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Renewability and life-cycle energy efficiency of bioethanol and bio-ethyl tertiary butyl ether (bioETBE): Assessing the implications of allocation

Malça, João; Freire, Fausto
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/PDF
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
Biofuels are expected to play an increasingly important role in the transportation market, as we search for ways to reduce fossil fuels depletion and emissions. However, the extent to which biofuel can displace petroleum-based fuels depends on the efficiency with which it can be produced. To demonstrate that biofuel has a positive energy balance--i.e. more energy is contained in the fuel than is used in the production--a life-cycle approach must be employed. This paper presents a Life-Cycle Energy Analysis of bioethanol (from sugar beet or wheat) and bioETBE systems in France. Physical and economic data was collected. A systemic description was implemented and the energy used throughout was calculated. A novel indicator aiming at characterizing the renewability of (bio)energy sources is proposed--the energy renewability efficiency (ERenEf). ERenEf measures the fraction of final fuel energy obtained from renewable sources. Inventory results--calculated using four different allocation approaches and ignoring co-product credits--are analyzed in order to understand the effect of allocation in the energy efficiency and renewability results. Sensitivity analysis shows that allocation has a major influence in the results. This research concludes that bioethanol produced in France is clearly favorable in terms of primary energy. A maximum ERenEf value of 48% was obtained for wheat-based ethanol (mass allocation)...

Exigências de energia e proteína e composição do ganho em peso compensatório de novilhos Nelore por meio do indicador óxido de deutério; Energy and protein requirements and compensatory gain composition of Nellore steers through the marker deuterium oxide

Aferri, Gabriela
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/12/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
Foram utilizados 36 novilhos da raça Nelore, alojados em baias individuais em regime de confinamento, com 20 meses de idade e 359 kg no início do experimento, para determinar as exigências de energia e proteína líquidas para mantença e para ganho de peso, e também para avaliar o efeito da restrição alimentar sobre o desempenho e composição do ganho de peso, bem como o perfil hormonal dos animais e para avaliar a eficiência bioeconômica do ganho de peso compensatório em confinamento. Para isso foram realizados dois experimentos em seqüência, o primeiro teve uma duração de 58 dias e o segundo 78 dias. No primeiro foi fornecida uma mesma dieta, em três níveis de ingestão de matéria seca (MS), sendo alimentação ad libitum (TAL), 75 g MS/kg PV0,75 (T75) e 60 g MS/kg PV0,75 (T60). A composição corporal foi estimada com o óxido de deutério como marcador, que possibilitou a repetição das medidas nos mesmos animais e o estudo de suas respostas à realimentação. Os animais apresentaram exigência de energia líquida para mantença (ELm) de 0,070 Mcal/kg PV0,75 e a exigência de energia líquida para ganho (ELg) foi descrita pela equação ELg = 0,0467 * PCVz0,75 * GPCVz0,8585. A exigência de proteína metabolizável para mantença (PMm) foi determinada pela equação PMm = 4...

Avaliação da atratividade de negócios em geração distribuída e economia de energia elétrica: piloto aplicado dentro dos estudos de PIR na RAA.; Business attractiveness assessment on distributed generation and measures of energy saving: pilot applied on IRP studies within administrative region of Araçatuba.

Silva Junior, Barnabé da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/05/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
O objetivo da dissertação foi o desenvolvimento de um modelo de avaliação rápida da atratividade de oportunidades de negócios em recursos energéticos renováveis dentro de uma região geográfica delimitada, valendo-se dos resultados do Planejamento Integrado de Recursos Energéticos (PIR) para a região analisada, complementado com outras bases bibliográficas primárias e secundárias. O uso dos resultados do PIR propiciou o acesso rápido a avaliações prontas dos recursos energéticos em três dimensões1, além da dimensão técnico-econômica, incluindo opiniões e posições da sociedade local e nacional (técnicos e não técnicos). No estudo piloto, o modelo é aplicado em cinco recursos energéticos renováveis dentro da Região Administrativa de Araçatuba (RAA), noroeste do estado de São Paulo. Os recursos avaliados são: (a) de oferta: Geração eólica (EOL); Cogeração por Biomassa de Cana-de-açúcar (BIO); e Pequenas Centrais Hidroelétricas (PCH); (b) de demanda (medidas de economia): Troca de Lâmpadas Incandescentes por Fluorescentes Compactas e Troca de Chuveiros Elétricos por Aquecedores Solares. Os principais resultados do modelo de avaliação foram (i) um modelo de fluxo de caixa funcional para a avaliação dos recursos de geração; (ii) para cada recurso de geração: cálculo das principais Figuras de Mérito Econômico Financeiro (VPL...

