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Hospitalidade urbana em grandes cidades. São Paulo em foco; Urban hospitality in big cities. São Paulo in focus

Ferraz, Valeria de Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/04/2013 PT
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66.42%
Este trabalho investiga como qualidades urbanísticas do espaço público relacionadas à diversidade, à permeabilidade, à legibilidade e ao conforto, entendidas como atributos espaciais de hospitalidade urbana, são capazes de evidenciar a condição de cidade hospitaleira, contribuindo para o prolongamento da estadia do visitante e para a qualidade de vida dos moradores. Tem como foco as grandes cidades que, apesar de se constituírem como os locais mais atraentes do planeta, não são necessariamente lugares hospitaleiros e acolhedores. Para tanto, este estudo aplica os atributos espaciais de hospitalidade urbana em três ruas paulistanas que simbolizam momentos distintos de apropriação do espaço público na cidade de São Paulo: Rua São Bento, Avenida Paulista e Avenida Engenheiro Luis Carlos Berrini. Neste percurso discute-se a aproximação entre o conceito da dádiva e da hospitalidade urbana representadas em ações de civilidade e cidadania por parte do anfitrião (o gestor público) e do hóspede (morador e turista), que culminem no reforço do vínculo com o lugar. As contribuições deste trabalho objetivam subsidiar políticas públicas no tocante à qualidade do espaço público e à inclusão da hospitalidade urbana como elemento fundamental da gestão urbana colaborando para transformar as grandes cidades em locais atraentes e acolhedores.; This research investigates how urbanistic qualities of the public space related to diversity...

Improving cities sustainability through the use of data mining in a context of big city data

Carlos Costa; Santos, Maribel Yasmina
Fonte: IAENG Publicador: IAENG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2015 ENG
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36.47%
Nowadays, cities consume more energy to fuel their day-to-day activities. With the rise of electrical devices we face more challenges associated with energy control and distribution. Apart from this, we also spend a lot of energy trying to either heating or cooling our homes. This paper illustrates an architecture to extract, load, transform, mine and forecast Big Data. This technological architecture makes use of a dataset containing electricity and gas consumption of homes distributed within multiple USA cities and states. The main purpose of our work consists in delivering to citizens a new form of self-monitoring their electricity and gas consumption, by comparing them to other homes within their cluster or state and by forecasting future energy consumptions. Moreover, the architecture also delivers to energy providers and cities a smarter overview of the energy landscape. This work uses simulated data from United States of America along with Hadoop, WEKA and Tableau to store and process Big Data, to produce clusters and time series forecasts, and to visualize information, respectively. The results reveal that, using this architecture, it is possible to produce accurate clusters of homes based on their energy consumption and it is also possible to forecast future electricity consumptions with a small margin of error.; This work was supported by FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia...

BASIS: uma Arquitetura de Big Data para Smart Cities; BASIS: a Big Data Architecture for Smart Cities

Costa, Carlos Filipe Machado da Silva
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2015 POR
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36.73%
Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Gestão de Sistemas de Informação; No mundo atual, os centros urbanos são a principal escolha para habitação. Cidadãos comportam-se como consumidores de serviços, esperando o desempenho adequado por parte dos órgãos gestores das cidades, independentemente das restrições vividas. Com este fenómeno advêm desafios de sustentabilidade económica, social e ambiental. É expectável que as cidades virem o seu foco para o cidadão e o enquadrem num governo participativo. Emerge assim o conceito de Smart City, onde a dinâmica humana atual assenta no uso intensivo da Internet of Things (IoT), em que vários dispositivos se encontram permanentemente conectados, gerando vastas quantidades de dados, nos mais variados formatos. As Smart Cities passam a ser vistas como uma fonte incessável de Big Data e um potencial campo de aplicação para as tecnologias de armazenamento e processamento deste emergente tipo de dados, definido sobretudo pelo volume, variedade e velocidade. Nesta dissertação propõe-se uma arquitetura de Big Data para Smart Cities (BASIS), cujo contributo foi suportado pela realização de um adequado enquadramento conceptual e tecnológico, onde são estudados os conceitos envolvidos nesta dissertação...

Present characteristics of symptomatic Entamoeba histolytica infection in the big cities of Japan.

