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Estudo de moléculas de adesão no câncer de mama bilateral; Analyse of adhesion molecules in bilateral breast câncer

Iyeyasu, Hirofumi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/01/2011 PT
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36.3%
Carcinoma da mama com apresentação bilateral é uma doença pouco avaliada na literatura, com raros trabalhos científicos que comparam os aspectos moleculares de ambos os tumores. No presente estudo, analisamos os tumores de 45 pacientes portadoras de carcinoma ductal invasivo bilateral em relação às expressões de claudinas-4 e 7, de E-caderina e de -catenina por meio de imunoistoquímica em TMA. Além desses marcadores, analisamos o estado dos receptores de estrógeno e de progesterona, bem como diversas características histopatológicas (grau histológico, nuclear, mitose, infiltrado, desmoplasia e necrose). A amostra foi caracterizado por média de idade de 52,4 anos e os tumores foram divididos em mama primário (MP) e mama secundário (MS). Não houve diferenças entre os dois grupos (MP e MS) nos marcadores testados, sendo que a expressão foi coincidente nas seguintes proporções: claudina-4 (83,8%, p=0,61), claudina-7 (82,2%, p=0,29), E-caderina (81%, p=0,48), -catenina (89,7%, p=0,48), receptor de estrogeno (66%, p=0.75) e receptor de progesterona (55%, p=0.99). Em relação aos aspectos morfológicos, grau histológico (SBR) II, infiltrado inflamatório discreto, necrose, desmoplasia moderada e índice mitótico (<10fm/10cga) foram coincidentes em 57...

Does It Matter Who You Sign With? Comparing the Impacts of North-South and South-South Trade Agreements on Bilateral Trade

Behar, Alberto; Cirera i Criville, Laia
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Free trade agreements lead to a rise in bilateral trade regardless of whether the signatories are developed or developing countries. Furthermore, the percentage increase in bilateral trade is higher for South-South agreements than for North-South agreements. In this paper, the results are robust across a number of gravity model specifications in which the analysis controls for the endogeneity of free trade agreements (with bilateral fixed effects) and also takes account of multilateral resistance in both estimation (with country-time fixed effects) and comparative statics (analytically). The analytical model shows that multilateral resistance dampens the impact of free trade agreements on trade by less in South-South agreements than in North-South agreements, which accentuates the difference implied by the gravity model coefficients, and that this difference gets larger as the number of signatories rises. For example, allowing for lags and multilateral resistance, a four-country North-South agreement raises bilateral trade by 53 percent while the analogous South-South impact is 107 percent.

The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement : Impact on Trade Flows and External Trade Barriers

Calvo-Pardo, Hector; Freund, Caroline; Ornelas, Emanuel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Using detailed data on trade and tariffs from 1992-2007, the authors examine how the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has affected trade with nonmembers and external tariffs facing nonmembers. First, the paper examines the effect of preferential and external tariff reduction on import growth from ASEAN insiders and outsiders across HS 6-digit industries. The analysis finds no evidence that preferential liberalization has led to lower import growth from nonmembers. Second, it examines the relationship between preferential tariff reduction and MFN tariff reduction. The analysis finds that preferential liberalization tends to precede external tariff liberalization. To examine whether this tariff complementarity is a result of simultaneous decision making, the authors use the scheduled future preferential tariff reductions (agreed to in 1992) as instruments for actual preferential tariff changes after the Asia crisis. The results remain unchanged, suggesting that there is a causal relationship between preferential and MFN tariff reduction. The findings also indicate that external liberalization was relatively sharper in the products where preferences are likely to be most damaging...

Services in a Development Round : Three Goals and Three Proposals

Mattoo, Aaditya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The benefits of services trade reform are huge but services negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO) are making little progress. A proximate cause is the current negotiating process, based on an inertial request-and-offer approach rather than a set of goals that would give direction and momentum to the negotiations. The paper suggests that WTO members should consider: (1) locking in the current openness of cross-border trade for a wide range of services; (2) eliminating barriers to foreign investment either immediately or in a phased manner where regulatory inadequacies need to be remedied; and (3) allowing greater freedom of international movement at least for intra-corporate transferees and for service providers to fulfill specific services contracts. A deeper problem is that WTO members have sought to negotiate market access in services without adequately addressing concerns that the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) commitments limit regulatory freedom unduly and unpredictably, that regulatory institutions in many countries are too weak to cope with liberalized markets, and that there is no provision for the regulatory cooperation that is necessary for successful liberalization, particularly of temporary labor mobility. Three types of actions are needed: (1) at the current stage of its development...

