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How to promote healthy behaviours in patients? An overview of evidence for behaviour change techniques

van Achterberg, Theo; Huisman-de Waal, Getty G. J.; Ketelaar, Nicole A. B. M.; Oostendorp, Rob A.; Jacobs, Johanna E.; Wollersheim, Hub C. H.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
To identify the evidence for the effectiveness of behaviour change techniques, when used by health-care professionals, in accomplishing health-promoting behaviours in patients. Reviews were used to extract data at a study level. A taxonomy was used to classify behaviour change techniques. We included 23 systematic reviews: 14 on smoking cessation, 6 on physical exercise, and 2 on healthy diets and 1 on both exercise and diets. None of the behaviour change techniques demonstrated clear effects in a convincing majority of the studies in which they were evaluated. Techniques targeting knowledge (n = 210 studies) and facilitation of behaviour (n = 172) were evaluated most frequently. However, self-monitoring of behaviour (positive effects in 56% of the studies), risk communication (52%) and use of social support (50%) were most often identified as effective. Insufficient insight into appropriateness of technique choice and quality of technique delivery hinder precise conclusions. Relatively, however, self-monitoring of behaviour, risk communication and use of social support are most effective. Health professionals should avoid thinking that providing knowledge, materials and professional support will be sufficient for patients to accomplish change and consider alternative strategies which may be more effective.

Theories of behaviour change synthesised into a set of theoretical groupings: introducing a thematic series on the theoretical domains framework

Francis, Jill J; O’Connor, Denise; Curran, Janet
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/04/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Behaviour change is key to increasing the uptake of evidence into healthcare practice. Designing behaviour-change interventions first requires problem analysis, ideally informed by theory. Yet the large number of partly overlapping theories of behaviour makes it difficult to select the most appropriate theory. The need for an overarching theoretical framework of behaviour change was addressed in research in which 128 explanatory constructs from 33 theories of behaviour were identified and grouped. The resulting Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) appears to be a helpful basis for investigating implementation problems. Research groups in several countries have conducted TDF-based studies. It seems timely to bring together the experience of these teams in a thematic series to demonstrate further applications and to report key developments. This overview article describes the TDF, provides a brief critique of the framework, and introduces this thematic series.

Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability

Newson, Rachel S; Lion, Rene; Crawford, Robert J; Curtis, Valerie; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Feunekes, Gerda IJ; Hicks, Cheryl; van Liere, Marti; Lowe, C Fergus; Meijer, Gert W; Pradeep, BV; Reddy, K Srinath; Sidibe, Myriam; Uauy, Ricardo
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/03/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled ‘Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability’. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today’s environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes – particularly in developing and emerging countries – imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session...

A randomised controlled trial of an exercise plus behaviour change intervention in people with multiple sclerosis: the step it up study protocol

Coote, Susan; Gallagher, Stephen; Msetfi, Rachel, M.; Larkin, Aidan; Newell, John; Motl, Robert; Hayes, Sarah
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
peer-reviewed; Background: Exercise has consistently yielded short-term, positive effects on health outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, these effects have not been maintained in the long-term. Behaviour change interventions aim to promote long-term positive lifestyle change. This study, namely, "Step it Up" will compare the effect of an exercise plus Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)-based behaviour change intervention with an exercise plus control education intervention on walking mobility among people with MS.Methods/design: People with a diagnosis of MS who walk independently, score of 0-3 on the Patient Determined Disease Steps, who have not experienced an MS relapse or change in their MS medication in the last 12 weeks and who are physically inactive will be randomised to one of two study conditions. The experimental group will undergo a 10-week exercise plus SCT-based behavioural change intervention. The control group will undergo a 10-week exercise plus education intervention to control for contact. Participants will be assessed at weeks 1, 12, 24 and 36. The primary outcome will be walking mobility. Secondary outcomes will include: aerobic capacity, lower extremity muscle strength, participant adherence to the exercise programme...

