on acute lung injury (ALI) etiology. This study aimed to investigate the impact of spontaneous and time-cycled control breaths during BIVENT on the lung and diaphragm in experimental pulmonary (p) and extrapulmonary (exp) ALI. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study of 60 adult male Wistar rats. Mild ALI was induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide either intratracheally (ALIp) or intraperitoneally (ALIexp). After 24 hours, animals were anesthetized and further randomized as follows: (1) pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) with tidal volume (Vt) = 6 ml/kg...

Avaliação dos métodos de levantamento do meio biológico terrestre em estudos de impacto ambiental para a construção de usinas hidrelétricas na região do cerrado; Evaluation of the methods of survey of the terrestrial biological way in studies of ambient impact for the construction of hidrelétricas plants in the region Cerrado, in Brazil

Silveira, Raquel Lima da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/10/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
A realização dos estudos de impacto ambiental e a apresentação do respectivo relatório de impacto ambiental vinha sendo utilizada no Brasil desde a década de 70 de uma maneira não formalizada, ou seja, sem uma legislação pertinente ao assunto, com a intenção de minimizar os impactos decorrentes de empreendimentos de grande porte. Com o aumento da aplicabilidade desses estudos, foram, então, regulamentados, em nível federal, pela resolução CONAMA 001, de 23/01/1986. Para a realização do Estudo de Impacto Ambiental (EIA), deve-se desenvolver um conjunto de atividades que os respectivos órgãos licenciadores estaduais e/ou IBAMA estabelecem, geralmente denominado Termo de Referência. Considera-se que os métodos empregados nos Termos de Referência estão de acordo com as normas e recomendações das Secretarias Estaduais de Meio Ambiente e que os estudos de impacto ambiental estão sendo corretamente executados. Porém esses métodos não têm um padrão a ser seguido, podendo ocorrer possíveis erros e a não abrangência necessária das características ecológicas do meio biológico terrestre. As obras hidrelétricas, de um modo geral, produzem grandes impactos sobre o meio ambiente, que são verificados ao longo e além do tempo de vida da usina e do projeto...

Avaliação do impacto biológico da Galectina-1, endógena e exógena, sobre funções de neutrófilos; Evaluation of the biological impact of Galectin-1, endogenous and exogenous, on neutrophil functions

Rodrigues, Lilian Cataldi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/09/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
A galectina-1 (Gal-1) é uma lectina que reconhece ?-galactosídeos e participa de vários processos biológicos, incluindo a modulação da resposta inflamatória. Dados da literatura mostram a participação desta lectina na indução da exposição de fosfatidilserina (FS - um marcador de apoptose), na geração de espécies reativas do oxigênio (EROs) e na modulação quimiotática de neutrófilos. Entretanto, ainda são escassos os dados relacionados ao impacto biológico da Gal-1, exógena e endógena, sobre a biologia destas células. Neste trabalho foram avaliados, in vitro, alguns aspectos funcionais da interação Gal-1/neutrófilo. Determinou-se o nível de expressão da Gal-1 (Western Blotting) e de seu mRNA (PCR real time), em leucócitos humanos obtidos do sangue periférico de doadores sadios e em células da linhagem promielocítica humana (HL-60). Leucócitos do sangue periférico e células HL-60 não expressam níveis detectáveis da proteína e também do mRNA para Gal-1. Por meio de ensaios de quimiluminescência (QL) foi possível analisar a capacidade da Gal-1 recombinante humana de induzir e modular a produção de EROs em neutrófilos humanos não ativados e ativados com fMLP (n-Formil-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine). A Gal-1 induz a produção de EROs de modo dose-dependente em neutrófilos ativados com fMLP. Entretanto...

Environmental diagnosis in areas with different use and occupation using the perception of diverse biological activity

Ribeiro, A. I.; Peche Filho, A.; de Medeiros, G. A.; Longo, R. M.; Storino, M.; Fengler, F. H.; Keller, E. M L; Rapp, J. Z.; Freitas, E. P.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 129-136
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.83%
In Brazil, the degradation of soil and landscape by urban and agricultural frontiers expansion leads to the need for comprehensive studies and consider the diverse biological activities generated from different interventions in the landscape, becoming an instrument for assessing the impacts and the decision for its environmental management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different forms of occupation of the landscape, considering ecological elements and their interactions. The work was carried out on the Instituto Agronômico in the county of Jundiai, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The area under study has been subjected to different use and occupancy for a period of about 40 years. During this period the landscape has been transformed, with the current scenario can be classified as a degraded area mining; grassy area; Araucaria forest and pasture. These areas were evaluated by means of a transect, from which ten sampling sites were selected for the description of diverse biological activities, which included: evaluation and description of ground cover, identifying the presence of fungus and insect species. Furthermore, we evaluated in these points the pH, fertility and porosity of the topsoil (0-0.10 m). The results showed a variation of the elements analyzed and a relationship between the use and occupation of land in the different scenarios of the current landscape. The biological activity was more diverse in the Araucaria forest...

