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A note on "Environmental sustainability and cost - benefit analysis"

Pires, Cesaltina
Fonte: Pion publication Publicador: Pion publication
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 61369 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
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In this note I solve the problem formalized by Barbier, Markandya, and Pearce in "Environmental sustainability and cost - benefit analysis". I show that the optimality conditions of that problem imply but are not implied by the conditions presented by Barbier et al.

Cost-Benefit Analysis in World Bank Projects

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
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This report has been prepared in the context of a major global effort in the past eight years to better measure results in development assistance. The agenda for this effort was articulated and refined in a series of international conferences, beginning with the international conference on financing for development in Monterrey in 2002 and continuing through the Accra agenda for action in 2008. Cost-benefit analysis entails measuring results, valuing results, and comparing results with costs, and hence is highly relevant to the results agenda. Cost-benefit analysis can provide a comprehensive picture of the net impact of projects and help direct funds to where their development effectiveness is highest. This study draws two broad conclusions. First, the bank needs to revisit its policy for cost-benefit analysis in a way that recognizes the legitimate difficulties in quantifying benefits while preserving a high degree of rigor in justifying projects. Second, the bank needs to ensure that cost-benefit analysis is done with quality...

Where to Use Cost Effectiveness Techniques Rather Than Cost Benefit Analysis

Mackie, Peter; Nellthorp, John; Laird, James
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Cost Benefit Analysis, and the measures of economic performance that can be derived from it (see Note 6: When and How to Use NPV, IRR and Adjusted IRR), is the preferred method for demonstrating the economic justification of transport investments. Such an approach, however, relies on the ability to be able to measure costs and benefits in monetary terms (see Note 5: Framework), which renders it problematic for projects where the majority of benefits cannot be readily monetised. Such a project could be a Low Volume Rural Road (see Note 21: Low Volume Rural Roads). In such situations consideration should be given to the use of measures derived from cost effectiveness or weighted cost effectiveness (also known as Multi Criteria Analysis) techniques as the basis for the decision regarding whether to invest or not. Cost effectiveness techniques are also a very useful tool for project screening or ranking. Such a screening process ensures that projects that are subjected to a more detailed analysis (including cost benefit analysis) are those that best fit with the objectives of the investment (e.g. poverty alleviation). Section 1 of this note outlines the situations in which cost effectiveness techniques should be used...

Conventional Cost-Benefit Analysis with Distorting Taxes and the Revised Samuelson Condition

Jones, Chris
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 466823 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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When projects are evaluated using a conventional Harberger (1971) cost-benefit analysis the welfare effects are separated with lump-sum transfers. But this does not appear possible when governments raise revenue with distorting taxes. Evidence to support this view can be found in Mayshar (1990) and Wildasin (1984) who derive a marginal social cost of public funds (MCF) that depends on how the government spends the extra revenue raised. Ballard and Fullerton (1992) use this MCF in place of the conventional Harberger (1964) measure to amend the revised Samuelson condition obtained by Pigou (1947). We show that a conventional cost-benefit analysis is possible in this setting by decomposing their revised condition into conventional Harberger terms. The welfare effects of marginally increasing the public good are isolated by hypothetical lump-sum transfers that are offset separately with a distorting tax. We also demonstrate that when the marginal costs and benefits of providing the public good are measured by changes in utility (denominated in units of a chosen numeraire), the income effects are irrelevant because they impact equally on each dollar of cost and benefit. Consequently, projects can be evaluated correctly using uncompensated welfare changes.; no

To teach or not to teach? A cost-benefit analysis of teaching in private general practice