The problem of behaviour change: from social norms to an ingroup focus

Reynolds, Katherine J.; Subašić, Emina; Tindall, Karen
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 12 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Social norms are of increasing interest to public policy experts and those conducting behaviour change interven-tions (e.g. safe driving, recycling). While there is agreement that social norms play a central role in explaining behaviour, such consensus is lacking when it comes to explaining the process through which this occurs. Economics, social marketing and political science focus on individual self-interest and goal satisfaction and social (dis)approval. In contrast social psychology also incorporates collective interests through its analysis of social identity and ingroup processes. To fully understand behaviour change, it is argued that greater engagement is needed with the links between shifts in social identity, and ingroup norms. As definitions of who “we” are shift, so too does what “we” do. Implications for behaviour change interventions are discussed.; This research was supported by ANU internal funding in order to further develop theory andresearch on the social psychology of social and behaviour change, as well as funding from theAustralian Research Council (including an Australian Postdoctoral Fellowship awarded toEmina Subašić).

Using the transtheoretical model of behaviour change to describe readiness to rescreen for colorectal cancer with faecal occult blood testing

Duncan, A.; Turnbull, D.; Gregory, T.; Cole, S.; Young, G.; Flight, I.; Wilson, C.
Fonte: Australian Health Promotion Association Publicador: Australian Health Promotion Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
ISSUE ADDRESSED: This study used the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change (TTM) to describe reparticipation in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening according to social cognitive and background variables. METHODS: A random sample of men and women aged 50-74 years living in South Australia completed a questionnaire measuring TTM stage and attitudes toward screening using a faecal occult blood test (FOBT). Participants were categorised according to four stages of readiness to rescreen: action, maintenance, relapse and inconsistent. Multivariate techniques were used to determine predictors of lower readiness stages compared with maintenance. RESULTS: Of the 849 study participants, 29.9% were either non-adherent or had no intentions to maintain adherence (inconsistent and relapse). Compared with maintenance rescreeners, relapse participants reported less: social influences to screen (RR=0.86, p<0.001); satisfaction with prior screening (RR=0.87, p=0.03), self-efficacy (RR=0.96, p=0.01); and screening benefits (RR=0.84, p<0.001). Relapse participants were also more likely to not have private health insurance (RR=1.33, p=0.04) and be unaware of the need to repeat screening (RR=1.41, p=0.02). Inconsistent screeners were less likely to have planned when they will next rescreen (RR= 0.84...

Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children

Hendrie, G.; Sohonpal, G.; Lange, K.; Golley, R.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
BACKGROUND The family food environment is an important influence in the development of children’s dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1) investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in children’s saturated fat intake; and (2) to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in children’s saturated fat intake. METHOD Secondary analysis of a 12 week cluster randomised controlled trial in 133 4-13 year old children. Families were randomly allocated to parental education regarding changing to reduced-fat dairy foods or a comparison non-dietary behaviour. The interventions were family focused. Parents received education from a dietitian in 3x30minute sessions to facilitate behaviour change. Parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire capturing three domains of the food environment – Parent knowledge and attitudes; shaping practices; and behaviours and role modelling. Children’s dietary intake was assessed via multiple 24-hour recalls at baseline and week 12. Changes in the family food environment and primary outcome (saturated fat) were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed to explore the association between baseline and change in food environment constructs and change in saturated fat intake. Standardised Beta are presented (p<0.05). RESULTS After adjustments for child and family demographics...

A qualitative synthesis of trials promoting physical activity behaviour change among post-treatment breast cancer survivors

Short, C.E.; James, E.L.; Stacey, F.; Plotnikoff, R.C.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
Background: Health outcome trials have provided strong evidence that participating in regular physical activity can improve the quality of life and health of post-treatment breast cancer survivors. Focus is now needed on how to promote changes in physical activity behaviour among this group. Purpose: This systematic review examines the efficacy of behavioural interventions for promoting physical activity among post-treatment breast cancer survivors. Methods: Behavioural intervention studies published up until July 2012 were identified through a systematic search of two databases: MEDLINE and CINAHL, and by searching reference lists of relevant publications and scanning citation libraries of project staff. Results: Eight out of the ten identified studies reported positive intervention effects on aerobic physical activity behaviour, ranging from during the intervention period to 6 months post-intervention. Only two studies reported intervention effect sizes. The identification of factors related to efficacy was not possible because of the limited number and heterogeneity of studies included, as well as the lack of effect sizes reported. Nonetheless, an examination of the eight studies that did yield significant intervention effects suggests that 12-week interventions employing behaviour change techniques (e.g....