Ohnishi, K.; Kato, Y.; Imamura, A.; Fukayama, M.; Tsunoda, T.; Sakaue, Y.; Sakamoto, M.; Sagara, H.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2004 EN
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46.2%
Medical records, for 2000 and 2001, of symptomatic amoebic patients who were treated at our hospitals in Tokyo, Yokohama and Osaka were studied retrospectively for the purpose of gathering epidemiological data on symptomatic Entamoeba histolytica infection. A total of 58 patients were treated. Fifty-five of them were male, and 96% of the male patients were Japanese. The mean age of patients was 44.9 years old, and 91% of patients contracted the disease in Japan. Fifty-six per cent of the male patients indicated that they were practising homosexuals, and 44% of the male patients denied these practices or left the question unanswered. The serum Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test was positive in 45% of the patients, and antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was positive in 45%. Our study revealed that recent symptomatic E. histolytica infection almost exclusively afflicted middle-aged males in the big cities of Japan, that a majority of the patients were probably exposed to the causative organism during homosexual activity, and that an increasing number of patients will be co-infected with HIV.

No Evidence for Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission in Big Cities Affected by Conflict Related Rural-Urban Migration in Sierra Leone and Liberia

de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Sesay, Santigie; Moore, Marnijina G.; Ansumana, Rashid; Narh, Charles A.; Kollie, Karsor; Rebollo, Maria P.; Koudou, Benjamin G.; Koroma, Joseph B.; Bolay, Fatorma K.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Bockarie, Moses J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
There have been many arguments regarding the implementation of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) activities for elephantiasis control in urban areas, and especially in countries where the disease is mostly found in rural settings. Blanket MDA in implementation units in big cities, may be costly and unnecessary, without evidence for active transmission in urban areas. Over 1 million people were treated in Freetown during the first MDA carried out in 2010. This represents hundreds of thousands dollars that may serve a better use in reducing the impact of elephantiasis in areas with established on-going transmission. This study was conducted to assess the evidence of transmission of elephantiasis in urban areas, as a result of rural to urban migration in West African countries that have experienced civil wars, and the displacement of people from rural to urban areas. The results showed that the main mosquitoes transmitting elephantiasis are in numbers not enough to support transmission. Testing of individuals also showed very few people to have infection. Together, the results show that elephantiasis infection in the urban areas, where the study was conducted, is not enough to justify the need for MDA in the national capitals. This study represents a strategy that can be adopted in many countries...

Public Health in Big Cities: Looking Back, Looking Forward

Fielding, Jonathan E.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.2%
This commentary provides reflections of a public health official on the important role public health departments play in advancing the goals of the larger public health enterprise in big cities, counties, and large metropolitan areas.

Do Global Cities Enable Global Views? Using Twitter to Quantify the Level of Geographical Awareness of U.S. Cities

Han, Su Yeon; Tsou, Ming-Hsiang; Clarke, Keith C.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/07/2015 EN
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36.44%
Dynamic social media content, such as Twitter messages, can be used to examine individuals’ beliefs and perceptions. By analyzing Twitter messages, this study examines how Twitter users exchanged and recognized toponyms (city names) for different cities in the United States. The frequency and variety of city names found in their online conversations were used to identify the unique spatiotemporal patterns of “geographical awareness” for Twitter users. A new analytic method, Knowledge Discovery in Cyberspace for Geographical Awareness (KDCGA), is introduced to help identify the dynamic spatiotemporal patterns of geographic awareness among social media conversations. Twitter data were collected across 50 U.S. cities. Thousands of city names around the world were extracted from a large volume of Twitter messages (over 5 million tweets) by using the Twitter Application Programming Interface (APIs) and Python language computer programs. The percentages of distant city names (cities located in distant states or other countries far away from the locations of Twitter users) were used to estimate the level of global geographical awareness for Twitter users in each U.S. city. A Global awareness index (GAI) was developed to quantify the level of geographical awareness of Twitter users from within the same city. Our findings are that: (1) the level of geographical awareness varies depending on when and where Twitter messages are posted...

The Quality of Life in Latin American Cities : Markets and Perception

Lora, Eduardo; Powell, Andrew; Praag, Bernard M.S. van; Sanguinetti, Pablo
Fonte: Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank
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This book suggests how that exploration should be undertaken, and how a monitoring system that has a solid conceptual basis and is both easy to operate and reasonable in cost can then be put into practice. Long the ideal of many scholars and observers of urban problems, such a system may now be close to realization. In this book, examples of Latin American cities are used as case studies. As argued in the first chapter, there are good reasons to concentrate on Latin America: it is the world region with the most rapid urban development and is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In contrast to residents of cities in poorer regions, Latin Americans have managed to democratize homeownership and to extend basic services to the majority of households. That means that improving the Quality of Life (QoL) in Latin American cities is no longer primarily a matter of bricks and mortar. But the challenges are as large as they are diverse. Chapter two introduces the reader to the hedonic price and the life satisfaction approaches and presents a comparative summary of the conclusions of the six case studies. This chapter...