Laurence, C.; Black, L.; Karnon, J.; Briggs, N.
Fonte: Australasian Med Publ Co Ltd Publicador: Australasian Med Publ Co Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
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Objective: To identify the financial costs and benefits associated with teaching in private general practice. Design: Cost–benefit analysis of teaching in private general practice across three levels of training — undergraduate medical training, prevocational training and general practice vocational training — using data from a 2007 survey of general practitioners in South Australia. Setting and participants: GPs and practices teaching in association with the Adelaide to Outback GP Training Program or the Discipline of General Practice at the University of Adelaide. Main outcome measure: Net financial outcome per week. Results: The net financial outcome of teaching varied across the training levels. Practices incurred a net financial cost from teaching medical students that was statistically significantly different from zero. With respect to vocational training and teaching junior doctors, there were small net financial benefits to practices, although the mean estimates were not statistically significantly different from zero. Conclusions: This study shows a net financial cost for practices teaching medical students, while at the prevocational and vocational training levels, adequate levels of subsidies and income generated by the trainees help offset the costs of teaching. Our results suggest that a review of subsidies for undergraduate teaching is necessary...

Three Stages in the Use of Cost-benefit Analysis as a Tool for Evaluating U.S. Regulatory Policy

LIVERMORE, Michael A.; REVESZ, Richard L.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Outros Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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Over the last thirty years a three-stage evolution has taken place in American politics with regard to the use of cost-benefit analysis as a tool for evaluating regulation. During that time, the appeal of costbenefit analysis has shifted from one side of the aisle to the other. In the first stage, in the early 1980s, the Republican Party adopted cost-benefit analysis as a way of constraining regulation. Many progressive groups fought back by rejecting cost-benefit analysis altogether. Several years ago, in a second stage, some progressive groups finally started to speak the language of cost-benefit analysis and it looked like a consensus approach might emerge. But the economic crisis of 2008 has led the way to a third stage in which conservatives, who began to realize that cost-benefit analysis could justify stringent regulation, reframed the debate to one about jobs. The essay argues that, despite pleas to abandon the technique, cost-benefit analysis has proven robust, in part because it provides a common ground where all interests are given weight.; The lecture was delivered by Richard L. Revesz on 20 June 2012.

Cost benefit analysis workshop delivered in Montenegro

Meeks, Lori
Fonte: Monterey, California ; Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California ; Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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NPS delivery of a "Building integrity in defense acquisition: cost benefit analysis" workshop to staff from the Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces of Montenegro.

Análisis coste beneficio: la travesía central de los Pirineos; Cost benefit analysis: the central Pyrinees crossing

Adámez López, Javier
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
SPA
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RESUMEN: El Análisis Coste Beneficio (en adelante, ACB) trata de valorar inversiones, en particular, asociadas a grandes infraestructuras, con el objetivo de determinar si estas son adecuadas u oportunas desde una perspectiva pública o social y en qué medida. El ACB se diferencia de un mero análisis financiero por el hecho de que tiene en cuenta todas las ganancias y pérdidas con independencia del sujeto al que corresponden. En este estudio se plantea la puesta en marcha de la Travesía Central Pirenaica, que se trata de un proyecto prioritario a nivel europeo, dada su importancia en el comercio de mercancías entre la península Ibérica y el resto de Europa mediante un nexo de tipo ferroviario a través de la cordillera pirenaica. Al tratarse de un proyecto a financiar por fondos públicos, se analizan todos los aspectos tanto de costes como de beneficios que reporta dicha infraestructura, desde aspectos como la inversión que supone hasta la reducción del impacto ambiental. El resultado que se obtendrá tras el análisis, el cual se determina mediante el método del Valor Actual Neto (VAN), resolverá si la construcción de dicha infraestructura es conveniente o no.; ABSTRACT: The Cost Benefit Analysis (hereafter CBA) seeks to evaluate investments in order to determine whether these are suitable or appropriate from a public or social perspective and to what extent. The CBA is different from a simple financial analysis...