Behaviour change techniques and contraceptive use in low and middle income countries: a review

Phiri, Mwelwa; King, R.; Newell, J. N.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
We aimed to identify effective behaviour change techniques to increase modern contraceptive use in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Literature was identified in Global Health, Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Popline, as well as peer reviewed journals. Articles were included if they were written in English, had an outcome evaluation of contraceptive use, modern contraceptive use, contraceptive initiation/uptake, contraceptive adherence or continuation of contraception, were a systematic review or randomised controlled trial, and were conducted in a low or middle income country. We assessed the behaviour change techniques used in each intervention and included a new category of male partner involvement. We identified six studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The most effective interventions were those that involve male partner involvement in the decision to initiate contraceptive use. The findings also suggest that providing access to contraceptives in the community promotes their use. The interventions that had positive effects on contraceptive use used a combination of behaviour change techniques. Performance techniques were not used in any of the interventions. The use of social support techniques, which are meant to improve wider social acceptability...

Everything should be as simple as possible, but no simpler: towards a protocol for accumulating evidence regarding the active content of health behaviour change interventions

Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram; de Bruin, Marijn; Crutzen, Rik
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
There is a need to consolidate the evidence base underlying our toolbox of methods of behaviour change. Recent efforts to this effect have conducted meta-regressions on evaluations of behaviour change interventions, deriving each method's effectiveness from its association to intervention effect size. However, there are a range of issues that raise concern about whether this approach is actually furthering or instead obstructing the advancement of health psychology theories and the quality of health behaviour change interventions. Using examples from theory, the literature and data from previous meta-analyses, these concerns and their implications are explained and illustrated. An iterative protocol for evidence base accumulation is proposed that integrates evidence derived from both experimental and applied behaviour change research, and combines theory development in experimental settings with theory testing in applied real-life settings. As evidence gathered in this manner accumulates, a cumulative science of behaviour change can develop.

Working with People to Make Changes: A Behavioural Change Approach Used in Chronic Low Back Pain Rehabilitation

Harman, Katherine; MacRae, Marsha; Vallis, Michael; Bassett, Raewyn
Fonte: University of Toronto Press Incorporated Publicador: University of Toronto Press Incorporated
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Purpose: To describe the approach used by a physiotherapist who led a rehabilitation programme for injured members of the military with chronic low back pain designed to enhance self-efficacy and self-management skills. Method: This in-depth qualitative study used audio- and video-recorded data from interviews and field observations. Using an inductive analysis process, discussion of emerging themes led to a description of the physiotherapist's approach. Results: The approach has three elements: developing a trusting relationship through building rapport, establishing a need in patients' minds to be actively engaged in their rehabilitation, and finding workable rehabilitation solutions that are most likely to be adopted by individual patients. This approach fits into current theories about health behaviour change (e.g., Transtheoretical Model of Change, Motivational Interviewing, Motivational Model of Patient Self-Management and Patient Self-Management) and elements of the therapeutic alliance. Using the therapeutic alliance (rapport) and behaviour change techniques, the physiotherapist focused on the perceived importance of a behaviour change (need) and then shifted to the patient's self-efficacy in the solutions phase. Conclusions: If we recognize that rehabilitation requires patients to adopt new behaviours...

Health behaviour change of people living with HIV after a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention in North-West Province in South Africa

Chidrawi, H. Christa; Greeff, Minrie; Temane, Q. Michael
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
All over the world, health behaviour is considered a complex, far reaching and powerful phenomenon. People's lives are influenced by their own or others' health behaviour on a daily basis. Whether it has to do with smoking, drinking, pollution, global warming or HIV management, it touches lives and it challenges personal and community responses. Health behaviour, and health behaviour change, probably holds the key to many a person's immediate or prolonged life or death outcomes. The same can be said about communities, culture groups and nations. This SANPAD-funded study focused on research questions relating to health behaviour change for people living with HIV (PLWH) in the North-West Province in South Africa. It investigated whether a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention caused health behaviour change in PLWH. An quantitative single system research design with one pre- and four repetitive post-tests utilizing purposive sampling was used to test change-over-time in the health behaviour of 18 PLWH. The results of the study indicated statistical and/or practical significant change-over-time. The intervention not only addressed the health behaviour of PLWH, but also their HIV stigma experiences, HIV signs and symptoms and their quality of life in the context of being HIV positive. The recommendations include popularization of the comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention and extending it to include a second intervention to strengthen health behaviour and quality of life for PLWH in the community at large.

