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Ethanol production process from banana fruit and its lignocellulosic residues: Energy analysis

VELASQUEZ-ARREDONDO, H. I.; RUIZ-COLORADO, A. A.; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
Tropical countries, such as Brazil and Colombia, have the possibility of using agricultural lands for growing biomass to produce bio-fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. This study applies an energy analysis to the production process of anhydrous ethanol obtained from the hydrolysis of starch and cellulosic and hemicellulosic material present in the banana fruit and its residual biomass. Four different production routes were analyzed: acid hydrolysis of amylaceous material (banana pulp and banana fruit) and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (flower stalk and banana skin). The analysis considered banana plant cultivation, feedstock transport, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, dehydration, residue treatment and utility plant. The best indexes were obtained for amylaceous material for which mass performance varied from 346.5 L/t to 388.7 L/t, Net Energy Value (NEV) ranged from 9.86 MJ/L to 9.94 MJ/L and the energy ratio was 1.9 MJ/MJ. For lignocellulosic materials, the figures were less favorable: mass performance varied from 86.1 to 123.5 L/t, NEV from 5.24 10 8.79 MJ/L and energy ratio from 1.3 to 1.6 MJ/MJ. The analysis showed, however, that both processes can be considered energetically feasible. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; AUGURA association; DIME office; Biochemical Laboratory of the National University of Colombia; Bromatologic Laboratory of the National University in Colombia; Brazilian National Council of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq)

Caracterização de bio-óleos obtidos por pirólise da serragem de Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) e picea abies (softwood) utilizando as técnicas de cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas

Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
Bio-óleos obtidos através de pirólise de biomassas lignocelulósicas são uma alternativa complementar às fontes fósseis no processo de fabricação de combustíveis e outros produtos químicos. Foi feita uma comparação entre os bio-óleos obtidos em reatores de leito fixo (FB) e leito fluidizado borbulhante (BFB), empregando-se serragem de Eucalyptus sp (hardwood) e de Picea abies (softwood), resíduos produzidos em larga escala em diversos países. Observou-se maior rendimento do produto líquido (bio-óleo bruto) da pirólise em reator BFB (~70 %) do que no reator FB (~50 %). As cetonas e os fenóis foram os compostos majoritários obtidos nos bio-óleos, respectivamente. A predominância destes compostos químicos sugere que estes bio-óleos apresentam potencial para a indústria de polímeros, alimentícia entre outras. A análise realizada por GC×GC/TOFMS se mostrou importante para o estudo de três bio-óleos obtidos a partir de BFB, visto que foram verificadas imprecisões na análise dos mesmos bio-óleos quando a 1D-GCqMS foi utilizada, devido a co-eluições. O emprego de zeólita ZSM-5 em reator BFB aumentou o percentual de hidrocarbonetos aromáticos no bio-óleo, mostrando o potencial deste tipo de processo e resíduo para produção de combustível e a presença de hidrocarbonetos poliaromáticos trouxe um alerta para o correto gerenciamento da pirólise a fim de evitar a produção de compostos tóxicos.; Bio-oils obtained by pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass are a complementary alternative to fossil fuels in the manufacturing process of fuels and other chemicals. A comparison was made between the bio-oils obtained in fixed bed (FB) and bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) reactors...

Análise do desempenho de um motor diesel de injeção mecânica utilizando combustíveis alternativos; Analysis of a mechanical injection diesel engine using alternative fuels

Zenker, Thais
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
Um dos grandes contribuintes para a poluição do ar atmosférico são os motores de combustão interna. Há uma busca crescente pelo uso de combustíveis alternativos como fontes de energia mais limpa, com o intuito de amenizar os prejuízos causados pelas emissões. Neste contexto, este trabalho tem por objetivo simular parâmetros intrínsecos de motor por compressão utilizando diesel dopado com etanol. Uma comparação entre o desempenho obtido experimentalmente a partir de dois combustíveis diferentes, diesel comercial S500 e uma mistura de diesel com 7% de etanol e 3% de bio-óleo, permite validar o modelo proposto. O modelo utilizado é estabelecido com os princípios do modelo zero-dimensional, no qual os parâmetros de desempenho do motor são função da variação do ângulo de manivela. As informações utilizadas para iniciar os cálculos são as condições de contorno estabelecidas pelo experimento. Os resultados encontrados são satisfatórios considerando as limitações do modelo. As curvas de pressão em função do ângulo de manivelas apresentam boa concordância, sendo o coeficiente de correlação de 0,9 para ambos combustíveis. Os resultados de consumo especifico e eficiência global apresentaram discrepância máxima de 5%. Desta forma...