Modelagem sistêmica do ciclo de vida do aguapé no Pantanal e anãlise do uso desta biomassa para a produção de bio-óleo e bio-fertilizante; System modeling of water hyacinth life cycle in Pantanal and analysis of the use of this biomass for bio-oil and bio-fertilizer production

Luz Selene Buller
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/02/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
O Pantanal ocupa uma área extensa do Brasil em torno de 140.000 km²; seus ecossistemas são caracterizados por áreas com alagamento periódico, campos inundados constantemente e ambientes aquáticos naturais com lagoas (baías), rios e canais (vazantes e corixos); não existem quedas d¿ água para a geração de energia elétrica dentro da bacia. Em virtude das áreas alagadas existem poucas vias para o abastecimento de combustíveis para as fazendas produtoras que, assim, dependem fortemente de diesel e lenha como fonte de energia. Além disso, as cidades da região dependem da energia elétrica originária de outros estados da federação e a produção industrial (cimento e ferro gusa) é baseada em carvão vegetal, cuja origem é questionável, possivelmente do desmatamento do Cerrado. O uso de fontes alternativas de biomassa produzidas localmente poderia amenizar a carência energética no Pantanal. O aguapé, que se desloca nas lagoas e rios do Pantanal na forma de ilhas flutuantes, pode ser uma fonte alternativa de biomassa para a obtenção de combustíveis sólidos, líquidos e gasosos renováveis produzidos e distribuídos localmente. Esta pesquisa objetivou uma análise do ciclo de vida do aguapé na região de Corumbá mediante estudos teóricos que permitiram modelar e simular a dinâmica de crescimento (nas baías e margens dos rios) e de decaimento do aguapé (decomposição)...

Fermentative bio-hydrogen production from organic wastes and sugars

Abreu, A. A.; Danko, Anthony S.; Alves, J. I.; Alves, M. M.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 06/04/2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
Utilization of renewable energy has been identified as a priority within the “European Energy Policy” which stresses the need to develop new sources of green energy. A follow-up of the programme “Intelligent Energy – Europe” (Decision No. 1230/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2003) is projected for the 7th Framework Programme (2007-2013). The main focus of the programme is the production of electricity from renewable sources of energy, as described in Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001. According to this document, Portugal has committed to raise the national electricity production exclusively from renewable sources to 39% by 2010. In addition, it constitutes an essential part of the package of measures necessary to comply with the commitments made by the EU under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen is a CO2-neutral energy source with a very promising future as an alternative to fossil fuels for energy production. The treatment and disposal of wastes by conventional methods poses many problems throughout the world and may result in the consumption of energy. In addition, costs to dispose and treat wastes are escalating. Hydrogen can be produced...

Development of a rubber-modified fractionated bio-oil for use as noncrude petroleum binder in flexible pavements

Peralta, J.; Williams, R. Christopher; Rover, Marjori; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da
Fonte: Transportation Research Board Publicador: Transportation Research Board
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
The increasing demand for petroleum-derived products coupled with decreasing world crude reserves has led to substantial increases in asphalt pricing. Society’s additional interest in energy independence and use of renewable sources of energy is also a motivation for developing and using more sustainable materials such as binders derived from noncrude petroleum sources for use in highway applications. Iowa State University has been developing noncrude petroleum binders derived from the production of bio-oil via fast pyrolysis of non-food source biorenewable residues. Currently, research has demonstrated that bioasphalt can be used as a modifier, extender, or even as an antioxidant when added to petroleum asphalt. Previous research illustrated concerns with low-temperature cracking and the ability to produce typical binder grades used in the United States. This work aims to develop a biobinder that can replace 100% of the petroleum derived asphalt used in constructing flexible pavements utilizing bio-oil and crumb rubber. Both ambient and cryogenic crumb rubber were used in the research. The outcomes of the processes and formulations illustrates that noncrude petroleum binders can be developed effectively to replace typical paving grades of asphalt such as a PG 64-22 binder.

