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Potential Benefits of Sequential Inhibitor-Mutagen Treatments of RNA Virus Infections

Perales, Celia; Agudo, Rubén; Tejero, Hector; Manrubia, Susanna C.; Domingo, Esteban
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.58%
Lethal mutagenesis is an antiviral strategy consisting of virus extinction associated with enhanced mutagenesis. The use of non-mutagenic antiviral inhibitors has faced the problem of selection of inhibitor-resistant virus mutants. Quasispecies dynamics predicts, and clinical results have confirmed, that combination therapy has an advantage over monotherapy to delay or prevent selection of inhibitor-escape mutants. Using ribavirin-mediated mutagenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), here we show that, contrary to expectations, sequential administration of the antiviral inhibitor guanidine (GU) first, followed by ribavirin, is more effective than combination therapy with the two drugs, or than either drug used individually. Coelectroporation experiments suggest that limited inhibition of replication of interfering mutants by GU may contribute to the benefits of the sequential treatment. In lethal mutagenesis, a sequential inhibitor-mutagen treatment can be more effective than the corresponding combination treatment to drive a virus towards extinction. Such an advantage is also supported by a theoretical model for the evolution of a viral population under the action of increased mutagenesis in the presence of an inhibitor of viral replication. The model suggests that benefits of the sequential treatment are due to the involvement of a mutagenic agent...

Liberalizing development : effects of telecommunication liberalization in Thailand and the Philippines; Effects of telecommunication liberalization in Thailand and the Philippines

Krairit, Donyaprueth
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 158 leaves; 13573865 bytes; 13573625 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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55.59%
This thesis hypothesized that extensive telecommunications liberalization would not increase the penetration rate of the fixed telephone service better than other, less competition-oriented, policy alternatives. The hypothesis was validated in the case of Thailand and the Philippines. However, for the cellular mobile telephone and Internet services, extensive telecommunications liberalization could increase the penetration rates better than other, less competition-oriented, policy alternatives. Thus, the thesis demonstrates that past research has not paid sufficient attention to this issue and has assumed that the more extensive reform could lead to the faster and the better telecommunications development of all telecommunication services. The thesis suggested that less-developed countries (LDCs) should realize that they do not have to fully implement liberalization reforms, but should instead specifically tailor their telecommunications reform policies to their own pace and needs. This study found that extensive liberalization reforms or extensive opening of the market does not necessarily increase penetration rates of services better than other less competition-oriented policy alternatives under the following conditions: Assuming that the services have not yet reached their saturation levels based on the S-curve...

Does competition reduce costs? : assessing the impact of regulatory restructuring on U.S. electric generation efficiency

Rose, Nancy L.; Markiewicz, Kira; Wolfram, Catherine D.
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 49, 5 p
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55.65%
Although the allocative efficiency benefits of competition are a tenet of microeconomic theory, the relation between competition and technical efficiency is less well understood. Neoclassical models of profit-maximization subsume static cost-minimizing behavior regardless of market competitiveness, but agency models of managerial behavior suggest possible scope for competition to influence cost-reducing effort choices. This paper explores the empirical effects of competition on technical efficiency in the context of electricity industry restructuring. Restructuring programs adopted by many U.S. states made utilities residual claimants to cost savings and increased their exposure to competitive markets. We estimate the impact of these changes on annual generating plant-level input demand for non-fuel operating expenses, the number of employees and fuel use. We find that municipally-owned plants, whose owners were for the most part unaffected by restructuring, experienced the smallest efficiency gains over the past decade. Investor-owned utility plants in states that restructured their wholesale electricity markets had the largest reductions in nonfuel operating expenses and employment, while investor-owned plants in nonrestructuring states fell between these extremes. The analysis also highlights the substantive importance of treating the simultaneity of input and output decisions...

Open vs. closed Apple music distribution platform; Open versus closed Apple music distribution platform

Aye, Thida, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 77 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.44%
In this thesis, based on the example case study of the Apple iTunes-iPods platform technology, two simple models are analyzed to gain a better understanding of open vs. closed business models as management and market strategies for multi-sided platforms. First, a simple model of a firm with a two-sided platform serving two distinct types of customers is evaluated, assuming network effects as the only intrinsic benefits to joining such a platform. Three different cases of market structure are investigated: (i) monopoly, (ii) open duopoly (iii) closed duopoly. Using game theory, comparative results of prices, profits, consumer surplus and social welfare among the three regimes are presented. The second model focuses on the effects of competition and compatibility between a profit-maximizing closed platform and an open, freely accessible platform. Given certain conditions, it is shown that compatibility can in fact be a profitable strategy for closed platforms while improving social welfare at the same time.; by Thida Aye.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management, 2008.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 75-77).

