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Biodiversidade e museus de ciências: um estudo sobre transposição museográfica nos dioramas; Biodiversity and science museums: a study on the transposition museographic dioramas

Oliveira, Adriano Dias de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/05/2010 PT
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O estudo em questão teve como principal objetivo analisar como o tema biodiversidade, no que diz respeito à forma em como é conceituado e a valores a ele atribuído, aparece nos dioramas de exposições de museus de ciências. Para tal, a pesquisa visou à compreensão dos processos de transformação do discurso científico para o discurso expositivo, tendo como referencial teórico o conceito de transposição didática, aqui entendida como transposição museográfica. O foco em biodiversidade deve-se as proporções que o termo ganhou nas últimas décadas, em que o mesmo sobrepujou os limites científicos, sendo incorporados novos significados a ele, e que por sua vez vem exigindo estratégias educacionais diferenciadas dos locais que objetivam utilizá-lo como instrumento de articulação em educação para ciência. Os motivos que nos conduziram a delinear este trabalho encontram-se nos questionamentos sobre o tema biodiversidade e de como um espaço educativo, em especial os museus, abordam-no fazendo uso de um dos seus objetos expositivos mais tradicionais, os dioramas. Foram selecionados para esta pesquisa dois museus nacionais - Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia e Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUC/RS - onde foram analisados dois dioramas de cada um. Por se configurar como uma pesquisa qualitativa a coleta de dados se deu por meio de entrevistas a cientistas que investigam a biodiversidade e a um responsável de cada museu estudado...

Biodiversidade e planejamento de uso e ocupação do solo: estudo de caso Brotas/SP; Biodiversity and landuse planning: case study Brotas, São Paulo State, Brazil

Angelieri, Cíntia Camila Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/02/2011 PT
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A conservação da biodiversidade tornou-se uma preocupação mundial devido ao aumento da taxa de extinção de espécies. Mesmo assim a importância da biodiversidade freqüentemente é subestimada, não sendo considerado seu papel chave na evolução e adaptação à mudança de ambientes e no fornecimento de bens e serviços para a humanidade. O Brasil tem importância central na conservação da biodiversidade mundial (é o primeiro em Megadiversidade e em Áreas Selvagens e possui dois Hotspots), sendo indispensável implementar instrumentos que contemplem a inclusão da biodiversidade no planejamento de uso e ocupação do solo. Visto que ainda não foi claramente definido como integrar efetivamente a biodiversidade nesse processo, este estudo investigou instrumentos indicados para esse fim, especialmente o Zoneamento Ambiental (ZA) e a Avaliação Ambiental Estratégica (AAE). O estudo de caso foi realizado no município de Brotas-SP. Primeiramente foram sobrepostos critérios e áreas prioritárias para a biodiversidade em escala nacional, estadual e municipal para a elaboração do mapa das áreas prioritárias para conservação e recuperação da biodiversidade local utilizando o programa IDRISI Andes Edition. Os resultados mostram que princípios e objetivos abordados em diversas escalas e em outros instrumentos de planejamento podem ser integrados ao processo de AAE. Também foram gerados modelos de distribuição de grandes mamíferos Chrysocyon brachyurus (loboguará)...

Um estudo sobre qualidade de dados em biodiversidade: aplicação a um sistema de digitalização de ocorrências de espécies; A study about data quality in biodiversity: application to a species ocurrences digitization system

Veiga, Allan Koch
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/02/2012 PT
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Para o combate da atual crise de sustentabilidade ambiental, diversos estudos sobre a biodiversidade e o meio ambiente têm sido realizados com o propósito de embasar estratégias eficientes de conservação e uso de recursos naturais. Esses estudos são fundamentados em avaliações e monitoramentos da biodiversidade que ocorrem por meio da coleta, armazenamento, análise, simulação, modelagem, visualização e intercâmbio de um volume expressivo de dados sobre a biodiversidade em amplo escopo temporal e espacial. Dados sobre ocorrências de espécies são um tipo de dado de biodiversidade particularmente importante, pois são amplamente utilizados em diversos estudos. Contudo, para que as análises e os modelos gerados a partir desses dados sejam confiáveis, os dados utilizados devem ser de alta qualidade. Assim, para melhorar a Qualidade de Dados (QD) sobre ocorrências de espécies, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um estudo sobre QD aplicado a dados de ocorrências de espécies que permitisse avaliar e melhorar a QD por meio de técnicas e recursos de prevenção a erros. O estudo foi aplicado a um Sistema de Informação (SI) de digitalização de dados de ocorrências de espécies, o Biodiversity Data Digitizer (BDD)...