The Development and Testing of a Checklist to Study Behaviour Change Techniques used in a Treatment Programme for Canadian Armed Forces Members with Chronic Non-specific Low Back Pain

Harman, Katherine; MacRae, Marsha; Vallis, Michael
Fonte: University of Toronto Press Incorporated Publicador: University of Toronto Press Incorporated
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
Purpose: There are reports of increased use of a variety of behaviour change techniques (BCT) by physiotherapists and findings of beneficial effects of use. However, there is a lack of physiotherapy-specific definitions of these techniques, as well as a sense of how physiotherapists use them in practice. Through this study, the authors created and field tested a preliminary nomenclature and description for BCT in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP). Methods: Items for the Physiotherapy Behaviour Change Technique (PT-BCT) checklist were derived from a nomenclature created for use in psychology and also from publications of studies using cognitive behaviour therapy-based approaches in physiotherapy. Content validity was tested via survey of clinical and research experts. Videotapes of a 6-week patient self-management rehabilitation programme were used for training, reliability testing, and field testing of the PT-BCT checklist. Results: Checklist items were endorsed by the majority of experts surveyed; intra- and inter-rater reliability were moderate to high. In the field study, a broad range of BCT types (behavioural, cognitive, and motivational) were observed in both classroom and gym settings. Conclusions: The BCT nomenclature arising from this study and the PT-BCT checklist will be useful to further explore behaviour change in physiotherapy practice. The observation in this study that BCT were integrated into physiotherapists' practice illustrates how physiotherapists can play a role in changing behaviour...

Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability

Hicks, Cheryl; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Crawford, Robert J.; Curtis, Valerie; Feunekes, Gerda; Meijer, Gert W.; Uauy Dagach-Imbarack, Ricardo Elías; Lowe, C. Fergus; Reddy, K. Srinath; Lion, Rene; Pradeep, B. V.; Liere, Marti van; Sidibe, Myriam; Newson, Rachel
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Artículo de publicación ISI; As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled ‘Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability’. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today’s environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the fi rst session, key experts discussed how demographic changes – particularly in developing and emerging countries – imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions...

The contribution of psychological theory to the understanding of health behaviour change and maintenance : applications to exercise

Sørensen, Marit
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1997 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
Human behaviour is still mysterious. Why do we do what we do? Why do we sometimes not do what we want to do? Why is it so difficult to change habits? The purpose of this paper is to examine how general psychological theory of health behaviour change and maintenance contribute to the understanding of initiating and maintaining exercise behaviour. Some popular models to identify what psychological factors influence our health behaviour and some models that try to describe the processes of health behaviour change and maintainance are examined and discussed in relation to exercise behaviour.; La conducta humana sigue siendo misteriosa. ¿Porqué hacemos lo que hacemos?. ¿Porqué a veces no hacemos lo que tendríamos que hacer?. ¿Porqué es tan difícil cambiar de hábitos?. El propósito de este artículo es examinar cómo la teoría general psicológica del cambio y mantenimientio de conductas saludables puede contribuir al entendimiento de la iniciación y el mantenimiento de la conducta de ejercicio físico. Se discuten y examinan algunos modelos que identifican cuáles son los factores psicológicos que

Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study

Somerville, Claire; Marteau, Theresa M.; Kinmouth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon
Fonte: OUP Publicador: OUP
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
This is the final version of the article. It was first available from OUP at http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckv077; Background: Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and the United States of America. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Methods: Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300,000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analysed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Results: Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (1) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (2) government raises prices to generate income...

Variability in baseline travel behaviour as a predictor of changes in commuting by active travel, car and public transport: a natural experimental study; Variability in baseline travel behaviour as a predictor of changes in commute mode choice: a natural experimental study

Heinen, Eva; Ogilvie, David
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
This is the final version of the article. It was first available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2015.11.002; Purpose: To strengthen our understanding of the impact of baseline variability in mode choice on the likelihood of travel behaviour change. Methods: Quasi-experimental analyses in a cohort study of 450 commuters exposed to a new guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in Cambridge, UK. Exposure to the intervention was defined using the shortest network distance from each participant?s home to the busway. Variability in commuter travel behaviour at baseline was defined using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, the number of different modes of transport used over a week, and the proportion of trips made by the main (combination of) mode(s). The outcomes were changes in the share of commute trips (i) involving any active travel, (ii) involving any public transport, and (iii) made entirely by car. Variability and change data were derived from a self-reported seven-day record collected before (2009) and after (2012) the intervention. Separate multinomial regression models were estimated to assess the influence of baseline variability on behaviour change, both independently and as an interaction effect with exposure to the intervention. Results: All three measures of variability predicted changes in mode share in most models. The effect size for the intervention was slightly strengthened after including variability. Commuters with higher baseline variability were more likely to increase their active mode share (e.g. for HHI: relative risk ratio [RRR] for interaction 3.34...