Competition in Mobile Telecoms

Rossotto, Carlo Maria; Kerf, Michel; Rohlfs, Jeffrey
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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55.75%
Many governments, particularly in developing and emerging market economies, still doubt the benefits of competition in wireless services. But international experience shows that competition in any of the digital technologies brings substantial benefits to users and creates powerful incentives for incumbent fixed-line operators to lower prices, introduce new services, and increase productivity. This Note explores the impact of competition on mobile service using data on Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology. Launched in Europe in 1992, GSM networks have grown by up to 80 percent a year and now reach an estimated 135 million subscribers in nearly 130 countries.

Price Structures, Cross-Subsidies, and Competition in Infrastructure

Irwin, Timothy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.65%
Governments often regulate not only the overall level of prices charged by infrastructure firms but also the relationship between prices for different services or customers. Prices can differ among different types of customers, even when no customers can be said to be subsidizing another, for example, when one asset is used to supply a service to two or more groups of customers. One of the hurdles that governments must overcome in introducing competition in infrastructure is dealing with the social and political implications of changing price structures, or rate rebalancing. Generally, competition should reduce overall costs in the sector, lessening the need to compensate groups hurt by price increases resulting from rate rebalancing. But if the efficiency gains are not enough to offset the price increases for some groups and the government is worried about the political and social costs of rate balancing, it has three basic options: 1) preserving the old price structure; 2) funding price subsidies from general tax revenue rather than from transfers within the firm or industry; and 3) relying on social safety nets rather than price subsidies. Whichever option a government chooses should stand up against the following four tests: 1) Do subsidies reach the people the government most wants to support? 2) are the costs clear and measurable? 3) Are the administrative costs as low as possible? 4) Is the revenue raised from the source that entails the least cost to the economy? This Note looks at the three options in practice and reviews how they measure up against the four criteria. It concludes that governments should eliminate price subsidies if politically feasible. But even if they cannot...

Competition in Network Industries : Where and How to Introduce It

Klein, Michael; Gray, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.8%
If privatizing network industries is to bring lasting public benefits, governments should also attempt to introduce competition. The scope for such competition is growing with increasing deregulation and technological innovation. As technology continues to improve, the use of "smart markets"--computer-assisted auction systems to clear competitive but complex markets--is likely to become feasible for an ever-expanding group of products and countries. This Note outlines the opportunities for introducing network competition--competition for the market, competition over existing networks, and competition among networks. It briefly considers in each case whether it will become easier or more complicated. It looks at how these opportunities could be applied in different networks. And it concludes with some basic guidelines for introducing competition: 1) the more complex the network and the lower the sunk cost, the more value there is likely to be in introducing competition from other networks. 2) Where technical change is rapid...

Competitive Contracting for Privately Generated Power : What to Do in the Absence of Competition in the Market

Bacon, Robert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.73%
Introducing independent power producers (IPPs) into a power system where existing generators are inefficient can deliver more efficient investment. But it is not sufficient to achieve the operating benefits of competition. Key to determining whether or not the IPPs and the system as a whole will operate efficiently are the power and energy sales contracts with the IPPs. The author surveys a range of power purchase agreements and highlights their risks and benefits for operational efficiency.

Access to Financial Services : A Review of the Issues and Public Policy Objectives

Claessens, Stijn
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.58%
This article reviews the evidence on the importance of finance for economic well-being. It provides data on the use of basic financial services by households and firms across a sample of countries, assesses the desirability of universal access, and provides an overview of the macroeconomic, legal, and regulatory obstacles to access. Despite the benefits of finance, the data show that use of financial services is far from universal in many countries, especially developing countries. Universal access to financial services has not been a public policy objective in most countries and would likely be difficult to achieve. Countries can, however, facilitate access to financial services by strengthening institutional infrastructure, liberalizing markets and facilitating greater competition, and encouraging innovative use of know-how and technology. Government interventions to directly broaden access to finance, however, are costly and fraught with risks, among others the risk of missing the targeted groups. The article concludes with recommendations for global actions aimed at improving data on access and use and suggestions on areas of further analysis to identify constraints to broadening access.

