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The hotel as a complementary educational resource : evidence from the lives and careers of hotel employees

Lee, Olivia, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 139 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.64%
The identification of alternative venues of learning that provide people with life and professional skills is valuable in societies where educational resources are constrained. To better understand paths of learning not found in the traditional educational system, and the incidental benefits that accrue from those types of learning, this thesis examines the lives and careers of five-star hotel employees. The high-class hotel industry was chosen as an appropriate place in which to locate personal and professional benefits due to the sophisticated training programs offered in the industry and the multi-faceted nature of hotel work, which could potentially provide employees opportunities to gain a diversity of skills. By presenting one case in the hotel industry of a learning process that may be taking place more widely in other industries, the thesis seeks to provide evidence that could help governments more effectively reallocate educational resources. Based on criteria that included hotel type, hotel location, existence of training programs, and cooperation level of hotel employees, two hotels in Seoul, South Korea were selected for the study. Interviews were conducted in both hotels with employees from various departments and levels.; (cont.) Surveys were also distributed to a larger set of employees in both hotels. The findings from the interview responses were categorized into thirteen themes...

Rethinking School Health : A Key Component of Education for All

Bundy, Donald
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
Education is one of the most important drivers of the development of individuals and societies. It not only has powerful implications for the creation of human capacity, but also helps people realize their full potential and expand their connections with the world. Economic analyses repeatedly demonstrate that education gives a high economic return within the life - span of an individual and is a key factor underlying the economic growth of nations. Viewed from these perspectives, the decision at the turn of the millennium of governments and development partners to pursue the goal of Education for All (EFA) was not only an important contribution to one sector, but the launch of an endeavor with major implications for the future of humanity. The early perception of the goal of EFA was that all children should have access to education-every child should be able to exercise the right to go to school. This limited goal soon broadened to address the quality of the education that a child received at school and the factors that ensured the child was able to stay in school long enough to learn enough. These additional objectives have expanded the goal of EFA...

Assessing Sector Performance and Inequality in Education : Streamlined Analysis with ADePT Software

Porta, Emilio; Arcia, Gustavo; Macdonald, Kevin; Radyakin, Sergiy; Lokshin, Michael
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
This book gathers in one volume all the information related to Automated DEC [Development Economics - Vice Presidency at the World Bank] Poverty Tables (ADePT) Edu, the software platform created by the World Bank for reporting and analyzing education indicators and education inequality. It includes a primer on the availability of education data, an operating manual for using the ADePT software, a technical explanation of all the education indicators ADePT generates, and an overview of global education inequality using ADePT Edu. Chapter one is an introduction to ADePT Edu. It describes its origin and intended use and familiarizes readers with educational statistics. Chapter two is intended for users unfamiliar with the different datasets that contain education statistics and household-level data that contain information on education. Chapter three is a step-by-step technical guide for potential users. In addition to identifying the hardware and operating system requirements, it provides graphic examples of each of the steps needed to install and operate the software. Chapter four describes the outputs of ADePT and the definitions of all the indicators it generates. Chapter five provides a global and regional overview of education inequality...

The Road Not Traveled : Education Reform in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
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65.61%
This report focuses on the economic rather than the social and cultural dimensions of education. Its approach in answering the questions raised is analytical and comparative in nature. Education outcomes in the region are compared with education outcomes in other developing countries. The development impact of investment in education is considered in the context of the large body of literature on the subject. The education reform strategies in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are assessed on the basis of a new analytical framework. Labor market outcomes are evaluated on the basis of how well these markets function, given past reform efforts. The feature of the report is that it covers all levels of instruction, not just basic, secondary, or higher education. Although the primary focus of the report is education, it was important to pay special attention to domestic labor markets and migration. After all, this is where the returns to education are determined and its impact on development made.