Biodiversidade e os esquemas de certificação de biocombustíveis; Biodiversity and the certification schemes for biofuels

Camila Ortolan Fernandes de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/08/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A sustentabilidade dos biocombustíveis é uma questão polêmica, que ganhou grande dimensão desde a segunda metade da década passada. Nesse contexto, biodiversidade é um dos aspectos mais mencionados no debate internacional. Em função das pressões de diferentes segmentos sociais, critérios de sustentabilidade foram definidos e têm condicionado a aplicação de políticas de fomento aos biocombustíveis. Na prática, esquemas de certificação têm sido usados de forma crescente e nada indica que essa tendência seja alterada. Assim, a futura produção de etanol de cana de açúcar no Brasil, e a competitividade da produção nacional em mercados internacionais, estarão condicionadas a que sustentabilidade seja uma realidade, e possa ser comprovada. No Brasil, muito pouco se sabe sobre os impactos da produção de cana, e de etanol, sobre a biodiversidade, e foi isso que motivou esta dissertação. Seu objetivo geral é o entendimento da questão biocombustíveis-biodiversidade, incluindo a identificação do conhecimento existente, das diferentes visões, das aspirações, etc. A análise foi feita com foco na produção de etanol de cana, nas condições brasileiras, e de suas perspectivas. Um dos objetivos específicos foi definido na avaliação dos esquemas de certificação...

Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Production Landscapes

Petersen, Caroline; Huntley, Brian
Fonte: Washington, DC : Global Environment Facility Publicador: Washington, DC : Global Environment Facility
EN_US
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This volume contributes to broadening the understanding and application of the concept of mainstreaming biodiversity. It captures the inputs to, and findings of an international workshop held in Cape Town, South Africa, in September 2004 on Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Production Landscapes and Sectors. The aims of the workshop were to: determine an operational definition of the concept of mainstreaming biodiversity in production landscapes and sectors; demonstrate the role of mainstreaming in advancing Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) goals and Strategic Priority of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) work program; explore the scale at which mainstreaming can most effectively be implemented; critique successes and failures in achieving mainstreaming outcomes to date; and, brainstorm on modified or new approaches and tools. These aims are addressed in the first paper in this volume, which explores what is meant by "mainstreaming biodiversity," while the new approaches and tools-the products of the workshop-are outlined in the final paper...

Ghana - High Forest Biodiversity Conservation Project

Mastri, Lawrence
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The Global Environment Facility (GEF) supported High Forest Biodiversity Conservation Project intended to increase the ecological security of globally significant biological resources, especially within threatened tropical moist forest ecosystems. The project aimed to establish effective systems for the protection of 30 Globally Significant Biodiversity Areas (GSBAs) in all tropical forest biomes in Ghana in four regions within the high forest zone - namely, Ashanti, Eastern, Central, and Western regions. The project focused on communities living at the periphery of these GSBAs.

Expanding Financing for Biodiversity Conservation : Experiences from Latin America and the Caribbean

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The Latin America and Caribbean Region has been at the forefront of global biodiversity conservation, dedicating 20 percent of its land to protected areas compared to 13 percent in the rest of the developing world. This progress has stretched available budgets for conservation with estimates indicating that a twofold increase would be necessary to achieve optimal management of existing protected areas based on 2008 data. Recognizing the importance of this financing challenge, this document presents examples of how the region is successfully exploring news ways and sources of finance for biodiversity conservation. It is intended as an input to the global discussions on biodiversity financing drawing from a selective review of concrete experiences where governments are tapping nonpublic finance sources in effective partnerships. The cases reviewed point to common features contributing to their success: (i) variety in arrangements; (ii) enabling legal and institutional support; (iii) capacity based on record of experience; (iv) building social capital; (v) clarity about conservation objectives; (vi) strong government leadership in guiding biodiversity conservation policies and programs.

Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services, and Climate Change : The Economic Problem

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Climate change is both a cause and an effect of biodiversity change. Along with anthropogenic dispersion, climate change is the main driver of change in the geographical distribution of both beneficial and harmful species, crops, livestock, harvested wild species, pests, predators and pathogens. And the capacity of ecosystems to adapt to climate change depends on the diversity of species they currently support. This paper considers the connection between climate, biodiversity and ecosystem services. The impact of climate change on human wellbeing is measured by the change in ecosystem services caused by climate related change in biodiversity. Similarly, the role of species richness and abundance in climate change mitigation or adaptation is measured by the change in the climate-related services of biodiversity. The categories of ecosystem services are those applied in the millennium ecosystem assessment. The paper first considers how climate and biodiversity have been linked in recent attempts to link the two things. From the side of the natural sciences...