Dimensions of Urban Poverty in the Europe and Central Asia Region

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.32%
The objective of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the extent and nature of poverty in urban areas in transition countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, providing particular attention to the disparities within urban areas between capital cities and secondary cities, and focusing on dimensions of poverty related to provision of network infrastructure and energy services in cities. Household surveys carried out in 1998-2003 in 20 countries provided the data for the study. The study found substantial differences in urban areas between the capital and secondary cities, with households in secondary cities being worse off. In addition, secondary cities often had poverty indicators equivalent to, or worse than, those of rural areas, including in terms of access and quality (reliability) of infrastructure. The study confirmed that many households, especially in secondary cities, are "infrastructure-poor" because of unreliable and deteriorated services and that these households are hidden in studies that do not examine actual quality. Finally, the study found that income and infrastructure inequality are generally higher in urban areas, although inequality in secondary cities often was greater than that in the capitals.

Market Accessibility and Regional Maps : Kyrgyz Republic

Blankespoor, Brian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.34%
Access to markets is argued to have a significant role in development. In order to quantify the access of places to markets, policy makers are showing increasing interest in accessibility indicators (Yoshida and Deichmann 2009). This paper seeks to examine the spatial relationship of access to market in the Kyrgyz Republic using a recent census and household survey in order to identify possible linkages with rates of poverty and other micro (spatial) information. This analysis uses the market accessibility index that measures the potential connectivity of population or expenditures between village/towns and big cities via the transport network. Results show that high market accessibility is located near the large cities with a concentration of infrastructure, while low access is more in the rural areas. Future work will use this indicator in economic models to statistical identify its significance with regards to per capita expenditure and poverty.

Cities as Drivers of Growth along the Silk Road

Coulibaly, Souleymane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Major events have reshaped the internal population flows of Eurasia, including the breakup of the Soviet Union, the development of market economies, and the rising influence of regional powers. Looking ahead, policy makers need to promote reforms to make Eurasian cities the main drivers of growth. This can be done by rethinking strategies to better plan, connect, and green the region s important urban centers. Improved planning means promoting policies to develop land and housing markets and enhance public service delivery. Greening Eurasian cities refers to ensuring their sustainable development through strong markets and institutions that encourage the efficient use of resources, address pollution, and build livable cities. To appropriately fund these needed changes, subnational finances will have to be reformed and new ways to finance cross-country connectivity explored.

Urbanization and the Geography of Development

Henderson, J. Vernon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
This paper focuses on three interrelated questions on urbanization and the geography of development. First, although we herald cities with their industrial bases as "engines of growth," does industrialization in fact drive urbanization? While such relationships appear in the data, the process is not straightforward. Among developing countries, changes in income or industrialization correlate only weakly with changes in urbanization. This suggests that policy and institutional factors may also influence the urbanization process. In fact, the relationship between industrialization and urbanization is absent in Sub-Saharan Africa. Second, do development policies have a big-city bias and, if so, what does this imply for growth and inequality? Intelligent public infrastructure investment inevitably involves picking winners. One hopes that such choices are based on market indicators, such as where industry is starting to agglomerate and where there are clear needs. Yet governments seem to favor the biggest cities which in turn draw firms and migrants to these cities. To try to avoid excessive in-migration and oversized...

Do Vouchers for Job Training Programs Help?

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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46.2%
Youth unemployment is a problem in many developing countries, where labor market opportunities may be further squeezed by rapid rural migration into big cities, the cost of higher education and job seekers' limited information about the best opportunities. Policymakers and aid organizations trying to reduce youth unemployment have a variety of approaches they can use, including vocational training programs to give job seekers necessary skills to be employed. But what works best is still not clear: should governments subsidize job training programs for young adults? Should they limit subsidies to public sector programs or include the private sector? Do government-run and private institutions differ in their ability to attract students and prepare them to find a job? What roles do outside factors, such as distance to a school, play in a young adult's decision to enroll in a training program? In Kenya, the World Bank supported a special voucher program for young adults to evaluate demand for vocational training and the impact of training on job seekers. The evaluation showed that offering young adults vouchers that cover program costs does encourage young adults to enroll...

Rethinking the Form and Function of Cities in Post-Soviet Countries

Coulibaly, Souleymane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.47%
Eurasian cities, unique in the global spatial landscape, were part of the world's largest experiment in urban development. The challenges they now face because of their history offer valuable lessons to urban planners and policymakers across the world from places that are still urbanizing to those already urbanized. Today, Eurasian cities must respond to three big changes: the breakup of the Soviet Union, the return of the market as the driving force of society, and the emergence of regional powers such as the European Union, China, and India that are competing with the Russian Federation for markets and influence in its former satellites. Several methods of analysis indicate an imbalance across Eurasia, implying a need to readjust Eurasia's urban structure. National policies in Eurasia are still preoccupied with spatial equity. But the concentration of economic activity in large cities is fundamental to national competitive advantage: they foster innovation through their diversity of industries -- and reduce production costs through their economies of scale. This paper suggests some ideas on how policymakers can harness the economic power of cities to drive national economic development...