Does Migration Foster Exports? Evidence from Africa

Ehrhart, Hélène; Le Goff, Maëlan; Rocher, Emmanuel; Singh, Raju Jan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This paper aims at assessing the impact of migration on export performance and more particularly the effect of African migrants on African trade. Relying on a new data set on international bilateral migration recently released by the World Bank spanning from 1980 to 2010, the authors estimate a gravity model that deals satisfactorily with endogeneity. The results first indicate that the pro-trade effect of migration is higher for African countries, a finding that can be partly explained by the substitution between migrants and institutions (the existence of migrant networks compensating for weak contract enforcement, for instance). This positive association is particularly important for the exports of differentiated products, suggesting that migrants also play an important role in reducing information costs. Moreover, focusing on intra-African trade, the pro-trade effect of African migrants is larger when migrants are established in a more geographically and ethnically distant country. All these findings highlight the ability of African migrants to help overcome some of the main barriers to African trade: the weakness of institutions...

The Cotonou Agreement and its Implications for the Regional Trade Agenda in Eastern and Southern Africa

de la Rocha, Manuel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Subregional trade arrangements (RTAs) in Eastern and Southern Africa have proliferated in the past 10 to 15 years. The small size of most of the countries in the region, some of which are landlocked, and the security needs in the post independence period largely explain the rapid expansion. These arrangements are characterized by multiple and overlapping memberships, complex structures, and eventually, conflicting and confusing commitments. The influence of RTAs has been limited to assisting the region in increasing trade, attracting foreign direct investment, enhancing growth, and achieving convergence among member countries. But despite their limitations, RTAs have the potential, if properly designed and effectively implemented, to be an important instrument in integrating member countries into global markets. In 1998 most of the Southern African countries, as members of the Africa Caribbean Pacific group (ACP), signed the Cotonou Agreement with the European Union, which includes the negotiation of economic partnership agreements (EPAs) between the EU and the ACP. The Cotonou Agreement explicitly leaves to the ACP countries to decide the level and procedures of the EPA trade negotiations...

Evaluation of the EU-Turkey Customs Union

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The implementation of the customs union (CU) in 1995 was the culmination of thirty-two years of association between the European Union (EU) and Turkey and was expected by Turkey to be the first step in the EU accession process. The CU has been a major instrument of integration for the Turkish economy into both European and global markets. The CU covers trade in just industrial goods (including the industrial components of processed agricultural products) and excludes primary agriculture, services, and public procurement but has proved to be a powerful force of regulatory convergence. The evaluation s objectives are to assess the impacts of the CU and to make forward looking, solution-orientated recommendations for its improvement with an emphasis on the economics behind the various trade irritants and options for dealing with problems related to asymmetries as well as examining the case for widening. The evaluation provides quantitative and qualitative estimates of the effects of the CU and demonstrates that the trade agreement has been highly beneficial for both Turkey and the EU. The evaluation consists of two main parts: (i) an evaluation of the impact of the CU on trade...

Kazakhstan Trade Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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The main message of this report is that if Kazakhstan wants to take advantage of global integration and diversification opportunities, the government needs to improve its trade policy framework, its management, and its regulations. It is also finalizing accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) while its trade strategy includes a number of free trade agreements to be negotiated. It is an active member of the Central Asia Region Economic Cooperation (CAREC). This report is composed of three policy notes that discuss how to improve the trade policy framework, management, and regulations: note one is on the trade policy framework and recommends joining the WTO on a tariff schedule that is more liberal than Russia’s; note two postulates that to benefit more fully from the WTO membership and future regional or bilateral agreements, the institutional framework for trade policy management will need a clearer strategic vision, better coordination within the government and with private sector, and enhanced human capacity; and note three suggests that for the private sector to benefit from global integration and diversification...