Biodiversity Conservation in the Context of Tropical Forest Management

Putz, Francis E.; Redford, Kent H.; Robinson, John G.; Fimbel, Robert; Blate, Geoffrey M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper disaggregates the term "biodiversity" into components (landscapes, ecosystems, communities, species/populations, and genes) and attributes (structure, composition, and function). It then disaggrgates "logging" by detailing the vast range of activities subsumed under the term including variation of logging intensities, logging methods, collateral damage, and silvicultural approaches. Using the richness present in both terms, a framework for considering the impacts of logging and other forest management activities on the various components and attributes of biodiversity is presented. This framework is, in turn, used to evaluate the extensive literature covering different studies of logging in tropical forests. This paper does not conclude with uncritical support for sustainable forest managmement of timber as a conservation strategy. Such an endorsement is unwarranted given widespread illegal logging in the tropics, widespread frontier logging and logging of areas of high priority for biodiversity protection...

The GEF-6 Biodiversity Strategy

Global Environment Facility
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) defines biodiversity as the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity) demonstrated that biodiversity underpins ecosystem goods and services that are required for the survival of human societies and for the future of all life on the planet. In addition, biodiversity generates considerable economic value through the provision of goods such as food, water, and materials, and services such as climate regulation, pollination, disaster protection, and nutrient cycling. Governments, civil society organizations, the private sector, indigenous people and local communities, and others have made some progress in sustainably managing biodiversity and ecosystems at local and national levels...

A National Biodiversity Offset Scheme

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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Liberia had an estimated 4.3 million hectares of forests in 2011, comprising approximately 50 percent of Liberia’s landmass. These forests support very high levels of biodiversity, provide a wide range of ecosystem services (for example, bush meat, medicines, construction materials, and charcoal), and generate employment and revenue from commercial and chainsaw logging. Encouraging inward investment while striking a sound balance between different interests, respecting the legal and customary rights of local people, and conserving biodiversity represents a major challenge. This project focuses on the mining sector, which has the potential to become a significant engine for growth and broader-based development. It explores the feasibility of implementing a national biodiversity offset scheme in Liberia to help minimize adverse impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services resulting from mining. A Liberian national offset scheme will entail the application of a common methodology to ensure that conservation benefits are at least equivalent to biodiversity losses due to mining investments. The report is presented in seven chapters. Chapter one gives introduction. Chapter two discusses the conservation imperatives for Liberia and conveys a sense of the quality and extent of biodiversity within Liberia. Chapter three describes the challenge of securing conservation outcomes in Liberia as well as the prevalence of threats to biodiversity. Chapter four discusses the potential for biodiversity offsets to help secure conservation outcomes. Chapter five covers the legal...

Landscape scale measurement and monitoring of biodiversity in the Australian rangelands

Clarke, Kenneth David
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008
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It is becoming increasingly important to monitor biodiversity in the extensive Australian rangelands; currently however, there is no method capable of achieving this goal. There are two potential sources of relevant data that cover the Australian rangelands, and from which measures of biodiversity might be extracted: traditional field-based methods such as quadrat surveys have collected flora and fauna species data throughout the rangelands, but at fine scale; satellite remote sensing collects biologically relevant, spatially comprehensive data. The goal of this thesis was to provide the spatially comprehensive measure of biodiversity required for informed management of the Australian rangelands. The study specifically focused on the Stony Plains in the South Australian rangelands. To that end the thesis aimed to develop indices capable of measuring and/or monitoring biodiversity from vegetation quadrat survey data and remotely sensed data. The term biodiversity is so all-encompassing that direct measurement is not possible; therefore it is necessary to measure surrogates instead. Total perennial vegetation species richness (y-diversity) is a sound surrogate of biodiversity: the category of species is well defined, species richness is measurable...