The global technical potential of bio-energy in 2050 considering sustainability constraints

Haberl, Helmut; Beringer, Tim; Bhattacharya, Sribas C; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Hoogwijk, Monique
Fonte: Elsevier Science Publicador: Elsevier Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
▶ Food demand, agricultural technology and conservation constrain bio-energy supply. ▶ Global bio-energy crop potentials in 2050 may be 44–133 EJ/yr. ▶ Total global primary bio-energy potentials in 2050 may be 160–270 EJ/yr.

Análise de um queimador infravermelho funcionando com combustível híbrido : GLP/Bio-óleo

Azevedo Neto, Aluísio
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Biomass is considered the largest renewable energy source that can be used in an environmentally sustainable. From the pyrolysis of biomass is possible to obtain products with higher energy density and better use properties. The liquid resultant of this process is traditionally called bio-oil. The use of infrared burners in industrial applications has many advantages in terms of technical-operational, for example, uniformity in the heat supply in the form of radiation and convection, with a greater control of emissions due to the passage of exhaust gases through a macroporous ceramic bed. This paper presents a commercial infrared burner adapted with an ejector proposed able to burn a hybrid configuration of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and bio-oil diluted. The dilution of bio-oil with absolute ethanol aimed to decrease the viscosity of the fluid, and improving the stability and atomization. It was introduced a temperature controller with thermocouple modulating two stages (low heat / high heat), and solenoid valves for fuels supply. The infrared burner has been tested, being the diluted bio-oil atomized, and evaluated its performance by conducting energy balance. The method of thermodynamic analysis to estimate the load was used an aluminum plate located at the exit of combustion gases and the distribution of temperatures measured by thermocouples. The dilution reduced the viscosity of the bio-oil in 75.4% and increased by 11% the lower heating value (LHV) of the same...

Pirólise termoquímica de pós da fibra de coco seco em um reator de cilindro rotativo para produção de bio-óleo

Figueiredo, Aneliése Lunguinho
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
This master thesis aims at developing a new methodology for thermochemical degradation of dry coconut fiber (dp = 0.25mm) using laboratory rotating cylinder reactor with the goal of producing bio-oil. The biomass was characterized by infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis TG, with evaluation of activation energy the in non-isothermal regime with heating rates of 5 and 10 °C/min, differential themogravimetric analysis DTG, sweeping electron microscopy SEM, higher heating value - HHV, immediate analysis such as evaluated all the amounts of its main constituents, i.e., lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. In the process, it was evaluated: reaction temperature (450, 500 and 550oC), carrier gas flow rate (50 and 100 cm³/min) and spin speed (20 and 25 Hz) to condensate the bio-oil. The feed rate of biomass (540 g/h), the rotation of the rotating cylinder (33.7 rpm) and reaction time (30 33 min) were constant. The phases obtained from the process of pyrolysis of dry coconut fiber were bio-oil, char and the gas phase non-condensed. A macroscopic mass balance was applied based on the weight of each phase to evaluate their yield. The highest yield of 20% was obtained from the following conditions: temperature of 500oC...

