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Quantifying Carbon and Distributional Benefits of Solar Home System Programs in Bangladesh

Wang, Limin; Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit; Cosgrove-Davies, Mac; Samad, Hussain
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
Scaling-up adoption of renewable energy technology, such as solar home systems, to expand electricity access in developing countries can accelerate the transition to low-carbon economic development. Using a purposely collected national household survey, this study quantifies the carbon and distributional benefits of solar home system programs in Bangladesh. Three key findings are generated from the study. First, dissemination of solar home systems brings about significant carbon benefits: the total carbon emissions avoided from replacing kerosene use for lighting by solar home systems in non-electrified rural households was equivalent to about 4 percent of total annual carbon emissions in Bangladesh in 2007. This figure increases to about 15 percent if the grid-electricity generation is used as the energy baseline to estimate the carbon avoided from the installation of solar home systems. Second, solar home system subsidies in rural Bangladesh are progressive when the program is geographically targeted. Third...

Welfare Impacts of Rural Electrification : Evidence from Vietnam

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Samad, Hussain; Minh, Nguyen Huu
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
Access to electricity is crucial for economic development and there is a growing body of literature on the impact of rural electrification on development. However, most studies have so far relied on cross-sectional surveys comparing households with and without electricity, which have well known causal attribution problems. This paper is one of the first studies to examine the welfare impacts of households rural electrification based on panel surveys conducted in 2002 and 2005 for some 1,100 households in rural Vietnam,. The findings indicate that grid electrification has been both extensive (connecting all surveyed communes by 2005) and intensive (connecting almost 80 percent of the surveyed households by 2005). Vietnam is unusual in that once electricity is locally available, both rich and poor households are equally likely to get the connection. The econometric estimations suggest that grid electrification has significant positive impacts on households cash income, expenditure, and educational outcomes. The benefits...

Who Benefits Most from Rural Electrification? Evidence in India

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Ali, Rubaba; Barnes, Douglas F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
This paper applies an econometric analysis to estimate the average and distribution benefits of rural electrification using rich household survey data from India. The results support that rural electrification helps to reduce time allocated to fuelwood collection by household members and increases time allocated to studying by boys and girls. Rural electrification also increases the labor supply of men and women, schooling of boys and girls, and household per capita income and expenditure. Electrification also helps reduce poverty. But the larger share of benefits accrues to wealthier rural households, with poorer ones having more limited use of electricity. The analysis also shows that restricted supply of electricity, due to frequent power outages, negatively affects both household electricity connection and its consumption, thereby reducing the expected benefits of rural electrification.

Rural Electrification : Lessons Learned

Sanghvi, Arun; Barnes, Douglas
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
The note focuses on the external benefits of rural electrification (RE), i.e., improved access to communication, education, and economic opportunities, in addition to extended health services. It outlines key lessons to scaling up RE, namely macroeconomic stability, continued government commitments, and institutional capacity. However, it also suggests that grid extension is not always cost-effective, rather, decentralized delivery options, and alternative energy sources, such as solar photovoltaic, mini-hydro, and other renewable energy sources should be considered. Moreover, good practices indicate the need for power sector reform, regulatory framework with legal guarantees that utilities can operate autonomously, and, financial viability, that is, to ensure commercialization, and identify a cost-recovery system that takes into account capital investment costs, and contributions levels. Strongly emphasized is the involvement of local communities in the design, and implementation of RE, by setting rural electrification committees...

Enhancing Development Benefits to Local Communities from Hydropower Projects : A Literature Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
The World Bank began a three-year pilot initiative to develop a framework for enhancing development benefits to local communities in hydropower projects. There has been a wide array of approaches in the past two decades that all have in common the objective of designing and implementing means and mechanisms to ensure local communities a more equitable share of project benefits. The World Bank intends to design and test a framework of enhancing development benefits that can be applied to hydropower projects and that can be tailored, at the same time, to the particular circumstances and characteristics of individual projects. This initiative is based on the hypothesis that hydropower projects planned in environmentally and socially sustainable manner can provide a large range of development benefits to local communities. Structure of this report: chapter one provides an introductory background to the literature review briefly explaining the current context of hydropower projects, the scope of the assignment and the structure of this report. Chapter two offers the core of the intellectual discussion by describing the approach and methodology utilized for the literature review...