Benefits of the ECOWAS CET and EPA Will Outweigh Costs in Nigeria, but Competitiveness is the Real Issue

Coste, Antoine; von Uexkull, Erik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.58%
This note analyzes the benefits of ECOWAS Common External Tariff (CET) and Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) will outweigh costs in Nigeria, but competitiveness is the real issue. After decade-long negotiations, the ECOWAS CET and EPA with the EU recently reached decisive milestones. These major reforms should have significant impacts and offer new opportunities to West Africa, but have so far failed to garner a broad consensus, notably in Nigeria. The lack of objective and easily accessible assessments of their likely effects appears to be partly responsible for this situation. Two recent World Bank studies use a simple methodology to assess the potential impact of these reforms on Nigeria. Overall, full implementation of the CET and EPA in Nigeria would result in limited fiscal losses, marginal welfare gains for consumers and higher profits for a majority of manufacturing firms accounting for the majority of jobs in this sector. Almost all firms experiencing negative effects exhibit higher-than-average profitability before the reforms and most would remain profitable after them. The predicted magnitude of both the CET and EPA is small compared to gains that could be achieved by tackling supply-side constraints faced by Nigerian firms. Combining trade policy reforms with an ambitious competitiveness agenda that addresses the most binding constraints and promotes regional trade appears as the best way to maximize the benefits and minimize the potential cost of these reforms.

Reaping Benefits of FDI and Reshaping Shanghai's Economic Landscape

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.58%
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has played a significant and positive role in driving economic growth and upgrading economic structure in Shanghai. The shift in the pattern of FDI over the last decade towards services has been particularly crucial. Given its importance, Shanghai municipal government may continue to devote efforts to attract FDI and have foreign funded enterprises help reshape Shanghai's economic landscape. The main importance of FDI to Shanghai lies less in its capital finance, and more in the extent to which foreign funded enterprises (FFEs) help move the city up the value chain and generate high-end jobs. In the post-financial crisis era, developing countries will take a much larger role in leading world growth while enhanced competition will accelerate the pace of service revolution. Possessing strong geographic advantages, Shanghai has the potential to become an international business and financial hub and to have the high-tech industries and services being the driving force of the growth. Shanghai has strong potential in reaping the benefits of FDI and reshaping its economic landscape in 12th Five Year Plan period. In terms of the three conditions to succeed good opportunity...

Competition Law and Regional Economic Integration : An Analysis of the Southern Mediterranean Countries

Geradin, Damien
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.74%
This study argues that adoption strengthening of a competition law regime is a key component of the regulatory reforms, which are required to allow a market economy in the Mediterranean region. It also argues that the competition rules inserted in the Association Agreements signed between the European Union (EU) and the Mediterranean Partners (MPs) currently fail to provide adequate protection against anticompetitive practices affecting trade between these blocks. Moreover, the competition law regimes adopted by the MPs are generally poorly enforced with the consequence that many domestic anticompetitive practices remain unchallenged. In addition, this study addresses the issue of regulatory convergence between the EU and the MPs in the field of competition law, that is, whether the MPs should align their competition rules on European Community (EC) competition rules. It argues that while such convergence would bring a series of benefits to both the EU and the MPs, it would also involve costs. The study thus argues in favor of a prudent approach whereby the transposition of EC competition rules in the MPs would not be automatic...

Understanding the Benefits of Regional Integration to Trade : The Application of a Gravity Model to the Case of Central America

Gordillo, Darwin Marcelo; Stokenberga, Aiga; Schwartz, Jordan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.61%
The paper identifies the impact of physical barriers to trade within Central America through the use of an augmented and partially constrained Gravity Model of Trade. Adjusting the Euclidian distance factor for Central America by real average transport times, the model quantifies the impact of poor connectivity and border frictions on the region's internal trade as well as its trade with external partners, such as the United States and Europe. In addition, the authors benchmark Central America's trade coefficients against those of a physically integrated region by running a parallel Gravity Model for the 15 core countries of the European Union. This allows for the estimation of potential intra-regional and external trade levels if Central America were to reduce border frictions and time of travel between countries and thus benefit from both the adjacency of each country's neighbors and the gravitational pull of the region's economies. The analysis is conducted for all of Central America's trade and is also disaggregated for three groups of products -- processed fruits and vegetables; steel and steel products; and grains -- by both volume and value. This differentiation tests the consistency of the results while providing insight into the differentiation in trading patterns and potential for these containerized...