A cost-benefit analysis of the LAV mobility and obsolescence program by using U.S. Army Stryker suspensions

Harmon, Chad D.; Keathley, Michael Z.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The U.S. Marine Corps’ Light Armored Vehicle (LAV) is essential to battlefield supremacy, and the Marine Corps has no replacement. Because the LAV has reached the end of its intended 30 years of service, per PM-LAV, it needs a system upgrade due to a service extension to year 2035. A cost benefit analysis was conducted to calculate the possible savings of using U.S. Army Stryker replacement parts compared to, alternatively, building new vehicles. The Stryker and LAV were both built by General Dynamics Land Systems-Canada and have the same basic design, but the Stryker is newer and bigger. The analysis suggests the Marine Corps could realize savings of up to $200 million, as well as increased LAV capabilities, by using Stryker replacement parts. This would free more funds for the Marine Corps to use on other programs and bolster their light armored reconnaissance battalions.; ; Captain, United States Marine Corps; Captain, United States Army

Building Integrity: Cost Benefit Analysis Workshop [video]

Naval Postgraduate School
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School. Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School.
Tipo: Vídeo Formato: 25.6 MB. Duration: 00:03:50
EN_US
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Building Integrity: Cost Benefit Analysis Workshop, March 26 - 28, 2012, Yerevan, Armenia

A cost benefit analysis of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) implementation at the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library

Tiu, Joel D.; Bahk, Shawn S.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xiv, 49 p. : ill.; 28 cm.
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MBA Professional Report; The purpose of this MBA project is to evaluate the potential of implementing Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology at the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library (DKL). DKL is an academic library supporting a graduate student population only. This study has both quantitative and qualitative analyses. A Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) was conducted using data gathered from research which included personal interviews, site visits, and a survey questionnaire. Time and motion studies of selected library processes were conducted at DKL and a major public library. Vendors were invited to submit proposals for RFID systems to get the latest equipment available and associated cost estimates. The qualitative analysis addressed the advantages and disadvantages of an RFID system as well as privacy and other ancillary issues surrounding its implementation. This study did not attempt to quantify potential savings from collection management, an intangible benefit that could be addressed in future studies. Finally, the study presented several options to aid NPS decision makers on whether or not to implement an RFID system at DKL.; US Navy (USN) author

The Survivor Benefit Plan: a cost-benefit analysis

Beatty, Scott E.; Theo, Kang
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xiv, 53 p. : col. ill.; 28 cm.
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MBA Professional Report; Investing for one's future is a concern for the majority of military retirees. Service members have more choices than their civilian counterparts when planning for retirement. One alternative available to military members is the Survivor Benefit Plan (SBP), which allows retirees to provide for their family's welfare in the event of their untimely death. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the cost effectiveness of SBP in comparison to other insurance or investment options. This paper provides an overview of SBP and possible alternatives. Additionally, a mathematical model has been constructed that conducts a cost-benefit analysis of SBP and alternatives to determine the most beneficial course of action for future retirees. Our major conclusion is that SBP is the most attractive available option only if the military member expects to live for a sufficiently long period and also expects his (or her) spouse to outlive him by a significant amount. However, this result is sensitive to rate of inflation.

Cost/benefit analysis of Commander, Naval Surface Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet's Supply Maintenance Training Team

Buzon, Carlos D., II; Huggins, Michael D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 116 p.
EN_US
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65.98%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis is an attempt to accomplish a cost/benefit analysis of Commander, Naval Surface Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet's (COMNAVSURFPAC) Supply Maintenance Training Team (SMTT). The effectiveness of the SMIT program is also evaluated. Data were gathered from surveys of current and former Supply Officers of COMNAVSURFPAC ships, with the Shipboard Non-tactical Automated Data Processing II system installed and which had received all or part of an SMTT assistance visit. Interviews were conducted with selected Navy and civilian contractor members of the SMTT staff. Data were also gathered from various records and reports maintained by the SMTT staff and by COMNAVSURFPAC's Supply Assistance Center. The nature of the cost/benefit data of the SMTT program did not lend itself to a homogenous comparison of costs to benefits. The authors have determined that an attempt to "homogenize" the data with the use of economic "shadow prices" was of little value in meeting the "measurable performance" criteria of the cost/benefit analysis. Therefore, in strict terms, a cost/effectiveness analysis was accomplished. The analysis indicated that the SMTT program has resulted in positive gains in afloat supply operations. Many intangible benefits are derived from the assistance visit and there are indications of tangible benefits in the form of dollar and manhour savings. The trend of the data shows a valuable program to the fleet. Although not definitive due to data limitations...