The Australia–US Free Trade Agreement: an assessment

Dee, Philippa
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 972645 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Australia and the United States signed a bilateral trade agreement in 2004. This paper analyses the provisions of the agreement, compares the provisions with other bilateral and multilateral agreements and comments on the modelling that the Australian Government used to estimate the likely benefits of the agreement. The author concludes that the modelling relied on overstates the potential gains from the agreement, which establishes many undesirable precedents, especially in relation to sugar, rules of origin, safeguard provisions and intellectual property. The author argues that bilateral agreements of this type could be severely disruptive to future trade relations within the Asian region, particularly with China.; yes

The China factor blunts the cutting-edge of the Japan-Malaysia free trade agreement

Rahman, Khondaker Mizanur; Molla, Rafiqul Islam; Murad, Wahid
Fonte: Berkeley Electronic Press Publicador: Berkeley Electronic Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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Most industrialized and industrializing countries of the world were highly nervous about the spread effect of the surge of investment, industrialization and economic growth in China during early years of the 2000s. They were anxiously searching for ways and means to protect their economic interests from this effect. To describe this phenomenon eloquently the mass media used the term `China factor in world trade.' Against this backdrop the Japan-Malaysia free trade agreement (FTA) under an economic partnership agreement was signed in 2005 and implemented from 2006 with the expectation that it would be able to protect their bilateral trade from the sharp edge of the China factor and further enhance trade and investment relationships between the two countries. This study examines its effectiveness in influencing their bilateral trade growth in the face of this so called China factor. From analyses of the time series data on Malaysia's trade during 1986-2007 it is observed that the bilateral trade between Malaysia and Japan became stagnant during 2001-2005 with an average annual value of US$25.35 billion as a result of the impact of the China factor. However, during 2006-2007, the initial two years of its operation, the FTA was able to minimize the impacts of the China factor and revamp the growth of the bilateral trade at a modest rate. It is projected that their bilateral trade will grow marginally and reach to US$50.34 billion in 2010; but the growth rate will start declining from that year. This...

A 'trade' passage to India: what alternatives does Australia have to pursue a free trade agenda with India?

Sebastian, Melanie
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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India is an emerging power in world diplomacy, culturally, economically, socially and politically. It has now been the subject of many scholarly articles and debate centres on how its emerging power will affect international relations in the 21st century. Australia, as middle power country, should involve itself in the vibrancy of India and be a part of India’s economic prowess. This can occur through a variety of means, including trade agreements of a bilateral, multilateral or regional manner. Australia has been a major player in the international multilateral system since the emergence of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1948 and the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 1995. Australia claims its top priority is to liberalise trade through the multilateral agenda. However, this emphasis on the multilateral system is now altering with Australia’s pursuance of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) in recent years seeing the emergence of preferential agreements with key economic partners. The World Trade Organisation is also collectively concerned as its member states resort to bilateral trade agreements over the multilateral system. This report is concerned with this shift in trade priority, specifically Australia...

The making of Asia's first bilateral FTA: origins and regional implications of the Japan-Singapore economic partnership agreement

Terada, Takashi
Fonte: Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, ANU Publicador: Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, ANU
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 229640 bytes; application/pdf
EN
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Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi ushered in a new era in Japan’s international trade policy in January 2002 when he and his Singaporean counterpart, Goh Chok Tong, signed the Japan-Singapore Economic Partnership Agreement (JSEPA), the first bilateral Free Trade Agreement (FTA) signed between Asian countries. This trade strategy also reflected Japan’s interest in launching its so-called ‘multi-layered trade policy’ which meant the pursuit of bilateral and regional trading arrangements, including FTAs, in an attempt to complement multilateralism based on the GATT/WTO to reinvigorate efforts to achieve global trade liberalisation. ¶ This paper aims to examine how and why Japan and Singapore decided to pursue FTAs, what interests both perceived in their pursuit of FTAs, what elements contributed to both countries being linked in this trade policy arrangement, and what implications the JSEPA has had for the FTA movement in East Asia. It argues that the JSEPA was made possible mainly through Singapore’s initial offer to exclude agricultural products from tariff elimination. But Japan faced problems in seeking FTAs with other ASEAN countries which were less developed than Singapore and had a higher proportion of agricultural exports...