Enhancing Development Benefits to Local Communities in Hydropower Projects : Technical Workshop

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
The technical workshop on enhancing development benefits to local communities in hydropower projects was held in Washington, D.C., on June 26, 2008. It was hosted by the Social Development Department (SDV) and Water Anchor (ETWWA) of the World Bank. The workshop aimed to provide a platform for a discussion of past and current practices, as well as how to construct development benefits mechanisms within the specific context of hydropower projects. It also provided a forum for sharing knowledge as to how development benefits mechanisms may be applied to Bank-financed projects. The workshop had five sessions and brought together more than 60 experts from different sectors in different regions of the World Bank. Sixteen speakers gave presentations. The workshop had discussions on enhancing development benefits to local communities in hydropower projects and also covered issues pertaining to the broader range of benefit-sharing, including World Bank engagement in hydropower projects, legacy of hydropower, notion evolution...

Mini-Grid Design Manual

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
The manual has been prepared to encourage, and support the design of improved village electrification schemes, anticipating its usefulness for rural development agencies, as well as for national, and provincial energy companies, and authorities. Theoretical and field experiences describe power mini-grid - i.e., low voltage network within a village, supplied at a single point by a diesel genset, or micro-hydropower plant. The manual focuses on the design of the system to distribute the power generated to consumers, and, designs covered in this manual range from low-cost designs to serve basic lighting needs, to more conventional designs that may become interconnected to the grid within the near future. Discussions on mini-grids do not involve the use of medium voltage (MV), however, it should be recognized that it may occasionally be necessary to use MV to reduce overall costs. The manual includes several examples of mini-grids, to illustrate the context in which such projects have been implemented, with additional detailed case studies. It also contains qualitative descriptions of the issues to be addressed in planning for mini-grids...

Four Regulatory Principles to Promote Diverse Electrification

Reiche, Kilian; Tenenbaum, Bernard; Torres, Clemencia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
This note is a summary of a study to be published by ESMAP and the Energy and Mining Sector Board in 2006. The study proposes four principles for regulatory systems that will help, rather than hinder, electrification. The principles and the accompanying real world examples show how successful electrification often requires that the traditional functions of regulation be performed in non-traditional ways.

Power for All : Electricity Access Challenge in India

Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Barnes, Douglas; Singh, Bipul; Mayer, Kristy; Samad, Hussain
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
India has led the developing world in addressing rural energy problems. By late 2012, the national electricity grid had reached 92 percent of India s rural villages, about 880 million people. In more remote areas and those with geographically difficult terrain, where grid extension is not economically viable, off-grid solutions using renewable-energy sources for electricity generation and distribution have been promoted. The positive results of the country s rural energy policies and institutions have contributed greatly to reducing the number of people globally who remain without electricity access. Yet, owing mainly to its large population, India has by far the world s largest number of households without electricity. More than one-quarter of its population or about 311 million people, the vast majority of whom live in poorer rural areas, still lack an electricity connection; less than half of all households in the poorest income group have electricity. Among households with electricity service, hundreds of millions lack reliable power supply.

Asmara Power Distribution and Rural Electrification Project : Pre-electrification Survey Analysis

O'Sullivan, Kyran; Fitzgerald, Kevin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
This report presents the findings and recommendations of a Pre-electrification Survey done in preparation for the Asmara Power Distribution and Rural Electrification Project. The survey was designed to characterize energy use in existing institutions, commercial enterprises and households before electrification and, thereby, set a baseline for monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of the project going forward. The report begins with a summary of the survey s main findings. It continues with an introduction describing the background of the project. Section 1 presents an estimation of electrification s benefits using the household survey data. Section 2 discusses recommendations for ongoing monitoring and evaluation of the project. An appendix follows.