Cost-benefit analysis of the Department of the Navy's transition from C-9 Aircraft to C-40 Aircraft for logistic support aircraft

Cummins, Lane; Wilborn, Tony
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xiv, 87 p. ; 28 cm.
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; MBA Professional Report; The Navy began transitioning from the aging C-9s, which peaked at a total fleet size of 27 C-9B/DC-9 aircraft, to the C-40A. However, in response to increasing defense budget scrutiny and competing priorities, the Navy has decided to put this program on hold. Although the C-9B is an aging airframe and will require mandatory Federal Aviation Administration mandated modifications and upgrades, the DC-9/C-9B airframe has recently been determined to have significant operational service life remaining. This project provides a Cost-benefit Analysis (CBA) of the changes associated with replacing the C-9B aircraft with the C-40A. We analyze three alternatives. The first assumes that the C-40A acquisition program will remain on-hold indefinitely. The second alternative foresees the C-40A acquisition resuming as currently projected in FY2015. The third alternative involves the original C-40A acquisition program as per Naval Air Plan 2030 (NAP 2030). The objective is to compare the three alternatives, choosing the alternative, which provides the greatest net benefit and most efficient use of resources. The analysis will involve data collection of operational costs per flight hour...

Cost benefit analysis of Enterprise Resource Planning system for the Naval Postgraduate School

Rosa, Liza A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 85 p. : col. ill.
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis reviewed and evaluated the ERP Solution System currently in the Integration Testing Phase at NAVAIR and examined the benefits and cost that NPS could leverage by purchasing the system for approximately $2.7M for 200 users or $3.1M for 500 users. This thesis looked at the capabilities of the current NAVAIR SIGMA ERP Solution System, in terms of money and level of expertise. The research also looked at the alternatives and options to enable NPS to close the gaps to fit its current needs. RADM David Ellison, Superintendent, wanted to explore the possibility of joining NAVAIR's ERP Solution System, currently under the Integration Testing Phase, as he believed it was an opportunity for NPS to leverage on this technology. As seen by senior management, the partnership with NAVAIR could benefit NPS, by acquiring and implementing an ERP at a fraction of the cost normally associated with this type of purchase. An additional benefit would be reducing the time associated with implementing an ERP System, normally between 3 and 5 years, to 11 months. Management also saw the advantage of benefiting from NAVAIR lessons learned, partnering with an activity that was familiar with ERP in a Navy setting...

Cost benefit analysis of MARSOC Marines in the Naval Postgraduate School Defense Analysis

Dyer, Robert B.; Pierce, Ryan D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xxii, 95 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.
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MBA Professional Report; The United States Marine Corps does not have a specific professional military education program for Special Forces. Furthermore, it does not send any of its officers or NCOs to the Naval Postgraduate School to attain a Master's Degree in Defense Analysis. Studies completed in sister services have shown this program to be invaluable to its future staff officers. This project will conduct a cost-benefit analysis of the United States Marine Corps sending Marine Special Forces Officers through a dedicated training pipeline, and more specifically the Naval Postgraduate School Defense Analysis Programs (Irregular Warfare, Information Operations, Terrorist Operations and Financing). This thesis will aid the Marine Corps in determining the costs and benefits (with dollar amount) of sending its officers through the Naval Postgraduate School's DA Program.; US Marine Corps (USMC) author