Modelagem sistêmica do ciclo de vida do aguapé no Pantanal e anãlise do uso desta biomassa para a produção de bio-óleo e bio-fertilizante; System modeling of water hyacinth life cycle in Pantanal and analysis of the use of this biomass for bio-oil and bio-fertilizer production

Luz Selene Buller
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/02/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
O Pantanal ocupa uma área extensa do Brasil em torno de 140.000 km²; seus ecossistemas são caracterizados por áreas com alagamento periódico, campos inundados constantemente e ambientes aquáticos naturais com lagoas (baías), rios e canais (vazantes e corixos); não existem quedas d¿ água para a geração de energia elétrica dentro da bacia. Em virtude das áreas alagadas existem poucas vias para o abastecimento de combustíveis para as fazendas produtoras que, assim, dependem fortemente de diesel e lenha como fonte de energia. Além disso, as cidades da região dependem da energia elétrica originária de outros estados da federação e a produção industrial (cimento e ferro gusa) é baseada em carvão vegetal, cuja origem é questionável, possivelmente do desmatamento do Cerrado. O uso de fontes alternativas de biomassa produzidas localmente poderia amenizar a carência energética no Pantanal. O aguapé, que se desloca nas lagoas e rios do Pantanal na forma de ilhas flutuantes, pode ser uma fonte alternativa de biomassa para a obtenção de combustíveis sólidos, líquidos e gasosos renováveis produzidos e distribuídos localmente. Esta pesquisa objetivou uma análise do ciclo de vida do aguapé na região de Corumbá mediante estudos teóricos que permitiram modelar e simular a dinâmica de crescimento (nas baías e margens dos rios) e de decaimento do aguapé (decomposição)...

Digestão assistida por irradiação UV como um método de preparação alternativo para a determinação de metais em biodiesel e bio-óleo por espectrometria de absorção atômica com chama

Evangelista, Sheila Marques
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.72%
Dissertação (mestrado)—Univerdidade de Brasília, Instituto de Química, 2011.; Biodiesel e bio-óleo são combustíveis obtidos de fonte renovável, considerados ambientalmente atraentes e uma ótima alternativa em substituição ao diesel. A determinação dos metais presentes nestes biocombustíveis é necessária a fim de garantir a sua qualidade, pois podem causar problemas ao motor, mesmo em baixas concentrações. Este trabalho propõe o desenvolvimento de um método alternativo de digestão assistida por irradiação UV (fotodigestão) para biodiesel e bio-óleo e uma comparação com os métodos de preparo de amostras de combustíveis mais utilizados na literatura, visando a determinação de metais por espectrometria de absorção atômica com chama (FAAS). As amostras de biodiesel foram obtidas por quatro métodos distintos por meio da reação de transesterificação do óleo de soja. O bio-óleo foi obtido a partir do óleo de soja pelo processo de craqueamento térmico. Estes biocombustíveis foram caracterizados de acordo com os métodos estabelecidos pela ANP. As amostras de gasolina comum e diesel comum foram adquiridas em posto comercial de abastecimento. Foram utilizados cinco métodos distintos de preparação para os combustíveis: diluição em solvente orgânico (apenas para o biodiesel)...

Fermentative bio-hydrogen production from organic wastes and sugars

Abreu, A. A.; Danko, Anthony S.; Alves, J. I.; Alves, M. M.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 06/04/2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Utilization of renewable energy has been identified as a priority within the “European Energy Policy” which stresses the need to develop new sources of green energy. A follow-up of the programme “Intelligent Energy – Europe” (Decision No. 1230/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2003) is projected for the 7th Framework Programme (2007-2013). The main focus of the programme is the production of electricity from renewable sources of energy, as described in Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001. According to this document, Portugal has committed to raise the national electricity production exclusively from renewable sources to 39% by 2010. In addition, it constitutes an essential part of the package of measures necessary to comply with the commitments made by the EU under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen is a CO2-neutral energy source with a very promising future as an alternative to fossil fuels for energy production. The treatment and disposal of wastes by conventional methods poses many problems throughout the world and may result in the consumption of energy. In addition, costs to dispose and treat wastes are escalating. Hydrogen can be produced...