Ozone depletion and UVB radiation: Impact on plant DNA damage in southern South America

Rousseaux, M. Cecilia; Ballaré, Carlos L.; Giordano, Carla V.; Scopel, Ana L.; Zima, Ana M.; Szwarcberg-Bracchitta, Mariela; Searles, Peter S.; Caldwell, Martyn M.; Díaz, Susana B.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/12/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
The primary motivation behind the considerable effort in studying stratospheric ozone depletion is the potential for biological consequences of increased solar UVB (280–315 nm) radiation. Yet, direct links between ozone depletion and biological impacts have been established only for organisms of Antarctic waters under the influence of the ozone “hole;” no direct evidence exists that ozone-related variations in UVB affect ecosystems of temperate latitudes. Indeed, calculations based on laboratory studies with plants suggest that the biological impact of ozone depletion (measured by the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in DNA) is likely to be less marked than previously thought, because UVA quanta (315–400 nm) may also cause significant damage, and UVA is unaffected by ozone depletion. Herein, we show that the temperate ecosystems of southern South America have been subjected to increasingly high levels of ozone depletion during the last decade. We found that in the spring of 1997, despite frequent cloud cover, the passages of the ozone hole over Tierra del Fuego (55° S) caused concomitant increases in solar UV and that the enhanced ground-level UV led to significant increases in DNA damage in the native plant Gunnera magellanica. The fluctuations in solar UV explained a large proportion of the variation in DNA damage (up to 68%)...

Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude

Deutsch, Curtis A.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Huey, Raymond B.; Sheldon, Kimberly S.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.; Haak, David C.; Martin, Paul R.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.85%
The impact of anthropogenic climate change on terrestrial organisms is often predicted to increase with latitude, in parallel with the rate of warming. Yet the biological impact of rising temperatures also depends on the physiological sensitivity of organisms to temperature change. We integrate empirical fitness curves describing the thermal tolerance of terrestrial insects from around the world with the projected geographic distribution of climate change for the next century to estimate the direct impact of warming on insect fitness across latitude. The results show that warming in the tropics, although relatively small in magnitude, is likely to have the most deleterious consequences because tropical insects are relatively sensitive to temperature change and are currently living very close to their optimal temperature. In contrast, species at higher latitudes have broader thermal tolerance and are living in climates that are currently cooler than their physiological optima, so that warming may even enhance their fitness. Available thermal tolerance data for several vertebrate taxa exhibit similar patterns, suggesting that these results are general for terrestrial ectotherms. Our analyses imply that, in the absence of ameliorating factors such as migration and adaptation...

Biological impact of hepatitis B virus X-hepatitis C virus core fusion gene on human hepatocytes

Ma, Zhen; Shen, Qin-Hai; Chen, Guo-Min; Zhang, Da-Zhi
Fonte: The WJG Press and Baishideng Publicador: The WJG Press and Baishideng
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
AIM: To investigate the biological impact of hepatitis B virus X- hepatitis C virus core (HBV X-HCV C) fusion gene on hepatoma cells.

Biological impact of missing-value imputation on downstream analyses of gene expression profiles

Oh, Sunghee; Kang, Dongwan D.; Brock, Guy N.; Tseng, George C.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
Motivation: Microarray experiments frequently produce multiple missing values (MVs) due to flaws such as dust, scratches, insufficient resolution or hybridization errors on the chips. Unfortunately, many downstream algorithms require a complete data matrix. The motivation of this work is to determine the impact of MV imputation on downstream analysis, and whether ranking of imputation methods by imputation accuracy correlates well with the biological impact of the imputation.