Community Midwifery Education Program in Afghanistan

Mohmand, Khalil Ahmad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.2%
In the immediate post conflict period, Afghanistan's health services were in a deplorable and chaotic state. Access and utilization of reproductive health services and skilled care during pregnancy, childbirth, and the first month after delivery are key to saving those women at risk of dying due to pregnancy and childbirth complications. In a society where women seek care only from female providers, one barrier to expansion of services was the lack of qualified female health workers who could be deployed to remote health facilities. Very few midwives who had trained in Kabul or other big cities were willing to work in rural areas, and there were no education facilities and too few female school graduates who could be trained in the provinces. As maternal health was one of the top priorities of the health sector, the shortage of midwives to provide reproductive health services had to be tackled urgently. Hence the Community Midwifery Education (CME) Program was created. The program aimed not only to train more midwives...

Kingdom of Morocco : Health Policy Note Towards a More Equitable and Sustainable Health Care System - Policy Challenges and Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.28%
This note identifies three main issues and proposes a set of short- and longer-term policy measures for each. The publicly financed and run health care system does not meet healthcare needs of the majority of the Moroccans. Only half of the population uses health services when experiencing an illness, indicating that people who live outside big cities either cannot or will not pay for poorer quality services in rural health facilities. While in the short term limited use of healthcare services because of inability or unwillingness to pay may not significantly affect levels of morbidity and mortality resulting from non-communicable diseases, the impact is likely to grow exponentially in the next two decades. Despite recent attempts by the government to expand population coverage, improve system governance, and increase the quality of care, Morocco's health care system remains predominantly state owned and managed, yet highly fragmented. On one hand, the system is not truly pluralistic because of negligible participation of providers and consumers in system governance. On the other hand...

Toward an Urban Sector Strategy : Georgia's Evolving Urban System and its Challenges

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Urban Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.44%
This review analyzes the profile, trends and challenges of Georgia's changing urban landscape since independence in 1991 and provides policy suggestions to facilitate the economic transition of the country through its cities. In its analysis and subsequent recommendations on policy interventions, this report draws on a program of diagnostics called the 'Urbanization Review' (UR). The UR diagnostic is based on three main pillars of urban development which have emerged as key areas of policy engagement for successful cities. These are: a) planning, charting a course for cities by setting the terms of urbanization, especially policies for using urban land and expanding basic infrastructure and public services; b) connecting, physically linking people to jobs, and businesses to markets; and c) financing, raising and leveraging up-front capital to meet the increasing demand for infrastructure and services. In moving forward, the review recommends that Georgia focus on: a) developing a national urban strategy that recognizes the contribution of each city to the overall economy...

Urbanization and the Geography of Development

Henderson, J. Vernon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
This paper focuses on several interrelated key questions on the geography of development. Although we herald cities with their industrial bases as 'engines of growth,' does industrialization in fact drive urbanization?1 What economic activities do cities of different sizes undertake? Does this change as countries develop? If so, what are the policy implications? Do development policies have a big-city bias? If so, what does this imply for growth and inequality, and what are appropriate place-based policies? Should countries have policies concerning optimal city sizes or city-size distributions? Urbanization is central to the development process. Employment shifts out of agriculture into industry, and industrial production proceeds most effectively in cities, with their agglomeration economies. Cities are thus viewed as engines of growth. While such relationships appear in the data, the process is not straightforward. Among developing countries, changes in income or industrialization correlate only weakly with changes in urbanization. This suggests that policy and institutional factors may also influence the urbanization process...

Relationship between Air Pollutants and Economic Development of the Provincial Capital Cities in China during the Past Decade

Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
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36.37%
With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictorssuch as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provinical cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China.

Competitive Cities for Jobs and Growth; What, Who, and How

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
A competitive city is a city that successfully facilitates its firms and industries to create jobs, raise productivity, and increase the incomes of citizens over time. Worldwide, improving the competitiveness of cities is a pathway to eliminating extreme poverty and to promoting shared prosperity. The primary source of job creation has been the growth of private sector firms, which have typically accounted for around 75 percent of job creation. Thus city leaders need to be familiar with the factors that help to attract, to retain, and to expand the private sector. This document aims to analyze what makes a city competitive and how more cities can become competitive.