The Australian-Indonesia security agreement: issues and prospects

Cipullo, Lucia
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Australia and Indonesia are involved in a unique, complicated and volatile relationship. This relationship is highly conducive to periods of crisis, controversy, and cooperation. Yet despite their many differences, these two neighbouring countries are important strategic assets to one another. They live side by side in a tumultuous region, in an age where security challenges have broadened and are no longer bound by traditional state-based military threats. The Agreement between Australia and the Republic of Indonesia on the Framework for Security Cooperation is the latest development in this bilateral relationship and has been the subject of much controversy. The Agreement, which is also referred to as the Lombok Treaty, is being heralded as an innovative and forward-looking development, signifying a positive and symbolic step in the direction of a long and prosperous partnership. However, it has also been criticised for being ambiguous and negligent, and having the potential to cause future tensions. This report assesses select key issues surrounding the Lombok Treaty in light of past Australian-Indonesian relations. It provides an outline of the history and nature of the bilateral relationship, in order to demonstrate its turbulent character and to provide the background against which the Treaty was negotiated. The Lombok Treaty has been compared to its predecessor...

Reciprocity in Free Trade Agreements

Freund, Caroline
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The author uses detailed trade, tariff, and income data for countries involved in 91 trade agreements negotiated since 1980 to test for reciprocity in free trade agreements. The results offer strong evidence of reciprocity in North-North and South-South free trade agreements, but there is little empirical support for reciprocity in North-South trade agreements. In particular, after controlling for other determinants of trade preferences, the results suggest that a one percent increase in preferences offered leads to about a one-half of a percent increase in preferences received in North-North and South-South trade agreements. Freund also finds evidence that large countries extract greater trade concessions from small countries. This leads to a modified form of reciprocity in North-South agreements. A large increase in access to a developing country market leads to only a small increase in access to a rich country market. The results imply that there are incentives for countries to maintain protection in order to extract more concessions from trade partners. But in general...

Global Logistics Indicators, Supply Chain Metrics, and Bilateral Trade Patterns

Hausman, Warren H.; Lee, Hau L.; Subramanian, Uma
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Past research into the determinants of international trade highlighted the importance of the basic spatial gravity model augmented by additional variables representing sources of friction. Studies modeled many sources of friction using various proxies, including indices based on expert judgment in some cases. This paper focuses on logistics friction and draws on a data set recently compiled by the World Bank with specific quantitative metrics of logistics performance in terms of time, cost, and variability in time. It finds that the new variables that relate directly to logistics performance have a statistically significant relationship with the level of bilateral trade. It also finds that a single logistics index can capture virtually all of the explanatory power of multiple logistics indicators. The findings should spur public and private agencies that have direct or indirect power over logistics performance to focus attention on reducing sources of friction so as to improve their country's ability to compete in today's global economy. Moreover, since the logistics metrics are directly related to operational performance, countries can use these metrics to target actions to improve logistics and monitor their progress.

Export Liberalization, Job Creation and the Skill Premium : Evidence from the U.S.-Vietnam Bilateral Trade Agreement

Fukase, Emiko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This paper explores how the expansion of labor-intensive manufacturing exports resulting from the United States-Vietnam Bilateral Trade Agreement in 2001 translated into wages of skilled and unskilled workers and the skill premium in Vietnam through the channel of labor demand. In order to isolate the impacts of trade shock from the effects of other market-oriented reforms, a strategy of exploiting the regional variation in difference in exposure to trade is employed. Using the data on panel individuals from the Vietnam Household Living Standards Surveys of 2002 and 2004, and addressing the issue of endogeneity, the results confirm the existence of a Stolper-Samuelson type effect. That is, those provinces more exposed to the increase in exports experienced relatively larger wage growth for unskilled workers and a decline of (or a smaller increase in) the relative wages of skilled and unskilled workers. During the period 2000-2004, the skill premium increased for Vietnam's economy as a whole in the sample of panel individuals. Thus...