A Novel Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA) for Functional Analysis of Time-Course Omics Studies: Validation Using the Bovine Mammary Transcriptome

Bionaz, Massimo; Periasamy, Kathiravan; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Hurley, Walter L.; Loor, Juan J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/03/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
The overrepresented approach (ORA) is the most widely-accepted method for functional analysis of microarray datasets. The ORA is computationally-efficient and robust; however, it suffers from the inability of comparing results from multiple gene lists particularly with time-course experiments or those involving multiple treatments. To overcome such limitation a novel method termed Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA) is proposed. The DIA provides an estimate of the biological impact of the experimental conditions and the direction of the impact. The impact is obtained by combining the proportion of differentially expressed genes (DEG) with the log2 mean fold change and mean –log P-value of genes associated with the biological term. The direction of the impact is calculated as the difference of the impact of up-regulated DEG and down-regulated DEG associated with the biological term. The DIA was validated using microarray data from a time-course experiment of bovine mammary gland across the lactation cycle. Several annotation databases were analyzed with DIA and compared to the same analysis performed by the ORA. The DIA highlighted that during lactation both BTA6 and BTA14 were the most impacted chromosomes; among Uniprot tissues those related with lactating mammary gland were the most positively-impacted; within KEGG pathways ‘Galactose metabolism’ and several metabolism categories related to lipid synthesis were among the most impacted and induced; within Gene Ontology “lactose biosynthesis” among Biological processes and “Lactose synthase activity” and “Stearoyl-CoA 9-desaturase activity” among Molecular processes were the most impacted and induced. With the exception of the terms ‘Milk’...

Preparation and Characterization Challenges to Understanding Environmental and Biological Impacts of Nanoparticles

Karakoti, A.S.; Munusamy, P.; Hostetler, K; Kodali, V.; Kuchibhatla, S.; Orr, G.; Pounds, J.G.; Teeguarden, J.G.; Thrall, B.D.; Baer, D.R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
Increasingly, it is recognized that understanding and predicting nanoparticle behavior is often limited by the degree to which the particles can be reliably produced and adequately characterized. Two examples that demonstrate how sample preparation methods and processing history may significantly impact particle behavior are: 1) an examination of cerium oxide (ceria) particles reported in the literature in relation to the biological responses observed and 2) observations related that influence synthesis and aging of ceria nanoparticles. Examining data from the literature for ceria nanoparticles suggests that thermal history is one factor that has a strong influence on biological impact. Thermal processing may alter many physicochemical properties of the particles, including density, crystal structure, and the presence of surface contamination. However, these properties may not be sufficiently recorded or reported to determine the ultimate source of an observed impact. A second example shows the types of difficulties that can be encountered in efforts to apply a well-studied synthesis route to producing well-defined particles for biological studies. These examples and others further highlight the importance of characterizing particles thoroughly and recording details of particle processing and history that too often are underreported.

Biological impact of preschool music classes on processing speech in noise

Strait, Dana L.; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; O’Connell, Samantha; Kraus, Nina
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
Musicians have increased resilience to the effects of noise on speech perception and its neural underpinnings. We do not know, however, how early in life these enhancements arise. We compared auditory brainstem responses to speech in noise in 32 preschool children, half of whom were engaged in music training. Thirteen children returned for testing one year later, permitting the first longitudinal assessment of subcortical auditory function with music training. Results indicate emerging neural enhancements in musically trained preschoolers for processing speech in noise. Longitudinal outcomes reveal that children enrolled in music classes experience further increased neural resilience to background noise following one year of continued training compared to nonmusician peers. Together, these data reveal enhanced development of neural mechanisms undergirding speech-in-noise perception in preschoolers undergoing music training and may indicate a biological impact of music training on auditory function during early childhood.

Comparing the Biological Impact of Glatiramer Acetate with the Biological Impact of a Generic

Towfic, Fadi; Funt, Jason M.; Fowler, Kevin D.; Bakshi, Shlomo; Blaugrund, Eran; Artyomov, Maxim N.; Hayden, Michael R.; Ladkani, David; Schwartz, Rivka; Zeskind, Benjamin
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
For decades, policies regarding generic medicines have sought to provide patients with economical access to safe and effective drugs, while encouraging the development of new therapies. This balance is becoming more challenging for physicians and regulators as biologics and non-biological complex drugs (NBCDs) such as glatiramer acetate demonstrate remarkable efficacy, because generics for these medicines are more difficult to assess. We sought to develop computational methods that use transcriptional profiles to compare branded medicines to generics, robustly characterizing differences in biological impact. We combined multiple computational methods to determine whether differentially expressed genes result from random variation, or point to consistent differences in biological impact of the generic compared to the branded medicine. We applied these methods to analyze gene expression data from mouse splenocytes exposed to either branded glatiramer acetate or a generic. The computational methods identified extensive evidence that branded glatiramer acetate has a more consistent biological impact across batches than the generic, and has a distinct impact on regulatory T cells and myeloid lineage cells. In summary, we developed a computational pipeline that integrates multiple methods to compare two medicines in an innovative way. This pipeline...