Competition, Corporate Governance, and Regulation in Central Asia : Uzbekistan's Structural Reform Challenges

Broadman, Harry G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.71%
In Uzbekistan state enterprises are being changed into shareholding companies, and private enterprises account for 45 percent of all registered firms. But business decisions to set prices, output, and investment are often not market-based, nor wholly within the purview of businesses, especially those in commercial manufacturing and services. Lines of authority for corporate governance - from state enterprises to private enterprises - are ill-defined, so there is little discipline on corporate performance and little separation between government and business. Nascent frameworks have been created for competition policy (for firms in the commercial sector) and regulatory policy (governing utilities in the infrastructure monopoly sector). Bur implementation and enforcement have been hampered by old-style instruments (such as price controls0 rooted in central planning, by lack of a strong independent regulatory rule-making authority, by the limited understanding, of the basic concepts of competition and regulatory reform, and by weak institutional capabilities for analyzing market structure and business performance. Based on fieldwork in Uzbekistan, the author recommends: 1) Deepening senior policy officials' understanding of, and appreciation of the benefits from...

Essays in capital markets

Papanikolaou, Dimitris, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 161 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.44%
In the first chapter, I provide evidence that investment-specific technological change is a source of systematic risk. In contrast to neutral productivity shocks, the economy needs to invest to realize the benefits of innovations in investment technology. A positive shock to investment technology is followed by a reallocation of resources from consumption to investment, leading to a negative price of risk. A portfolio of stocks that produce investment goods minus stocks that produce consumption goods (IMC) proxies for the shock and is a priced risk factor. The value of assets in place minus growth opportunities falls after positive shocks to investment technology, which suggests an explanation for the value puzzle. I formalize these insights in a dynamic general equilibrium model with two sectors of production. The model's implications are supported by the data. The IMC portfolio earns a negative premium, predicts investment and consumption in a manner consistent with the theory, and helps price the value cross section. In the second chapter, based on joint work with Igor Makarov, we use heteroscedasticity of stock returns as an identification tool to isolate four robust factors in the U.S. industry returns. The first factor can be viewed as a proxy for economy wide demand shocks. The second factor is a portfolio of stocks producing investment goods minus stocks producing consumption goods (IMC). The third factor differentiates between cyclical vs. non-cyclical stocks. Finally...

Shaping the terms of competition : environmental regulation and corporate strategies to reduce diesel vehicle emissions; Environmental regulation and corporate strategies to reduce diesel vehicle emissions

Ng, Christine Bik-Kay, 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 343 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.63%
Environmental regulations are typically portrayed as an outside force stimulating development of environmental technologies in regulated industries. In reality, firms influence regulation by communicating their technological progress, which helps form a basis for future standards. Because of differences in each firm's technological capability and environmental performance, regulations affect the competitive position of firms. Firms with advanced technologies stand to gain competitive benefit from more stringent environmental regulations, and may therefore choose to introduce a more costly but cleaner technology ahead of regulation. Such a competitive regulatory strategy has the potential to bring competitive benefits to the lead firm(s) and environmental benefits to the public. This research explains the conditions under which competitive regulatory strategies are pursued in the diesel vehicle and fuel industry. Growing public concern about the health effects of diesel exhaust has led countries to implement several cycles of increasingly stringent emission and fuel regulations over the past two decades.; (cont.) Taking a comparative case study approach, this work studies multiple regulatory cycles for light-duty vehicles, heavy-duty engines...