Desenvolvimento de uma unidade pirolítica com reator de cilindro rotativo: obtenção de bio-óleo

Fontes, Lúcio ângelo de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
The demand for alternative sources of energy drives the technological development so that many fuels and energy conversion processes before judged as inadequate or even non-viable, are now competing fuels and so-called traditional processes. Thus, biomass plays an important role and is considered one of the sources of renewable energy most important of our planet. Biomass accounts for 29.2% of all renewable energy sources. The share of biomass energy from Brazil in the OIE is 13.6%, well above the world average of participation. Various types of pyrolysis processes have been studied in recent years, highlighting the process of fast pyrolysis of biomass to obtain bio-oil. The continuous fast pyrolysis, the most investigated and improved are the fluidized bed and ablative, but is being studied and developed other types in order to obtain Bio-oil a better quality, higher productivity, lower energy consumption, increased stability and process reliability and lower production cost. The stability of the product bio-oil is fundamental to designing consumer devices such as burners, engines and turbines. This study was motivated to produce Bio-oil, through the conversion of plant biomass or the use of its industrial and agricultural waste, presenting an alternative proposal for thermochemical pyrolysis process...

Caracterização do bio-óleo produzido por pirólise rápida do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar

Silva, Cleuzilene Vieira da
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
No presente trabalho, o processo de decomposição térmica do Bagaço de Cana-de-Açúcar (BCA) foi utilizado para compreender o comportamento da matéria-prima para produção de bio-óleo (BO) a partir do processo de Pirólise Rápida. O estudo foi objetivado em duas frentes: i) Caracterização do BCA e ii) Caracterização do BO. O BCA foi caracterizado por análise elementar e tem sua composição química de acordo com a fórmula CH1,48O0,71N0,0054 Os resultados da análise imediata do BCA mostraram que esta é uma fonte lignocelulósica potencialmente importante para a produção de BO, uma vez que este apresenta baixo teor de cinzas (3,7%) e elevado teor de materiais voláteis (81,8%), além disto, o poder calorífico do BCA foi de 15,9 MJ/kg, valor próximo ao obtido com outras fontes lignocelulósicas. A decomposição térmica do BCA foi avaliada através das curvas termogravimétricas em atmosfera inerte e em ar sintético. As curvas mostraram que a presença de oxigênio tem influência nos produtos finais de decomposição e nos valores obtidos de energia de ativação (Ea) para o processo. O estudo cinético foi realizado a partir dos métodos isoconversionais de Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) e Vyazovkin (V). O presente estudo visou contribuir com informações quanto à cinética do processo de decomposição térmica do BCA na presença de oxigênio...

ICT Solutions for Energy Efficiency

Youngman, Richard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
The report is focused on showing a wide range and variety of ways in which Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) solutions could play a transformative role, and so the bulk of the report provides case studies of actual examples of ICT solutions already developed and in action to enable energy efficiency in three particular areas, namely, smart logistics, smart grid/smart metering, and smart buildings. Ultimately, in line with the WBG's charter, this study is concerned with the question of how ICT can play a transformative role in developing countries'climate-smart future. However, as the World Development Report 2010 recognized, this is bound to start in higher-income countries, which have the incentives (being high-energy and high-cost users), the technical know-how and the resources to innovate and implement pioneering solutions to cut their costs and their carbon emissions. Some such solutions will have applicability to the developing world; a minority right away, more year by year as technology is proven and efficiencies of scale kick in. The report concludes with some thoughts...

Policy and Governance Framework for Off-grid Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy Sources

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
The objective of the study was to develop an adequate policy and governance framework for off- grid rural electrification by: assessing the effectiveness and key socio-economic factors and governance structures in present off-grid electricity supply schemes; and exploring and testing sustainable decentralized service-delivery models for future large-scale off-grid rural electrification in Pakistan. This study has attempted to develop a policy and governance framework for implementing sustainable large-scale off-grid rural electrification in Pakistan. This was done by assessing the effectiveness of existing policy, governance, and institutional frameworks in actual implementation of off-grid supply (OS) projects in the country; examining regional and global models for off-grid supply which have worked; and exploring which combination of these experiences might work to scale-up access in Pakistan to reach the roughly 7,000 villages which are not likely to be supplied by grid electricity in the near future. Pakistan has in place...