Conversão catalítica do álcool furfurílico em bio-ésteres

Abrantes, Joana Helena Aguiar de Almeida Pinho
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
Os levulinatos de alquilo (ESL) são bio-ésteres que podem ser utilizados como aditivos ou intermediários para (bio)combustíveis, permitindo, por exemplo, diminuir as emissões de partículas e dióxido de enxofre associadas ao uso de combustíveis fósseis em meios de transporte e para aquecimento. Os ESL podem ser sintetizados a partir do álcool furfurílico (AF) que, por sua vez, é produzido industrialmente a partir de hemiceluloses. O AF reage com um álcool alifático (ex. etanol ou o 1-butanol), na presença de um catalisador ácido, para dar o respetivo levulinato de alquilo (ex. levulinato de etilo, levulinato de butilo) através de uma série de reações químicas. Esta é uma via para a valorização da biomassa vegetal, inserindo-se no conceito da Biorefinaria e nos objetivos de investigação do laboratório associado CICECO. Numa primeira fase o trabalho centrou-se na pesquisa sobre o estado da arte e análise comparativa dos desempenhos de diferentes tipos de catalisadores na reação do AF com álcoois alifáticos. Com base nesta revisão bibliográfica, identificaram-se alguns requisitos importantes dos catalisadores ácidos para a reação do AF em ESL. Foram preparados materiais inorgânicos com propriedades ácidas...

Use of Jatropha oil methyl ester and its blends as an alternative fuel in diesel engine

Rao,Y. V. Hanumantha; Voleti,Ram Sudheer; Hariharan,V. S.; Sitarama Raju,A. V.; Redd,P. Nageswara
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
Biomass derived vegetable oils are quite promising alternative fuels for agricultural diesel engines. Use of vegetable oils in diesel engines leads to slightly inferior performance and higher smoke emissions due to their high viscosity. The performance of vegetable oils can be improved by modifying them through the transesterification process. In the present work, the performance of single cylinder water-cooled diesel engine using methyl-ester of Jatropha oil as fuel was evaluated for its performance and exhaust emissions. The fuel properties of biodiesel such as kinematic viscosity, calorific value, flash point, carbon residue and specific gravity were found. Results indicated that B25 has closer performance to diesel and B100 has lower brake thermal efficiency, mainly due to its high viscosity compared to diesel. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel and its blends was found to be slightly higher than that of diesel fuel at tested load conditions and there was no difference between the biodiesel and its blended fuels efficiencies. For Jatropha biodiesel and its blended fuels, the exhaust gas temperature increased with increase in power and amount of biodiesel. But, diesel blends showed reasonable efficiency, lower smoke, CO2...

Bio Gas Oil Production from Waste Lard

Hancsók, Jenő; Baladincz, Péter; Kasza, Tamás; Kovács, Sándor; Tóth, Csaba; Varga, Zoltán
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product) over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280–380°C, P = 20–80 bar, LHSV = 0.75–3.0 h−1 and H2/lard ratio: 600 Nm3/m3). In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360–370°C, P = 40 –50 bar, LHSV = 1.0 h−1 and H2/hydrocarbon ratio: 400 Nm3/m3) mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms.

Prospects for increased low-grade bio-fuels use in home and commercial heating applications

Pendray, John Robert
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 113 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.93%
Though we must eventually find viable alternatives for fossil fuels in large segments of the energy market, there are economically attractive fossil fuel alternatives today for niche markets. The easiest fossil fuels to replace are those with the highest cost and that provide the lowest-grade energy. Stationary heating with oil is one example of low quality use of a high quality fuel. Solid biomass fuels such as wood-pellets, switchgrass-pellets, and corn can displace up to 2% of the U.S. petroleum market through displacing oil used in home and commercial heating. Current technologies are inexpensive enough to enable consumers to save money by heating with solid bio-fuels instead of oil. Although these systems are currently difficult to operate, future systems can increase usability and potentially further reduce costs. Key developments for future adoption are fuel handling and ash cleaning automation as well as emissions reductions. These technologies exist in other industries, such as agriculture, but have not yet been integrated into U.S. solid bio-fuel heating systems. Solid bio-fuel heating is more effective at reducing environmental damage and increasing energy security than corn-ethanol. Net CO2 emissions from solid bio-fuel heating are 75% lower than oil heating...