Linking Education Policy to Labor Market Outcomes

Fasih, Tazeen
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
Education plays a central role in preparing individuals to enter the labor force, as well as equipping them with the skills to engage in lifelong learning experiences. The objective of this study is to review what is known about the role of education in improving labor market outcomes, with a particular focus on policy considerations for developing countries. The report presents findings from current literature on the topic, which offers new ways of looking at the returns to education, together with evidence from four original data analysis and background studies of education and labor issues in Ghana and Pakistan. Country studies on Ghana and Pakistan are used to substantiate findings of the literature and illustrate the heterogeneity of education labor market linkages across regions. These countries were chosen because they are representative of two of the poorest regions of the world and because their inclusion in the analysis complements ongoing World Bank work on education and labor market issues in those countries. This report offers two types of findings: those relevant to the content of educational policies and those relevant to the framework for educational policy making.

Education for all in Bangladesh : Where does Bangladesh Stand in Terms of Achieving the EFA Goals by 2015?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
The objectives of this policy note are twofold: first, take stock of where Bangladesh stands in terms of achieving the Education For All (EFA) goals; and second, suggest policy recommendations that could help Bangladesh to meet the EFA goals by 2015. The policy note will focus mainly on: 1) universal primary enrollment for all children; 2) universal primary completion; 3) gender parity in education; 4) adult literacy; and 5) quality of education. This is because these areas can be more meaningfully analyzed with reasonably reliable information from various sources. Bangladesh is unlikely to achieve universal primary enrollment and completion by 2015 if the current trends in access and completion do not improve. Progress in school quality is more difficult to assess because of the lack of systematic assessment and monitoring of learning achievement results. The government continues to be the main provider and financer of primary education. Improving the overall quality of schooling is a pressing task in order to substantially raise enrollment and help more children complete primary school with the appropriate skills in literacy and numeracy. Bangladesh has made progress towards increasing both primary and secondary enrollment and has already reached gender parity in both education levels.

Estimating the Returns to Education : Accounting for Heterogeneity in Ability

Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Ridao-Cano, Cris; Sakellariou, Chris
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.69%
Typically estimates of the benefits of education investments show average private rates of return for the average individual. The average may not be useful for policy. An examination of the distribution of the returns across individuals is needed. The few studies that have examined these patterns focus on high-income countries, showing investments to be more profitable at the top of the income distribution. The implication is that investments may increase inequality. Extending the analysis to 16 East Asian and Latin American countries the authors observe mixed evidence in middle-income countries and decreasing returns in low-income countries. Such differences between countries could be due to more job mobility in industrial countries, scarcity of skills, or differential exposure to market forces.

Bulgaria : Improving the Quality and Relevance of Education for All

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
Bulgaria has recently introduced sweeping reforms of its secondary education system to promote more autonomy and accountability of schools for better learning outcomes. Positive results are already showing but more remains to be done to reap the full benefits of the reforms. Per-student-financing and delegated budgets have led to a wave of school closures that had become essential in the wake of a dramatic decline in student numbers. As opposed to the previous centralized system, school-based management with a considerable degree of decision-making power of the school principal has set the stage for schools to better adjust to local needs and opportunities for a better education. External student assessments are now routinely conducted, which have substantially improved the evidence base for education policy-making. However, concerns remain as to the accountability of schools to the local community. While principals are accountable to the municipal authorities for the use of financial resources, parents have little formal ways of holding principals accountable for learning outcomes. The reform was launched in the face of dramatic challenges in terms of unsatisfactory learning outcomes...

Access to Education for the Poor in Europe and Central Asia : Preliminary Evidence and Policy Implications

Vandycke, Nancy
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
In Europe, and Central Asia, the poor faces three problems: 1) the education system as a whole does not work well, and hence fails to meet adequately their needs; 2) the private cost of education has gone up, so that "education", as a commodity, competes with other consumption goods in shrinking household budgets; and, 3) the perceived benefits of education (in terms of higher wage earning) are still low, thereby undermining long-term incentives to invest in education. The paper shows the discrepancy between Central European, and Former Soviet Union countries in the contribution of "education" for explaining wage earnings inequality. The discrepancy can be explained by factors such as the degree of private sector development, and the flexibility of the labor market. Although there remains a "taste" for education in Europe and Central Asia, there is also a risk that low-income groups, drop out of the education system, and irreversibly fall into poverty.