Confronting the Food-Energy-Environment Trilemma : Global Land Use in the Long Run

Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Hertel, Thomas W.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Economic, agronomic, and biophysical drivers affect global land use, so all three influences need to be considered in evaluating economically optimal allocations of the world's land resources. A dynamic, forward-looking optimization framework applied over the course of the coming century shows that although some deforestation is optimal in the near term, in the absence of climate change regulation, the desirability of further deforestation is eliminated by mid-century. Although adverse productivity shocks from climate change have a modest effect on global land use, such shocks combined with rapid growth in energy prices lead to significant deforestation and higher greenhouse gas emissions than in the baseline. Imposition of a global greenhouse gas emissions constraint further heightens the competition for land, as fertilizer use declines and land-based mitigation strategies expand. However, anticipation of the constraint largely dilutes its environmental effectiveness, as deforestation accelerates prior to imposition of the target.

MISIÓN TECNOLÓGICA BIO 2010

Asoc Chilena de Empresas de Biotecnologia Age; Biosonda S. A; Consorcio de Tecnologia e Innovacion para la Saludsociedad Anonima; Consorcio Tecnologico en Biomedicinaclinico-molecular S. A.; Energy Partners Chile Generadora de Energia Limitada; Grupobios
Fonte: Corporação de Fomento da Produção Publicador: Corporação de Fomento da Produção
Tipo: proyecto
Publicado em 02/03/2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
?El objetivo general es aprovechar la presentación concentrada y masiva del estado del arte del mercado de la biotecnología industrial que es el evento BIO 2010 en Chicago EE.UU. para profundizar los conocimientos de los participantes y del sector biotecnológico chileno acerca de los requerimientos tecnológicos y de comercialización que nuestros productos y servicios deben cumplir para penetrar en los mercados mundiales de biotecnología.En particular los objetivos de la Misión Tecnológica BIO 2010 son:?Identificar en cuales mercados tenemos puntos de partida con posibilidades tecnológicas y de recursos biológicos y qué nos hace falta para convertir estos puntos de partida en ventajas.?Identificar los mercados con mayores opciones tecnológicas y cual es su potencial comercial?Identificar dónde existe potencial para establecer alianzas y cuales son nuestros competidores potenciales.?Es importante destacar el impacto que tiene la regularidad de asistencia a este evento. En primer lugar la visibilidad de Chile como participante ahora ya por sexto año empieza a ser entendido como una señal de un compromiso serio de nuestro país con el desarrollo biotecnológico. No menor es la importancia de la regularidad para las entidades participantes debido a que contactos empiezan a profundizarse al igual que el proceso de aprendizaje.?Cualitativamente se puede esperar tener mayor claridad sobre los sectores de la biotecnología mundial con mayor dinamismo considerando las actuales dificultades económicas. Podemos esperar un promedio por empresa participante del orden de 8 reuniones de las cuales 4 tienen potencial de negocio o colaboración tecnológica.; Identificar y promover relaciones con los protagonistas de este mercado grupos estratégicos de actores como investigadores y empresarios entre otros. Esta estrategia de aprendizaje y la articulación a una comunidad más amplia de actores aportará agilidad mayor conocimiento y nuevas ideas para mejorar e innovar a nivel particular traduciéndose en avances tecnológicos a nivel Nacional.; Corporación de Fomento de la Producción

Integrated sustainability analysis of innovative uses of forest biomass. Bio-oil as an energy vector

Puy Marimon, Neus
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
Aquesta investigació ofereix un enfocament multidisciplinari, des d'un punt de vista ambiental, social, econòmic i tecnològic, per a estudiar nous usos de la biomassa forestal utilitzant diferents metodologies, com són els grups de discussió, l'anàlisi del cicle de vida i experimental en una planta pilot de piròlisi. En primer lloc, es realitza una avaluació integrada per mitjà de grups de discussió per a identificar les barreres polítiques, socials i ambientals que han impedit que els sistemes integrats de biomassa forestal hagin continuat desenvolupant‐se en el context mediterrani. Els resultats mostren que, tot i les grans oportunitats i apostes per aquests sistemes, és necessari considerar factors socioecològics específics, com ara els règims de propietat, la baixa productivitat dels boscos mediterranis, la feble capacitat institucional, logística i dificultats d'abastament i la falta de rendibilitat econòmica dels productes forestals, si la biomassa forestal ha de contribuir decisivament a la producció de fonts d'energia renovables a Europa. En segon lloc, es duu a terme una anàlisi del cicle de vida d'una planta de gasificació de biomassa forestal i de fusta de post‐consum. Aquest estudi mostra que la biomassa forestal necessita majors requeriments d'energia...

Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

Lin, Jiefeng
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Dissertação
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g....

Fruit waste streams in South Africa and their potential role in developing a bio-economy

Khan,Nuraan; le Roes-Hill,Marilize; Welz,Pamela J.; Grandin,Kerry A.; Kudanga,Tukayi; van Dyk,J. Susan; Ohlhoff,Colin; van Zyl,W.H. (Emile); Pletschke,Brett I.
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
Current and previous studies on bio-based (fruit) wastes and wastewaters, with a particular emphasis on research in South Africa, were reviewed. Previous studies have focused predominantly on the beneficiation and application of fruit waste as a feedstock for renewable energy. A definite gap in knowledge and application of fruit waste streams with regard to enzyme production as a value-added product is identified. The characteristics and composition of each type of fruit waste are highlighted and their potential as feedstocks in the production of value-added products is identified. The conversion of agri-industrial wastewaters to bioenergy and value-added products is discussed, with special mention of the newly published South African Bio-Economy Strategy, and the potential production of biofuels and enzymes from waste streams using recombinant Aspergillus strains. Finally, to maximise utilisation of waste streams in South Africa and abroad, a conceptual model for an integrated system using different technologies is proposed.

Technologies for recovery of energy from wastewaters: Applicability and potential in South Africa

Stafford,William; Cohen,Brett; Pather-Elias,Simisha; von Blottnitz,Harro; van Hille,Robert; Harrison,Sue T L; Burton,Stephanie G
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.84%
This study explored technologies for recovering energy from wastewater through production of bio-mass, combustion and gasification, generation of biogas, production of bioethanol, heat recovery and microbial fuel cells. A first order desktop analysis of the potential for applying these solutions to waste-waters in South Africa revealed that 3 200 to 9 000 MWth of energy has potential for recovery, equating to at most 7% of South Africa's current electrical power supply. Formal and informal animal husbandry, fruit and beverage industries and domestic blackwater were identified as wastewaters with the greatest potential for energy recovery. Of the reviewed technologies, anaerobic digestion shows applicability to the widest range of feedstocks. Net energy generated, reduction in pollution, and water reclamation are identified as the main benefits, but additional benefits such as certified emission reductions, fertiliser production and the production of secondary products may dictate the economic feasibility.

Bio-oil yield potential of some tropical woody biomass

Okoroigwe,Edmund C; Li,Zhenglong; Kelkar,Shantanu; Saffron,Christopher; Onyegegbu,Samuel
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2015 EN
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Six tropical biomass samples namely: Ogbono wood (Irvingia wombolu), Mango wood (Mangifera indica), Neem wood (Azadiracta indica), Ogbono shell (Irvingia wombolu), Ogirisi wood (Neubouldia laevis) and Tropical Almond wood (Terminalia cat-appa) were pyrolyzed in a bench scale screw reactor at 450oC. The physicochemical properties of the samples were determined prior to the pyrolysis experiments. The bio-oil and bio-char produced were similarly characterized using standard procedures established by American Standard and Test Methods (ASTM). The highest bio-oil yield of 66 wt% and least bio-oil yield of 53 wt% were obtained from Neem wood and Tropical Almond wood respectively. The characterization results of the products show that even though the moisture content of the bio-oil was quite higher than those of the original feedstock, their higher heating values were higher than those of the parent feedstock. Both characterization results show that the feedstock and their fast pyrolysis products are good materials for bioenergy production. The Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the bio-oil shows the presence of useful chemicals such as phenols and levoglucosan, which could be harnessed for industrial applications.