Household Energy Use in Malawi

O'Sullivan, Kyran; Fitzgerald, Karen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
This report analyzes the results of the Second Integrated Household Survey in Malawi. Its purpose is to examine equity issues in access, pricing and use of fuels and electricity and to estimate the benefits electrification. The analysis was undertaken in order to inform policies associated with two critical aspects of electricity sector reform - tariff rebalancing and increasing household access. The report begins with a summary of the main findings and recommendations. It continues with an introduction, including the background to the report. The first detailed analysis of findings concerns energy access and expenditures. The next section discusses energy access. Tariff reform and the benefits of electrification follow. The last section discusses the identification and assessment of innovations in electricity service provision.

Welfare Impacts of Rural Electrification : A Case Study from Bangladesh

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Samad, Hussain A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.21%
Lack of access to electricity is one of the major impediments to growth and development of the rural economies in developing countries. That is why access to modern energy, in particular to electricity, has been one of the priority themes of the World Bank and other development organizations. Using a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 of some 20,000 households in rural Bangladesh, this paper studies the welfare impacts of households' grid connectivity. Based on rigorous econometric estimation techniques, this study finds that grid electrification has significant positive impacts on households' income, expenditure, and educational outcomes. For example, the gain in total income due to electrification can be as much as 30 percent and as low as 9 percent. Benefits go up steadily as household exposure to grid electrification (measured by duration) increases and eventually reach a plateau. This paper also finds that rich households benefit more from electrification than poor households. Finally, estimates also show that income benefits of electrification on an average exceed cost by a wide margin.

A New Slant on Slopes : Measuring the Benefits of Increased Electricity Access in Developing Countries

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
The objective of this paper is to shed some light on the benefits of improved access to electricity supply, specifically the benefits referred to as, 'consumer's surplus', which is the difference between what customers are willing to pay for the utilities associated with electricity access and the price that they actually pay. The paper leads to several important policy messages for the preparation of investments aiming to increase energy access in developing countries: consumer surplus as the measure for estimating benefits of enlarged access by households to public electricity supply needs to be used with caution; make sure that benefits of increased access to electricity are measured both in terms of gains in consumer surplus and gains in real income from electrification; plan electricity access expansion taking into account that reinforced electricity access may increase consumption of electricity modestly; plan electrification along with accompanying measures to ease access to electricity consuming appliances; and strengthen public data on energy consumption. The paper leads to specific conclusions relative to: the methodology to calculate benefits of increased electricity access; demand patterns for lighting purposes; demand patterns for entertainment and information purposes...

Long-term Impacts of Household Electrification in Rural India

van de Walle, Dominique; Ravallion, Martin; Mendiratta, Vibhuti; Koolwal, Gayatri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
India's huge expansion in rural electrification in the 1980s and 1990s offers lessons for other countries today. The paper examines the long-term effects of household electrification on consumption, labor supply, and schooling in rural India over 1982-99. It finds that household electrification brought significant gains to consumption and earnings, the latter through changes in market labor supply. It finds positive effects on schooling for girls but not for boys. External effects are also evident, whereby households without electricity benefit from village electrification. Wage rates were unaffected. Methodologically, the results suggest sizeable upward biases in past estimates of the gains from electrification associated with how past analyses dealt with geographic effects.

The Welfare Impact of Rural Electrification : A Reassessment of the Costs and Benefits

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
It has long been claimed that rural electrification greatly improves the quality of life. Lighting alone brings benefits such as increased study time and improved study environment for school children, extended hours for small businesses, and greater security. But electrification brings more than light. It's second most common use is for television, which brings both entertainment and information. The people who live in rural areas greatly appreciate these benefits and are willing to pay for them at levels more than sufficient to cover the costs. However, the evaluation of these and other benefits, as well as of their distribution, has been sparse. This report reviews recent methodological advances made in measuring the benefits of rural electrification (RE) and commends them. It also notes that the understanding of the techniques shown in project documents is sometimes weak, and quality control for the economic analysis in project documents lacking. This study shows that willingness to pay for electricity is high...