Framework for the Reform of Education Systems and Planning for Quality

Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Velez, Eduardo; Wang, Catherine Yan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.61%
In 2000, the goal that, by 2015, all children will have access to, and complete, free and compulsory primary education of good quality, was set. Despite the progress in terms of student enrollment and completion, the quality of learning produced in developing countries remains poor. Existing models of education production are inadequate for informing education reform for the purpose of improving school quality, as measured by student learning. Thus, a broader and more integrated approach of policy making is put forward. Building on theory and empirical evidence on what works, the paper puts forward a framework for improving the quality of education. The framework includes six factors: (1) assessment; (2) autonomy; (3) accountability; (4) attention to teachers; (5) attention to early childhood development; and (6) attention to culture. Going forward, there is a need to develop a system of international quality benchmarks drawing on a larger body of evidence. Most importantly, more empirical evidence from impact evaluations is needed.

The Promotion of Social Cohesion Through Education in Sri Lanka

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.8%
The social dimensions and benefits of education are being increasingly appreciated in developed and middle-income countries. Among the many social benefits of education, promoting social cohesion in countries has become extremely important in the modern world, as global mobility of culturally diverse populations has posed challenges to the shared values, ethics and identities of societies. The instantaneous transfer of diverse and varied information through modern communications technologies has further increased the importance of social cohesion. Cohesive societies are more effective in achieving collective economic and social goals, since such societies are better at including and uniting diverse groups and forging synergy (OECD, 2001; Greaney, 2006). Five dimensions of social cohesion, belonging, inclusion, participation, recognition and legitimacy, are especially important for multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and multi-religious societies such as Sri Lanka. The education system is of central importance in promoting national unity and solidarity among the different social groups in a country. Education is a key instrument in the promotion of social cohesion through the transmission of knowledge and the shaping of attitudes of individuals towards diversity and change. Sri Lanka has initiated measures to promote social cohesion through the school curriculum...

Expanding Access and Enhancing the Economic Benefits of Education in the Maldives : Challenges and Prospects

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.8%
Human capital is the central determinant of economic well-being and social advancement in the modern global economy. The key characteristic that distinguishes between advanced economies, middle-income economies and low-income economies is the knowledge content of their economic activities and production processes. Industry, agriculture and especially services have become increasingly knowledge and skill intensive in recent years. Further, the dominance of knowledge and skills is increasing at an accelerating rate. Among advanced economies, for instance, the education levels of their populations is the single most important factor determining their economic performance [Hanushek and Welch (2006), Hanushek and Woessmann (2008)]. Among middle-income and low-income countries, too, economies that have high education attainment enjoy considerable welfare gains [Fasih (2008), Patrinos and Psacharopoulos (2011)]. Human resource development is particularly important for the economic development of small states [Martin and Bray (2011)]. Education also produces a variety of social benefits. These include healthier and better nourished families and children; the creation of the enlightened citizenry needed for a modern liberal democracy; and the promotion of social mobility [OECD (2012)]. This paper offers an overview of the general education system and the current status of access and participation in the Maldives. This is followed by a discussion of the economic and social benefits of investment in education. The paper concludes by discussing options to expand access and participation at education levels where the Maldives lags behind other comparable small island economies.