Improving biodiversity monitoring

Lindenmayer, D.; Gibbons, P.; Bourke, M.; Burgman, M.; Dickman, C.; Ferrier, S.; Fitzsimons, J.; Freudenberger, D.; Garnett, S.; Groves, C.; Hobbs, R.; Kingsford, R.; Krebs, C.; Legge, S.; Lowe, A.; McLean, R.; Montambault, J.; Possingham, H.; Radford, J.
Fonte: Blackwell Science Asia Publicador: Blackwell Science Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
Effective biodiversity monitoring is critical to evaluate, learn from, and ultimately improve conservation practice. Well conceived, designed and implemented monitoring of biodiversity should:(i) deliver information on trends in key aspects of biodiversity (e.g. population changes); (ii) provide early warning of problems that might otherwise be difficult or expensive to reverse; (iii) generate quantifiable evidence of conservation successes (e.g. species recovery following management) and conservation failures; (iv) highlight ways to make management more effective; and (v) provide information on return on conservation investment. The importance of effective biodiversity monitoring is widely recognized (e.g. Australian Biodiversity Strategy).Yet, while everyone thinks biodiversity monitoring is a good idea, this has not translated into a culture of sound biodiversity monitoring, or widespread use of monitoring data.We identify four barriers to more effective biodiversity monitoring in Australia. These are: (i) many conservation programmes have poorly articulated or vague objectives against which it is difficult to measure progress contributing to design and implementation problems; (ii) the case for long-term and sustained biodiversity monitoring is often poorly developed and/or articulated; (iii) there is often a lack of appropriate institutional support...

Indices de biodiversidad y de estructura vertical - utilidad de aplicacion en bosques con manejo forestal; Biodiversity and vertical structure indices - usefullness in forest management

Salas, R.; Fidalgo, B.; Gaspar, J.; Morais, P.
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 SPA
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36.86%
The majority of forested area in Portugal was planted in 20th century. Extended plantations were performed with maritime pine and with the fast-growing exotic species Eucalyptus globulus make up a large proportion of the forest land (60%). Opinions differ as to the value of the new forests for biodiversity, but numerous studies have highlighted the positive value of planted forests for wildlife. This study was performed in order to carry out a comparison of biodiversity in planted areas on a range of varied sites, similarly attempts to compare biodiversity in planted areas with remnant native forests. In other words, our research aimed at obtaining information on the type/levels of biodiversity in planted forests; evaluating the contribution of planted areas to conservation of native flora through the comparison with native broadleaved stands; identifying indicators by relating the diversity to vegetation and stand structure variables. This study was carried out in Centro Region in Portugal, a photo-interpretation was used to identify land cover/uses types, a multi-scale forest inventory was applied to assess forest stands biodiversity. In recent years identity of biodiversity indicators is a research priority, indicators included in the study were deadwood...

Environment Matters at the World Bank, 2009 Annual Review : Banking on Biodiversity

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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This issue of environment matters celebrates the 2010 international year of biodiversity and describes some of the challenges and opportunities in protecting biodiversity for the benefit of humankind. From the world's highest mountain ranges to the lowland plains, and from the great oceans and coastal wetlands to agricultural landscapes, nations and communities rely on the bounty and services of natural ecosystems. Biological resources and the goods and ecosystem services they provide underpin every aspect of human life and livelihoods, from food and water security to general well-being and spiritual fulfillment. In many countries, it is the poorest of the poor who are most dependent on these benefits. Yet, as the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment showed, biodiversity is under severe threat, as ecosystems are being lost and degraded more rapidly and extensively than at any comparable period in our history. Habitat loss and fragmentation, overexploitation of resources, pollution, invasive alien species, and...

Investing in Natural Capital for Eradicating Extreme Poverty and Boosting Shared Prosperity : A Biodiversity Roadmap for the WBG

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The World Bank Group (WBG) has a long experience in engaging in biodiversity with world-class expertise in the field. It has been the single largest funder of biodiversity investments since the late 1980s. The WBG investments have largely been of two kinds: (1) investments in biodiversity, aimed at the conservation and sustainable use of species, habitats, and ecosystems that sustain healthy ecosystems, while enhancing people's livelihoods and safety nets. These investments have also been providing jobs and economic development in frequently impoverished rural areas for example by supporting protected areas and an increasingly important tourism industry; and (2) investments that add value to projects in other sectors, such as irrigation, hydropower, and infrastructure, by increasing their environmental sustainability. The WBG is a global center of excellence that provides economy wide technical and economic knowledge and expertise on biodiversity and ecosystems. It has the standing and convening power to facilitate participatory dialogue between client countries and networks of other relevant stakeholders on matters of biodiversity and climate change concern...