A Preliminary Analysis of the Impact of a Ukraine-EU Free Trade Agreement on Agriculture

von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Hess, Sebastian; Brummer, Bernhard
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
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Agriculture including food products is of particular interest for Ukraine. However, in free trade agreements involving the European Union, agriculture is always given special treatment and subject to less and slower liberalization than other sectors. This paper employs the standard Global Trade Analysis Project model in order to assess how World Trade Organization accession affects agriculture in Ukraine, and how potential bilateral tariff cuts may interact with potential productivity gains within Ukrainian agriculture. The results indicate that, due to trade liberalization, Ukraine can expect gains from a more efficient allocation of its resources in line with comparative advantage, leading to an increase of production and exports of wheat, other grains, and oilseeds, but also of several processed food products that benefit from less expensive intermediate inputs. However, Ukraine's exports are concentrated on a small number of destinations, especially Russia and some other Former Soviet Union countries because they fail to meet quality standards elsewhere. When Ukrainian production of these products increases due to increased allocative efficiency...

Antidumping and Safeguard Measures in the Political Economy of Liberalization : The Mexican Case

de la Torre, Luz Elena Reyes; González, Jorge G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Mexico's creation and use of safeguard and antidumping processes to advance its liberalization illustrate three key points: (1) The country was able to use the instruments without losing political control. In a period of crisis that threatened congressional approval of critical steps in the liberalization-brought on by currency overvaluation and recession, along with unexpected demands from the United States in the North American Free Trade Agreement negotiations-the government applied a number of trade defense measures. Once the problems were addressed with adequate instruments the number of measures dropped drastically. The instruments had not been captured by protection-seeking interests; (2) The country adopted a liberalization-accepting measure of international norms. An important innovation that Mexico made operational was the use within World Trade Organization (WTO) rules of prevailing international prices as the measure of competition that industry was expected to meet. The WTO rules would also have allowed the use of other standards-as in traditional antidumping-using countries-that impose less discipline. Moreover, the Mexican standard was consistent with the government-industry understanding that though Mexican industry would be protected against extraordinary circumstances it would be expected to face up to international competition; (3) Political judgment and political courage are essential. While mastery of the technical elements of a safeguard or antidumping investigation is mandatory...

Preferential Liberalization and Its Economy-Wide Effects in Honduras

Medvedev, Denis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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This paper quantifies the likely benefits of trade and investment liberalization in a small, poor, open economy, using the accession of Honduras to the Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement as a case study. The results show that bilateral trade liberalization with the United States is likely to have almost no effect on welfare in Honduras, while the reciprocal removal of protection vis-a-vis the rest of Central America would lead to significantly larger gains. Potential gains from increased net foreign direct investment inflows overwhelm those expected from trade reform alone, particularly if the new foreign direct investment generates productivity spillovers. However, if it is to replace Honduran investment rather than complement domestic capital formation, growth performance is unlikely to improve and may even suffer. The paper's results identify several areas for policy attention by Honduran policy makers to make the Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement more development-friendly. These include carefully considering the budgetary implications of trade reform...

Chile's Regional Arrangements and the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas : The Importance of Market Access

Harrison, Glenn W.; Rutherford, Thomas F.; Tarr, David G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Using a multisector, computable general equilibrium model, the authors examine Chile's strategy of negotiating bilateral free trade agreements with all of its significant trading partners (referring to this policy as additive regionalism). They also evaluate the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA) and global free trade. Among Chile's bilateral regional agreements, only Chile's agreements with "Northern" partners provide enough market access to offset the costs to Chile of trade diversion. Because of preferential market access, however, additive regionalism is likely to provide Chile with many times as many gains as the static welfare gains from unilateral free trade. The authors find that at least one partner country loses from each of the regional trade agreements they consider, and excluded countries as a group they always lose. They estimate that the FTAA produces large welfare gains for the members, with the European Union being the big loser. Gains to the world from global free trade are estimated to be at least 36 times greater than gains from the FTAA. Even countries of the Americas in aggregate gain more from global free trade than from the FTAA.