Sri Lanka : Investment in Human Capital

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.8%
Education is one of the most important determinants of economic performance in the modern world. This is true of both countries and individuals. The main characteristic which distinguishes between advanced economies, middle-income economies and low-income countries, is the knowledge content of their production activities and processes. Economic activities and products have become increasingly knowledge and skill-intensive in recent years. In addition, the importance of knowledge and skills is growing at an accelerating pace. Education is at the heart of human capital accumulation and economic growth. Education increases cognitive skills and soft skills of individuals. In addition, education improves the capacity of individuals to be trained for specific occupations and to acquire job-related skills. These effects of education enable individuals to accumulate human capital, improve labor productivity and increase life-cycle earnings. In the aggregate, this process generates economic growth. Investment in education produces a broad range of social benefits. Well-educated individuals...

The Education Resilience of Out-of-school Children in Bhutan : A Methodology and Pilot Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
Accessibility and quality of education is a much-debated issue today. In Bhutan this is especially a concern for the population scattered across the extreme mountainous terrain of the country. Difficult access and spatial isolation leads to an unequal distribution of the quality services in Bhutan. It is also an issue for children in urban communities despite the easy access to schools. Poverty and disability hold children back from enrolling in and completing school. Hence, the education resilience in these vulnerable communities can differ accordingly even despite the fact that the government provides free basic education in Bhutan. We define resilience as the ability of students, education institutions, and communities to achieve positive education outcomes in spite of adversities, such as the marginalization, isolation and poverty that exist in pockets in Bhutan. This report presents the results of our pilot study. We consulted with education policy makers and implementers at the national level, and communities...

Does it pay to go to school? The benefits of and participation in education of Indigenous Australians

Biddle, Nicholas Grahame
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.76%
Those who have finished high school and/or obtained non-school qualifications experience a range of positive outcomes throughout their lives. Despite these benefits being likely to apply to the Indigenous Australian population, current as well as past participation in education is substantially lower than that of the non-Indigenous population. Some reasons for this relatively low participation may be locational and monetary disadvantage, household overcrowding and a curriculum that is not always relevant. How Indigenous Australians form their expectations about the benefits of education and what these expectations might be (accurate or otherwise) may also influence educational participation. ¶ This thesis looks at the education outcomes of Indigenous Australians. There are two main research questions are examined. The first is what are the relative benefits of education for the Indigenous population? The main outcomes that are focussed on are employment and income; however, there is also analysis of the extent to which those with higher education levels report better health outcomes or more favourable health behaviour. ¶ The second main research question is what factors are associated with the decision to attend high school? That is...

Public Expenditure Review of the Education Sector in the Democratic Republic of Congo; Revue des dépenses publiques du secteur de l’éducation en République Démocratique du Congo : une analyse d’efficience, d’efficacité, et d’équité; An Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Equity Analysis

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.78%
A sound education sector is fundamental for the economic, social, and political transformation of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC has achieved significant progress in its education sector over the last decade, demonstrating strong resilience following a particularly violent period in its history. The DRC’s development trajectory will depend on its ability to reap the benefits of it resource-rich territory, which will require large investments in human capital to transition to an economy based on improved productivity, innovation, and technology. The DRC’s population has a very large youth cohort and reaping the benefits of the demographic dividend requires ensuring that sufficient funding is allocated to address priority issues at all levels of education. The three tenets of education investments can be summarized as follows: invest early, invest smartly, and invest for all. This report is organized into following sections: section one gives introduction, section two discusses the country context in terms of demographic dividends and available fiscal space for increasing social sector demand. Section three provides an overview of the education sector context including a chronological order of education sector policies...