Dermal absorption and short-term biological impact in hairless mice from sunscreens containing zinc oxide nano- or larger particles

Osmond-McLeod, Megan J.; Oytam, Yalchin; Kirby, Jason K.; Gomez-Fernandez, Laura; Baxter, Brent; McCall, Maxine J.
Fonte: Informa UK Ltd. Publicador: Informa UK Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
Previous studies have shown no, or very limited, skin penetration of metal oxide nanoparticles following topical application of sunscreens, yet concerns remain about their safety compared to larger particles. Here, we assessed the comparative dermal absorption of a traceable form of Zn (68Zn) from 68ZnO nano-sized and larger particles in sunscreens. Sunscreens were applied to the backs of virgin or pregnant hairless mice over four days. Control groups received topical applications of the sunscreen formulation containing no ZnO particles, or no treatment. Major organs were assessed for changes in 68Zn/64Zn ratios, 68Zn tracer and total Zn concentrations. Short-term biological impact was assessed by measuring levels of serum amyloid A in blood, and by performing whole-genome transcriptional profiling on livers from each group. Increased concentrations of 68Zn tracer were detected in internal organs of mice receiving topical applications of 68ZnO (nano-sized and larger particles), as well as in fetal livers from treated dams, compared with controls. Furthermore, concentrations of 68Zn in organs of virgin mice treated with sunscreen containing 68ZnO nanoparticles were found to be significantly higher than in mice treated with sunscreen containing larger 68ZnO particles. However...

The impact of age, exposure and genetics on homologous recombination at the engineered repeat sequence in mice

Wiktor-Brown, Dominika M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 210 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.7%
Mitotic homologous recombination is a critical pathway for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks and broken replication forks. Although homologous recombination is generally error-free, recombination between misaligned sequences can lead to deleterious sequence rearrangements, and conditions that stimulate homologous recombination are associated with an increased risk of cancer. To study homologous recombination in vivo, we used Fluorescent Yellow Direct Repeat (FYDR) mice in which a homologous recombination event at a transgene yields a fluorescent cell. To study homologous recombination using FYDR mice, we developed one- and two-photon in situ imaging techniques that reveal both the frequency and the sizes of isolated recombinant cell clusters within intact pancreatic tissue. We then applied these tools to analyze the effects of cancer risk factors such as exposure, genetic predisposition and age on homologous recombination in vivo. To determine the effect of exposure to exogenous carcinogens on homologous recombination, FYDR mice were treated with two different chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin and mitomycin-C.; (cont.) Results show that exposure to these DNA damaging agents causes an induction of recombinant pancreatic cells in vivo...

Impacto do valor justo no resultado: um estudo com empresas do segmento de ativos biológicos; Fair value impact on earnings: a estudy with biological assests companies segment

Silva, Francisco Narciso da
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; brasil; UFG; Faculdade de Administração, Ciências Contábeis e Economia (RG); Ciências Contábeis (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; brasil; UFG; Faculdade de Administração, Ciências Contábeis e Economia (RG); Ciências Contábeis (RG)
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
New opportunities and also new challenges always follows the evolution and globalization of business; and, thus, Accounting has also been under significant changes, driven by the guidelines of the International Accounting Standards Board, IASB, and in Brazil by the Brazilian Accounting Pronouncements Committee - CPC. These changes also affected the agricultural sector, covered by IAS 41 - Agriculture and its national correspondent, CPC 29 - Biological Assets and Agricultural Product. Therefore, this research aims to analyze the impact of the change in fair value of biological assets on the net result of a sample of companies in the agricultural sector. We also use the non-parametric statistical test of Wilcoxon Signed-rank Test, to verify the hypotheses postulated according with this goal. The data collection sources are the financial statements disclosed by the sample companies sites on BM & FBovespa, Economic Value and site Cenibra SA, the pulp and paper segment, intentionally chosen to complete the sample. This is an exploratory-descriptive study with a quantitative approach, using bibliographic and documentary sources. Also makes use of descriptive statistics to explore the aspects related to fair value measurement. The results show that there is statistical evidence to argue that the change in fair value of biological assets...