Supporting Hydropower : An Overview of the World Bank Group's Engagement

Rex, William; Foster, Vivien; Lyon, Kimberly; Bucknall, Julia; Liden, Rikard
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.82%
Hydropower development makes an essential contribution to reducing poverty, boosting shared prosperity, and improving sustainability. Water storage associated with some hydropower projects can also make important contributions to water and food security and to climate resilience. The World Bank Group (WBG) thus uses multiple instruments to support sustainable and responsible hydropower projects of various sizes and types, depending on local need. But hydropower can also carry significant risks that must be carefully managed. Supporting sustainable hydropower is important for the World Bank Group, because hydropower potential exists where electricity is most needed. Hydropower production is the least-cost method of providing electricity in many developing countries. The WBG is committed to helping its clients continuously improve the way they approach hydropower so as to better manage its risks and better share the benefits of this renewable resource. Support for hydropower helps manage risks and can yield local...

Rural Electrification and Development in the Philippines : Measuring the Social and Economic Benefits

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
The study's principal objective was to develop a practical method to measure the benefits of rural electrification. This method involved both formal and informal techniques of data collection; quantitative and qualitative methods of analysis; and concepts such as quality of life, effects on education, and other key components of social development. Critical to the analysis is the separation of electricity from the many other factors that affect socioeconomic outcomes, such as income, level of education, and the returns to household investment in education. The major conclusion of this study is that the benefits of electricity are derived from a variety of sources. The study also suggests future research and analytical needs. One key conclusion is that it is possible to measure benefits traditionally considered intangible in monetary terms. The benefit estimates appear substantial, even for low-income populations.

The Impact of Energy on Women's Lives in Rural India

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
This report highlights the tremendous difference that access to improved energy services in the form of biomass stoves, petroleum fuels, and household electrification makes for the life of rural women. Of course, the benefits of rural energy services can differ by region, class, caste, education, and household occupation, but the overall pattern that emerges is that the benefits of improved rural energy services for rural women in India are substantial. The use of Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or kerosene stoves relieves women of much of the most arduous tasks involved in cooking for their families and permits them to lead a relatively comfortable and healthy life. Household electrification also has positive consequences for women in terms of their general quality of life, including an increased likelihood that they will read, watch television, and earn income. Having lights at night increases their ability to read in the evening after dark. However, the advantages of electrification could be exploited even more...

Rural Electrification in Tunisia : National Commitment, Efficient Implementation and Sound Finances

Cecelski, Elizabeth; Ounalli, Ahmed; Aisaa, Moncef; Dunkerley, Joy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Tunisia's achievement of 100 percent urban and 88 percent rural electrification is remarkable, all the more so because the country's definition of rural electrification is restricted to connections made outside incorporated areas. Compared to rural populations in other developing countries with high rates of electrification, Tunisia's rural population-although only 35 percent of the total population-is highly dispersed and isolated, with long distances between small groups of often scattered houses. This characteristic, combined with the Government's social commitment to connecting all households, has highly influenced program costs and choice of institutional set-up, distribution system, and technology. This paper reports on the major factors contributing to Tunisia's successful rural electrification program, primarily: 1) the national commitment to rural electrification as part of a broader, integrated rural development program emphasizing social equity; 2) an effective institutional structure and coordination of project planning and selection; 3) the utility's sound management and continuing process of technical innovation; 4) the robust financial arrangements; and 5) the complementary strategy of using photovoltaic cells to serve isolated users.

The Benefits of Solar Home Systems : An Analysis from Bangladesh

Samad, Hussain A.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Asaduzzaman, M.; Yunus, Mohammad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
The Government of Bangladesh, with help from the World Bank and other donors, has provided aid to a local agency called Infrastructure Development Company Limited and its partner organizations to devise a credit scheme for marketing solar home system units and making these an affordable alternative to grid electricity for poor people in remote areas. This paper uses household survey data to examine the financing scheme behind the dissemination of these solar home systems, in particular the role of the subsidy; the factors that determine the adoption of the systems in rural Bangladesh; and the welfare impacts of such adoption. The paper finds that while the subsidy has been declining over time, the demand for solar home systems has seen phenomenal growth, mostly because of technological developments that have made the systems increasingly more affordable. Households with better physical and educational endowments are more likely to adopt solar home systems than poor households. The price of the system matters in household decision making -- a 10 percent decline in the price of the system increases the overall demand for a solar panel by 2 percent. As for the benefits...