Cost benefit analysis of the Department of the Navy's F-5 Tiger II contract

Brown, Jeffery C.; DeGuzman, Robert K., Jr.; Fulford, Thomas S., III; Porter, Jesse E.; Brown, Jeffery C.; DeGuzman, Robert K., Jr.; Fulford, Thomas S., III
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xii, 121 p. : col. ill. ; 28 cm.
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MBA Professional Report; Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited; MBA Professional Report; Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited; This project consists of a Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) of the costs, issues and effects associated with replacing the F-5E/F Tiger II aircraft with F/A-18A/B. The three alternatives analyzed are (1) continued operation of the F-5E/F, (2) replacement of the F-5 with F/A-18A/B by 2008, and (3) installation of 4th generation pulse-doppler radar in the F-5E/F by 2008. The objective was to compare the three alternatives, choosing the alternative which provides the greatest net benefit and most efficient use of resources. The analysis involved data collection of operational costs per flight hour, total cost over the life of the program, and Contractor supported maintenance. Data for this research project were gathered from the actual maintenance contracts for both the F-5E/F Tiger II and F/A-18A/B aircraft at Fallon, NV, Naval Aviation Systems Command, and OFC-20. Our results suggest that NAVAIR should continue to use the F-5E/F Tiger II aircraft for the VFC-13 adversary training mission through 2014.; Lieutenant Commander, Supply Corps, United States Navy; Lieutenant Commander...

Cost-Benefit Analysis in World Bank Projects

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Cost-benefit analysis used to be one of the World Bank's signature issues. It helped establish its reputation as the knowledge Bank and served to demonstrate its commitment to measuring results and ensuring accountability to taxpayers. It was the Bank's answer to the results agenda long before that term became popular. This report takes stock of what has happened to cost-benefit analysis at the Bank, based on analysis of four decades of project data, project appraisal and completion reports from recent fiscal years, and interviews with current Bank staff. This study draws two broad conclusions. First, the Bank needs to revisit the policy for cost-benefit analysis in a way that recognizes legitimate difficulties in quantifying benefits while preserving a high degree of rigor in justifying projects. Second, it needs to ensure that when cost-benefit analysis is done it is done with quality, rigor, and objectivity, as poor data and analysis misinform, and do not improve results. Reforms are required to project appraisal procedures to ensure objectivity...

Reducing Black Carbon Emissions from Diesel Vehicles : Impacts, Control Strategies, and Cost-Benefit Analysis

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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A 2013 scientific assessment of black carbon emissions and impacts found that black carbon is second to carbon dioxide in terms of its climate forcing. High concentrations of black carbon in the atmosphere can change precipitation patterns and reduce the amount of radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, which affects local agriculture. Acute and chronic exposures to particulate matter are associated with a range of diseases, including chronic bronchitis and asthma, as well as premature deaths from cardiopulmonary disease, lung cancer, and acute lower respiratory infections. The transportation sector accounted for approximately 19 percent of global black carbon emissions in the year 2000. This report aims to inform efforts to control black carbon emissions from diesel-based transportation in developing countries. It presents a summary of emissions control approaches from developed countries, while recognizing that developing countries face a number of on-the-ground implementation challenges. This study applies a new cost-benefit analysis methodology to four simulated diesel black carbon emissions control projects - diesel retrofit in Istanbul...

Hepatitis B surface antigen detection using pooled sera: A cost-benefit analysis

Fernández,E.; Rodrigo,L.; García,S.; Riestra,S.; Blanco,C.
Fonte: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas Publicador: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/2006 ENG
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Objectives: to examine the feasibility and to perform a cost benefit analysis of a 5-sample pooling strategy using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the screening of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Material and methods: to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the pooling method, each of the 40 positive sera (from weak to intensely HBsAg-positive) and 250 negative sera were tested in a pool with 4 HBsAg-negative sera. The limit of detection for HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ay was evaluated using sera from a panel of purified subtypes. A study under real conditions was conducted using pools from 340 pregnant women. Results: the sensitivity and specificity of this technique were 100%. The correlation coefficient among the sample/cutoff ratios of 40 samples studied in single and in pooled conditions was 0.792 (p < 0.005). The pooling method has lower levels of detection for HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ay at 0.20 ng/mL and 0.12 ng/mL, and the single method at 0.34 ng/mL and 0.29 ng/mL, respectively. The pooling method loses no sensitivity for values up to 100 IU/L of anti-HBs in the four sera mixed with a positive serum. The cost-benefit analysis showed that the pooling method could save from 30% up to 75% of the cost of HBsAg determination, according to whether seroprevalences were 10% or 1%...