A case study investigating the teaching and learning benefits of the interactive whiteboard for both teacher and student

Hallinan, Emma
Fonte: University of Limerick, Department of Education and Professional Studies Publicador: University of Limerick, Department of Education and Professional Studies
Tipo: Master thesis (Taught); all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.55%
non-peer-reviewed; This research project attempts to identify the teaching and learning benefits of the IWB for both student and teacher in a mixed Primary School in Co. Mayo. It is based on the introduction of nine Interactive Whiteboards installed in the school. It looks at how the pupils and teachers have embraced it over the year. In this case study, data was gathered from qualitative and quantitative methods in the form of drawings, interviews with 54 primary school children from ages 5-12, interviews with the Principal and a Microsoft Office Master Instructor (computer teacher), a questionnaire to nine members of staff and a follow-up focus group interview. Lessons were also conducted with forty four pupils from 3rd and 4th classes with pre and post testing carried out. One group of pupils were taught a lesson using the IWB and the other group were taught the same lesson using laptops. The research found that lack of resources for the Irish Primary School Curriculum and lack of training were the main drawbacks of having an IWB. If interactive lessons are not developed, it will revert to a “didactic” approach to learning. Pupils love having the IWB in their classroom due to its large visual element, its sound quality and its motivating factor for learning. Some pupils feel that if the teacher takes over they don‟t get sufficient chance to use it. The technical hitches annoy the children as much as the teachers. Having an IWB in a classroom allows teachers to integrate ICT. The report concludes there are not enough interactive resources that support the curriculum. Teachers need to collaborate more on resources that worked well saving valuable time. Teachers need to be aware that they need to keep up-to-date with training and therefore plan lessons which are “interactive” in nature otherwise these expensive boards are not used to their potential but only as a ceiling mounted projector for visual display.

Girls' Education in the 21st Century : Gender Equality, Empowerment, and Economic Growth

Tembon, Mercy; Fort, Lucia
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.7%
Gender equality is not just a women's issue, it is a development issue. Women's economic empowerment is essential for economic development, growth, and poverty reduction not only because of the income it generates, but also because it helps to break the vicious cycle of poverty. Educating girls and women is critical to economic development. Research conducted in a variety of countries and regions has established that educating girls is one of the most cost-effective ways of spurring development. Female education creates powerful poverty-reducing synergies and yields enormous intergenerational gains. It is positively correlated with increased economic productivity, more robust labor markets, higher earnings, and improved societal health and well-being. This book is based on the background papers developed for the symposium. Although the papers have been edited, their key messages remain intact, and the theme of the symposium respected. The overview chapter is a thematic paper prepared by the World Bank that brings out the main messages of the symposium. The subsequent chapters reflect the current state of education from a gender perspective and highlight the importance of and challenges to female education as well as the interdependence of education and development objectives. The final chapter presents five strategic directions for advancing gender equity in education.

Investing in Indonesia's Education : Allocation, Equity, and Efficiency of Public Expenditures

Arze del Granado, F. Javier; Fengler, Wolfgang; Ragatz, Andy; Yavuz, Elif
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.7%
What are the current trends and main characteristics of public education spending in Indonesia? Is education spending insufficient? Are expenditures in education efficient and equitable? This study reports the first account of Indonesia's aggregated (national and sub-national) spending on education, as well as the economic composition of education spending and its breakdown by programs. It presents estimations of the expected (average) level of education spending for a country with its economic and social characteristics. This analysis sheds light on the efficiency and equity of education spending by presenting social rates of return by level of education, by assessing the adequacy of current teacher earnings relative to other paid workers and the distribution of teachers across urban, rural, and remote regions, and by identifying the main determinants of education enrollment. It concludes that the current challenges in Indonesia are no longer defined by the need of additional spending, but rather the need to improve the quality of education services...

Can Cost-Benefit Analysis Guide Education Policy in Developing Countries?

Jimenez, Emmanuel; Patrinos, Harry Anthony
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.8%
Cost-benefit analysis in education is an important tool in the economists' arsenal. However, it is essential that research, especially on the social benefits of education, make further progress to make cost-benefit more analysis. There is a need for more research on the effects of policy interventions on outcomes beyond access to a year in school and what they earn as a result, such as on what children actually learn. Such research should focus on ensuring that the interventions are attributable to outcomes. Nevertheless, it is worthwhile to go through the discipline of noting the benefits and costs, even if social rates of return cannot be calculated robustly.