Análise de um queimador infravermelho funcionando com combustível híbrido : GLP/Bio-óleo

Azevedo Neto, Aluísio
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.47%
Biomass is considered the largest renewable energy source that can be used in an environmentally sustainable. From the pyrolysis of biomass is possible to obtain products with higher energy density and better use properties. The liquid resultant of this process is traditionally called bio-oil. The use of infrared burners in industrial applications has many advantages in terms of technical-operational, for example, uniformity in the heat supply in the form of radiation and convection, with a greater control of emissions due to the passage of exhaust gases through a macroporous ceramic bed. This paper presents a commercial infrared burner adapted with an ejector proposed able to burn a hybrid configuration of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and bio-oil diluted. The dilution of bio-oil with absolute ethanol aimed to decrease the viscosity of the fluid, and improving the stability and atomization. It was introduced a temperature controller with thermocouple modulating two stages (low heat / high heat), and solenoid valves for fuels supply. The infrared burner has been tested, being the diluted bio-oil atomized, and evaluated its performance by conducting energy balance. The method of thermodynamic analysis to estimate the load was used an aluminum plate located at the exit of combustion gases and the distribution of temperatures measured by thermocouples. The dilution reduced the viscosity of the bio-oil in 75.4% and increased by 11% the lower heating value (LHV) of the same...

Desenvolvimento de uma unidade pirolítica com reator de cilindro rotativo: obtenção de bio-óleo

Fontes, Lúcio ângelo de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
The demand for alternative sources of energy drives the technological development so that many fuels and energy conversion processes before judged as inadequate or even non-viable, are now competing fuels and so-called traditional processes. Thus, biomass plays an important role and is considered one of the sources of renewable energy most important of our planet. Biomass accounts for 29.2% of all renewable energy sources. The share of biomass energy from Brazil in the OIE is 13.6%, well above the world average of participation. Various types of pyrolysis processes have been studied in recent years, highlighting the process of fast pyrolysis of biomass to obtain bio-oil. The continuous fast pyrolysis, the most investigated and improved are the fluidized bed and ablative, but is being studied and developed other types in order to obtain Bio-oil a better quality, higher productivity, lower energy consumption, increased stability and process reliability and lower production cost. The stability of the product bio-oil is fundamental to designing consumer devices such as burners, engines and turbines. This study was motivated to produce Bio-oil, through the conversion of plant biomass or the use of its industrial and agricultural waste, presenting an alternative proposal for thermochemical pyrolysis process...

Brazil Low Carbon Case Study : Transport

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
This report summarizes the results for the transportation sector from a larger study, the low carbon study for Brazil, developed by the World Bank as part of its initiative to support the integrated efforts of Brazil to reduce global and national greenhouse gases emissions, while promoting long-term development. The study covers four key areas with potential low carbon options: 1) Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF), including deforestation, 2) transport systems, 3) production and use of energy, particularly electricity, oil, gas and bio fuels, and 4) municipal waste, solids and liquids. This study aims to underpin Brazil's efforts to explore methods for reducing total emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) arising from all areas of human activity. More specifically, this study seeks to highlight low-carbon alternatives for Brazil´s transport sector. These alternatives could contribute positively to the world's climate, as well as benefit Brazil's socio-economic development. The technical inputs for evaluating potential carbon emissions reduction will be submitted to the Brazilian government to assist it in the design and deployment of joint planning strategies in key sectors...

Restoring Balance : Bangladesh's Rural Energy Realities

Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
Bangladesh is one of the world's poorest countries. Nearly 80 percent of the nation's 140 million people reside in rural areas; of these, 20 percent live in extreme poverty. Geographically, many low-lying areas are vulnerable to severe flooding, while other regions are prone to drought, erosion, and soil salinity. Such an unfavorable agricultural landscape, combined with mismanagement of natural resources and increasing population pressure, is pushing many of the rural poor to the brink. Because Bangladesh is such a poor country, it also is one of the world's lowest energy producers. Total annual energy supply is only about 150 liters of oil equivalent per capita (International Energy Agency, or IEA 2003); in rural areas, conditions are even worse. Compared to other developing countries, Bangladesh uses little modern energy. Despite its successful rural electrification program, close to two-thirds of households remain without electricity and, with the exception of kerosene, commercial fuels are beyond reach for many. Moreover...

The Effect of Climate and Technological Uncertainty in Crop Yields on the Optimal Path of global land use

Cai, Yongyang; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Elliott, Joshua; Hertel, Thomas W.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
The pattern of global land use has important implications for the world's food and timber supplies, bioenergy, biodiversity and other eco-system services. However, the productivity of this resource is critically dependent on the world's climate, as well as investments in, and dissemination of improved technology. This creates massive uncertainty about future land use requirements which compound the challenge faced by individual investors and governments seeking to make long term, sometimes irreversible investments in land conversion and land use. This study assesses how uncertainties associated with underlying biophysical processes and technological change in agriculture affect the optimal profile of land use over the next century, taking into account the potential irreversibility in these decisions. A novel dynamic stochastic model of global land use is developed, in which the societal objective function being maximized places value on food production, liquid fuels (including bio-fuels), timber production...