Protocol for the ADDITION-Plus study: a randomised controlled trial of an individually-tailored behaviour change intervention among people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes under intensive UK general practice care

Griffin, Simon J.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Williams, Kate M.; Prevost, A. Toby; Hardeman, Wendy; Grant, Julie; Whittle, Fiona; Boase, Sue; Hobbis, Imogen; Brage, S?ren; Westgate, Kate; Fanshawe, Tom; Sutton, Stephen; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Kinmonth, Ann Louis
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
RIGHTS : This article is licensed under the BioMed Central licence at http://www.biomedcentral.com/about/license which is similar to the 'Creative Commons Attribution Licence'. In brief you may : copy, distribute, and display the work; make derivative works; or make commercial use of the work - under the following conditions: the original author must be given credit; for any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are.; Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses both clinical and public health challenges. Cost-effective approaches to prevent progression of the disease in primary care are needed. Evidence suggests that intensive multifactorial interventions including medication and behaviour change can significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with established type 2 diabetes, and that patient education in self-management can improve short-term outcomes. However, existing studies cannot isolate the effects of behavioural interventions promoting self-care from other aspects of intensive primary care management. The ADDITION-Plus trial was designed to address these issues among recently diagnosed patients in primary care over one year. Methods/Design ADDITION-Plus is an explanatory randomised controlled trial of a facilitator-led...

Decarbonising the English residential sector: modelling policies, technologies and behaviour within a heterogeneous building stock; Modelling policies, technologies and human behaviour within a heterogeneous building stock; A new building stock model for the english residential sector; A systems approach to modelling energy and emissions from the residential sector

Kelly, Scott
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Land Economy; Cambridge Centre for Climate Change Mitigation Research; Selwyn College Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Land Economy; Cambridge Centre for Climate Change Mitigation Research; Selwyn College
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
It is now widely accepted that the residential sector offers significant potential for carbon mitigation. This is true for both the overall magnitude of emissions reductions and the cost per tonne of CO2(eq) mitigated. However, both the scope and scale of potential carbon mitigation pathways remain controversial. The pace of decarbonisation is also openly debated. Examples of some of these contentions include: centralised versus decentralised energy supply; energy efficiency versus low carbon generation; demolition versus renovation of the existing building stock and behaviour change versus technological solutions. Incontrovertibly, any one of these seemingly apparent tensions is not mutually exclusive, and the ultimate decarbonisation pathway will likely consist of most if not all of these proposed solutions being implemented to some varying degree. Despite the significant potential for carbon mitigation in the built environment, deep cuts have not yet materialised. It is argued that this lack of progress stems from a poor understanding of the highly complex socio-economic, socio-dynamic and technical physical systems that underpin energy use in dwellings.Modelling this requires requires novel methods capable of capturing the complexities that arise from government policies...

The impact of health behaviour change intervention on indoor air pollution indicators in the rural North West Province, South Africa

Barnes,Brendon; Mathee,Angela; Thomas,Elizabeth
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
Indoor air pollution has been associated with a number of health outcomes including child lower respiratory infections such as pneumonia. Behavioural change has been promoted as a potential intervention strategy but very little evidence exists of the impact of such strategies on actual indoor air pollution indicators particularly in poor rural contexts. The aim of this study was to evaluate a community counselling intervention on stationary levels of PM10 and carbon monoxide (CO) as well as CO measured on children younger than five. Using a quasi-experimental design, baseline data was collected in an intervention (n=36) and a control (n=38) community; the intervention was implemented in the intervention community only; and follow-up data was collected one year later amongst the same households. Despite the fact that indoor air pollution was reduced in both communities, the intervention group performed significantly better than the control group when stratified by burning location. The net median reductions associated with the intervention were: PM10=57%, CO=31% and CO (child)=33% amongst households that burned indoor fires. The study provides tentative evidence that a health behaviour change is associated with reductions in child indoor air pollution exposure. The intervention is relatively inexpensive and easy to replicate. However...