Out-of-equilibrium competitive dynamics of quasispecies

Aguirre, Jacobo; Manrubia Cuevas, Susanna
Fonte: EDP Sciences; Institute of Physics Publishing; Società Italiana di Fisica Publicador: EDP Sciences; Institute of Physics Publishing; Società Italiana di Fisica
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 2373 bytes; text/plain
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.63%
6 pages, 4 figures.-- PACS nrs.: 87.10.+e; 87.23.Kg; 89.90.+n.-- ISI Article Identifier: 000245743000025.-- Printed version published Feb 2007.; The composition of a quasispecies is completely characterized, in the large population and long time limit, by the matrix yielding the transition probabilities between different types in the population. Further, its asymptotic growth rate —i.e. the largest eigenvalue of the transition matrix— completely determines the winning population in an equilibrium competition. However, due to the intrinsically heterogeneous nature of quasispecies, out-of-equilibrium fluctuations in population size might change the expected fate of competition experiments. Using a simple model for a heterogeneous population we quantify the probability that, after a population bottleneck, the a priori weaker competitor wins in a competition with a population characterized by a larger asymptotic growth rate. We analyse the role played by different degrees of neutrality in the outcome of the process, and demonstrate that lower neutrality favours the weaker competitor in out-of-equilibrium situations. Our results might shed light on empirical observations in competition experiments with RNA viruses.; The authors acknowledge the support of Spanish MEC (project FIS2004-06414). SCM benefits from a Ramón y Cajal contract.; Peer reviewed

Costs and Benefits of Intrasexual Aggression in Females: an Experimental Approach

Rosvall, Kimberly
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 2445548 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.72%

A long-held assumption in animal behavior is that females and males differ fundamentally in their mating strategies. Females are thought to be more choosy because female reproduction typically is limited by parental investment. Males, on the other hand, are expected to compete among themselves for access to females or resources, since male reproduction is limited primarily by mating access. This dichotomy is challenged by the increasing realization that males can be choosy and females also compete aggressively. It remains unclear, however, if and how selection acts on aggressive behavior in the context of intrasexual competition among females (reviewed in Chapter 1). In this thesis, I use a population of free-living tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) to test predictions about the selective pressures shaping aggressive behavior in females. First, using an experimental manipulation of nest site availability, I demonstrate that more aggressive females have a competitive edge in acquiring nestboxes, a critical limiting resource required for breeding (Chapter 2). This result shows that more aggressive females are more likely to breed and, thus, that females experience direct selection to be aggressive in the context of competition for mating opportunities. Next...

Consumer choice, competition and privatisation in European health and long-term care systems: subjective well-being effects and equity implications

Zigante, Valentina
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.72%
Consumer choice has become a key reform trend in the provision of public services in Western European welfare states. Research on the welfare effects of choice reforms – including greater provider choice for the individual and competition between providers – has largely focused on economic evaluations of the extrinsic (outcome) effects of choice, thereby leaving its intrinsic, or procedural, value unexplored. The overarching objective of this thesis is to investigate the welfare effects of choice in the provision of health and long-term care (LTC) and their implications for equity. The thesis utilises the subjective well-being approach – incorporating both procedural and outcome utility from choice – to measure welfare effects based on quantitative analysis of survey data. Welfare effects and equity implications are examined in relation to: competition in health care in the English National Health System (NHS); choice of care package in the German long-term care system; and individual preferences and views of choice as a priority in the provision of health care in three NHS countries. The thesis argues that both service characteristics – extent of competition, information availability, technical complexity – and individual capabilities – ability to process information...

Essays on the impact of competition on financial intermediaries

Deb, Pragyan
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.65%
The aim of my thesis is to investigate the effect of competition on financial intermediaries in light of the conflicts of interest and perverse incentive structures that exist in the financial system. The first chapter of my thesis, Credit Rating and Competition investigates the conflict of interest arising from the issuer pay compensation model of the credit rating industry using a theoretical model of competitive interaction. Rating agencies balance the benefits of maintaining reputation (to increase profits in the future) and inflating ratings today (to increase current profits). Our results suggest that, unless new entrants have a higher reputation vis-a-vis incumbents, rating agencies are more likely to inflate ratings under competition relative to monopoly, resulting in lower expected welfare. The second chapter, Market Frictions, Interbank Linkages and Excessive Interconnections, studies banks' decision to form financial interconnections. I develop a model of financial contagion that explicitly takes into account the possibility of crisis. This allows me to model the network formation decision as optimising behaviour of competitive banks. I show that regulatory intervention in the form of deposit insurance and more implicit too big to fail type perceptions of government guarantees creates a wedge between social and private optimality. In the presence of these implicit and explicit guarantees...