Brazil Low Carbon Country Case Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
Brazil low carbon country case study was two years in the making based on a study by the World Bank assisted by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). It supports Brazil's integrated effort towards reducing national and global-emissions GHG while promoting long-term development. It builds on the best available knowledge and is underpinned by a broad consultative process and survey of available literature. The study was coordinated by Christophe de Gouvello, a Senior Energy Specialist in the Sustainable Development Department of the Latin American and the Caribbean Region. The study's scope was discussed with the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Environment and Science and Technology, as well as representatives of the Ministries of Finance, Planning Agriculture, Transport, Mines and Energy, Development, Industry and trade. More than 15 technical reports and 4 synthesis reports have been commissioned in the course of this work. For a quick overview of priority issues...

Improving Indoor Air Quality for Poor Families : A Controlled Experiment in Bangladesh

Dasgupta, Susmita; Huq, Mainul; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
The World Health Organization's 2004 Global and Regional Burden of Disease Report estimates that acute respiratory infections from indoor air pollution (pollution from burning wood, animal dung, and other bio-fuels) kill a million children annually in developing countries, inflicting a particularly heavy toll on poor families in South Asia and Africa. This paper reports on an experiment that studied the use of construction materials, space configurations, cooking locations, and household ventilation practices (use of doors and windows) as potentially-important determinants of indoor air pollution. Results from controlled experiments in Bangladesh are analyzed to test whether changes in these determinants can have significant effects on indoor air pollution. Analysis of the data shows, for example, that pollution from the cooking area diffuses into living spaces rapidly and completely. Furthermore, it is important to factor in the interaction between outdoor and indoor air pollution. Among fuels, seasonal conditions seem to affect the relative severity of pollution from wood...

Análise da situação da produção de etanol e biodiesel no Brasil

Kohlhepp, Gerd
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
Um dos objetivos da política energética é a redução das emissões de CO2. Os biocombustíveis são uma das alternativas para o setor de transportes. O Brasil é o líder na produção de etanol extraído da cana-de-açúcar. Os preconceitos existentes nos Estados Unidos e na Europa com relação à importação do etanol brasileiro não têm fundamento, pois esse produto apresenta o melhor balanço ecológico e não diminui a produção de gêneros alimentícios. Na produção de biodiesel à base de soja, os preconceitos são, em parte, justificados. Quanto ao etanol, os países industrializados não deveriam usar critérios exagerados à sustentabilidade da produção como pretexto para proteger seus próprios produtores contra a importação de produtos brasileiros com preço mais competidor.; One of the aims of energy policies is reducing CO2 emissions. In transports bio-fuels are one of the alternatives. Brazil is the world leader in producing ethanol from sugar cane. Prejudice against imports of Brazilian ethanol in US and EU markets is unjustified, as it represents the best ecological balance and does not reduce production of basic food in Brazil. As to biodiesel on the basis of soybeans social and ecological reserves partly are in order. Regarding ethanol industrialized countries should not use exaggerated criteria as to sustainability of production as pretext for protecting their own producers from imports of cheaper Brazilian bio-fuels.

Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

Lin, Jiefeng
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Dissertação
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.87%
Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g....

Economic assessment of charcoal injection in the ironmaking process (bio-pci): methodology and data

Bruzual,Cristobal Feliciano; Mathews,John A
Fonte: Universidad Nacional Experimental Politécnica " Antonio José de Sucre", UNEXPO, Vicerrectorado Puerto Ordaz. Publicador: Universidad Nacional Experimental Politécnica " Antonio José de Sucre", UNEXPO, Vicerrectorado Puerto Ordaz.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 EN
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There is a growing awareness of the necessity to reduce the utilization of fossil fuels in the ironmaking process, in this respect, the injection of small particles of charcoal (Bio-PCI) has been regarded as a feasible and practical way to reduce the in 25% the CO2 emission of hot metal production. Despite the positive outlook, there is a significant price difference between charcoal and coal that may deter the prospects of Bio-PCI deployment. This contribution builds on the methodology proposed to assess the economic impact of charcoal injection, based on a blast furnace simulation and a cost objective function. For the simulation, actual processing parameters of 9 fuel-efficient Blast Furnaces were used and current pricing data for the economic assessment. The work begins defining the advantages and limitations of charcoal use in ironmaking, continues with an analysis of diverse frameworks proposed in the literature for the prediction of the impact of Bio-PCI over the economy of the ironmaking in BF. Results show that prices of residual biomass (107-133 USD/t) are substantially more economical than primary biomass (310-400 USD/t), thus the use of residual biomass would help to significantly reduce the cost of charcoal production.