Biological Resource Management : Integrating Biodiversity Concerns in Rural Development Projects and Programs

Grimble, Robin; Laidlaw, Martyn
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The aim of this study is to improve understanding of how biological resource conservation concerns can be better incorporated into projects and programs that primarily address the objective of rural development rather than environmental conservation. A multi-disciplinary study team was assembled and six background papers produced, along with the main overview paper. The six papers were on: 1) measuring biodiversity, predicting impacts, and monitoring change; 2) integrated pest management and biodiversity conservation; 3) biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes in Britain: relevant issues for developing countries; 4) reconciling biodiversity and development issues in practice; the search for a win-win situation in Ghana's coastal wetlands; 5) strategies for biodiversity conservation: examples from Tanzania; and 6) participatory initiatives in biodiversity conservation: lessons from experience. A study was also made of World Bank policies and procedures relating to biodiversity management and rural development together with three portfolio reviews. These findings were incorporated into this paper. This paper argues that bioresources and people's livelihood systems are intricately interrelated...

BioTools: Developing and Investing in Biodiversity Responsible Business

Sater, Mary
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 03/09/2010 EN_US
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The objective for these tools is to encourage the conservation of biodiversity through private sector investment in biodiversity business. The tools seek to enable both investors and business developers to create viable business models that are biodiversity responsible, either through the use and consumption of biodiversity within the space that the project occupies or through the responsible management of biodiversity within the project space. The long-term objective of the Tools is to harness private capital to create green ventures that achieve the objectives of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity. To develop the BioTools, a review of academic business and scientific literature was conducted, as well as a review of current developments in the grey literature of international policy organizations. These sources provided background on the current efforts to conserve biodiversity, the juncture between business and policy to conserve biodiversity, and tools for all facets of business operations. During the development of the tools, both business frameworks and applications to environmental problems were researched and adopted and modified to fulfill the objectives of BioTool development. The Convention on Biological Diversity has three objectives in its mandate: the conservation of biodiversity...

ASSESSING THE BIODIVERSITY SUPPORT POTENTIAL OF FOREST PATCHES FOR CONSERVATION PLANNING

Leddick, Jesse
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 7752453 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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Biological diversity is a critical component controlling ecosystem function and resiliency, yet it remains difficult to measure at the spatial and temporal scales relevant to conservation. Recently, biodiversity surrogates have emerged as a potentially useful tool for estimating the ability of a habitat patch to support biological diversity over the long-term, termed biodiversity support potential. The objective of the present study was to assess the biodiversity support potential of forest habitat patches in North Carolina. I used the diversity of unique land cover types and biophysical conditions as surrogates for biodiversity. Biophysical conditions were captured through the use of terrain-based indices: a topographic convergence index, potential radiation load, and elevation; these were indexed and combined to generate unique environmental conditions affecting the distribution of plant community types. Modeled estimates of soil moisture were ground-truthed to verify that topographic convergence is a reasonable index of soil moisture. Natural Heritage Element Occurrences were used to weight discrete environmental conditions and land covers according to their current biodiversity value. Finally, Significant Natural Heritage Areas were used as a reference to assesses whether biodiversity surrogates effectively capture habitats presumed to have the highest biodiversity value...

Conservation, as Part of a Garden's Mission, Promotes Organizational Practices that Promote Biodiversity

Hedean, Sarah
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Note: Except for the faculty signature page, which was not digitized, the entire thesis was scanned as formatted by the author.
EN_US
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Gardens have been a significant instrument in scientific and cultural development of the assessment and study of plant resources. Public gardens have played a major role in the exploration of plant life, in the acclimatization and introduction of species, in the education of plant life and in plant conservation. Throughout the world, public gardens host more than 200 million people each year, helping their visitors appreciate, enjoy and respect the plant life that sustains our planet. In an age of rapid loss of plant species and wild habitats, gardens have become vital centers of education, research, horticulture and conservation. Gardens have developed roles and responsibilities that are becoming increasingly important for protecting plant biodiversity. This research sought to determine if having conservation as part of the garden's mission promotes organizational practice's that conserve biodiversity. Surveys to public gardens in the United States and four case study site visits offered perceptions and opinions related to the contribution of organizational practices to biological diversity conservation. The three identified areas of organizational practices include: saving biodiversity, studying biodiversity and using biodiversity sustainably. Saving biodiversity is taking steps to protect genes...