Finite-element modelling of the impact behaviour of aluminium nacre-like composite

Flores-Johnson, E.A.; Shen, L.M.; Guiamatsia, I.; Nguyen, G.D.
Fonte: Trans Tech Publications Publicador: Trans Tech Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
The demand for energy-absorbing lightweight structures for impact applications in automotive, aerospace and defence industry is rapidly growing, posing a challenge for innovative engineering design to maintain lightweight without reducing damage tolerance and impact and shock absorption. In this context, biological materials offer a source of inspiration for the design of new materials. Nacre, commonly known as the mother-of-pearl, is a biological material that exhibits outstanding mechanical properties due to its hierarchical structure, which includes a brick-like pattern, layer waviness and interface. Although nacre is made of 95% of aragonite, a brittle material, its toughness is about 3000 larger than that of aragonite. Research addressing the behaviour of nacre-like engineering composites is limited and this work intends to contribute to the understanding of such materials under impact loading. In this paper, the study of the impact behaviour of layered nacre-like plates made of 1-mm thick tablets of aluminium alloy 7075 glued with toughened epoxy resin is performed using Abaqus/Explicit. A 9-mm steel spherical projectile with initial impact velocities in the range of 400-900 m/s is used. The epoxy material is modelled using a user-defined cohesive element that accounts for the experimentally observable increase in both strength and toughness in compression. Target thicknesses of 5 and 7 mm are modelled. The ballistic performance of bulk plates made of bulk Al-7075 is compared with that of nacre-like composite plates of the same thickness. It is found that the nacre-like structures performed slightly better than the bulk plate for high impact velocities with a reduction of about 9% in the residual velocity; however...

Report on the Piloting of the Quality, Relevance and Comprehensiveness of Impact Mitigation Services Survey (QIMS) in Swaziland

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
The delivery of impact mitigation services has not kept pace with the severity and breadth of HIV related impacts in Swaziland. It has become increasingly clear that the emphasis on short term emergency response initiatives must give way to long-term initiatives to help Swaziland cope with the impacts. As a key step in the roll-out of a more coherent and effective impact mitigation response of greater relevance, the National Emergency Response Council on HIV/AIDS (NERCHA) wants to commission a periodic Quality of Impact Mitigation Survey (QIMS) to measure the quality, relevance, and comprehensiveness of impact mitigation services.

The Status and Impact of Bio Safety Regulation in Developing Economies Since Ratification of the Cartagena Protocol

McLean, Morven; Foley, Mary-Ellen; Pehu, Eija
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.85%
The World development report 2010: development and climate change highlights the link between biotechnology, development, and environment. Aside from recognizing biotechnology's potential to improve crop productivity, increase crop adaptation to climatic stresses such as drought, and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, the report emphasizes the need to establish science-based regulatory systems 'so that risks and benefits can be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, comparing the potential risks with alternative technologies' (World Bank 2010). This paper explores how the Cartagena protocol to the convention on biological diversity, as well as other important drivers, have affected the regulation of Genetically engineered (GE) crops in developing countries. It examines the impact of biosafety regulation on research and development of GE crops and on product approvals. Finally, it identifies opportunities to advance biosafety regulation in those developing countries that wish to access the potential benefits of agricultural biotechnology. As is true for capacity development in other regulatory arenas...

Biological control of chestnut blight in Portugal

Martins, Luís; Castro, João Paulo; Gouveia, Eugénia
Fonte: ISHS Publicador: ISHS
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
Hypovirulence is a specific biological control method of chestnut blight, a lethal disease of American and European chestnut. The causal pathogen of chestnut blight is Cryphonectria parasitica, a fungus of Asian origin and an A2 quarantine organism in Europe. The disease has been reported since 1990 in Portugal, one of the last European countries where the pathogen was introduced. The chestnut blight fungus is now well established and widespread in Portugal with fast expansion in all chestnut regions. Biological control with hypovirulent strains of C. parasitica is considered an efficient means to control the disease and improve chestnut recovery. One of the goals of this study is to apply hypovirulence as a biological method for chestnut blight control and produce a solid scientific base to extend the treatment method over the country's chestnut areas. A successful biological control program will have a very high practical impact on crop productivity and on the social perception of applied research. Field records and studies included parameters related to trees (dendrometric parameters and plant health status) and the physical characteristics of the plots (type of soil, exposure, geographic coordinates, age of trees, actual management of soil...