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Spent NiMH batteries-The role of selective precipitation in the recovery of valuable metals

BERTUOL, Daniel Assumpcao; BERNARDES, Andrea Moura; TENORIO, Jorge Alberto Soares
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
The production of electronic equipment, such as computers and cell phones, and, consequently, batteries, has increased dramatically. One of the types of batteries whose production and consumption has increased in recent times is the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery. This study evaluated a hydrometallurgical method of recovery of rare earths and a simple method to obtain a solution rich in Ni-Co from spent NiMH batteries. The active materials from both electrodes were manually removed from the accumulators and leached. Several acid and basic solutions for the recovery of rare earths were evaluated. Results showed that more than 98 wt.% of the rare earths were recovered as sulfate salts by dissolution with sulfuric acid, followed by selective precipitation at pH 1.2 using sodium hydroxide. The complete process. precipitation at pH 1.2 followed by precipitation at pH 7, removed about 100 wt.% of iron and 70 wt.% of zinc from the leaching solution. Results were similar to those found in studies that used solvent extraction. This method is easy, economic, and does not pose environmental threats of solvent extraction. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; Capes; CNPq; Fapergs

Metal separation from mixed types of batteries using selective precipitation and liquid-liquid extraction techniques

PROVAZI, Kellie; CAMPOS, Beatriz Amaral; ESPINOSA, Denise Crocce Romano; TENORIO, Jorge Alberto Soares
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
The purpose of this paper is to study metal separation from a sample composed of a mixture of the main types of spent household batteries, using a hydrometallurgical route, comparing selective precipitation and liquid-liquid extraction separation techniques. The preparation of the solution consisted of: grinding the waste of mixed batteries, reduction and volatile metals elimination using electric furnace and acid leaching. From this solution two different routes were studied: selective precipitation with sodium hydroxide and liquid-liquid extraction using Cyanex 272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphoric acid] as extracting agent. The best results were obtained from liquid-liquid extraction in which Zn had a 99% extraction rate at pH 2.5. More than 95% Fe was extracted at pH 7.0, the same pH at which more than 90% Ce was extracted. About 88% Mn, Cr and Co was extracted at this pH. At pH 3.0, more than 85% Ni was extracted, and at pH 3.5 more than 80% of Cd and La was extracted. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo); CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico)

Reciclagem de baterias de íon de Li: condicionamento físico e extração do Co.; Recycling of ion Li batteries: physical conditioning and Co extraction.

Takahashi, Vivian Cristina Inacio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/12/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
Com o avanço da tecnologia aplicada em aparelhos celulares, são lançados no mercado modelos menores, mais leves e com maior rapidez em seu sistema operacional. Tudo isso atrai muito os consumidores, que por sua vez, trocam seus antigos aparelhos celulares por novos e modernos. Essas adesões e trocas freqüentes de aparelhos celulares geram um descarte significativo de todos os seus componentes e dentre eles a bateria. Assim, pelo fato do cobalto estar presente nesse tipo bateria e ser um metal com alto valor agregado, ele faz parte do estudo do presente trabalho. Este trabalho tem por objetivos estudar as etapas de condicionamento físico e de lixiviação como fases iniciais do processo de reciclagem de baterias de íons de lítio. Para a caracterização das baterias, as mesmas foram desmanteladas manualmente para a separação dos componentes. Os eletrodos foram caracterizados por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica, difração de raios-X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura com analise de microrregiões. Os ensaios de lixiviação foram feitos usando-se os seguintes parâmetros: pH entre 3 e 5, temperaturas de 25 e 50ºC, relação sólido/líquido de 1/5, tempos de 1 a 4h. Foram utilizados como meio lixiviante soluções de acido sulfúrico...

Influência do Pr na microestrutura e propriedades elétricas em ligas á base de LaPrMgAIMnCoNi utilizadas em baterias de Ni-HM; Influence of Pr in the microstructure and electrical properties in LaPrMgAlMnCoNi based alloys for using for Ni-MH batteries

Galdino, Gabriel Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/12/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
Neste trabalho foram estudadas ligas La0,7-xPrxMg0,3Al0,3Mn0,4Co0,5Ni3,8 (x= 0 a 0,7) no estado bruto de fusão, para utilização em eletrodos negativos de baterias de níquel-hidreto metálico (Ni-HM). A caracterização das ligas foi realizada através das seguintes técnicas: microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV), espectroscopia de energia dispersiva (EDS) e difração de raios X. Foi também determinada capacidade de absorção de hidrogênio destas ligas. A hidrogenação do material foi realizada em dois processos sendo: o primeiro denominado de baixa pressão (0,2 MPa de hidrogênio e temperatura de 500ºC) e o segundo de alta pressão (1 MPa e de hidrogênio e temperatura de 25ºC). Foi observado que com o aumento do teor de Pr a capacidade de absorção de hidrogênio diminui. Para o estudo da capacidade de descarga das baterias foi utilizado um analisador digital de quatro canais e observou-se um decréscimo na capacidade de descarga das baterias com adição de praseodímio para as composições La0,7-xPrxMg0,3Al0,3Mn0,4Co0,5Ni3,8 (x= 0 a 0,3). A maior capacidade de descarga (386 mAhg-1) e estabilidade cíclica foi obtida para a liga La0,2Pr0,5Mg0,3Al0,3Mn0,4Co0,5Ni3,8. Esta capacidade obtida pode estar relacionada com a maior proporção da fase LaMg2Ni9 encontrada na liga com adição de 0...

Contaminação de solos por metais tóxicos provenientes do descarte inadequado de pilhas Zinco-Carbono de uso doméstico; Soil contamination of toxic metals from zinc carbon batteries inadequate disposal

Gazano, Vanessa Santos Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/03/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
O presente trabalho determinou a concentração dos metais zinco, manganês, cádmio, chumbo, níquel, cobre e cromo no efluente e solo de quatro colunas de latossolo indeformadas. Duas colunas foram contaminadas por pilhas do tipo zinco-carbono e duas colunas foram utilizadas como referência, além de pilhas isoladas, foram todas lixiviadas por uma solução "água de chuva" (HNO3 + H2SO4, pH 4,0). Os metais no efluente e no solo foram determinados pela técnica de ICP-OES. A avaliação do efluente e do solo das colunas contaminadas pelas pilhas mostrou um incremento das concentrações dos metais, principalmente de zinco, manganês e chumbo. A sequência das massas acumuladas dos metais no efluente e no solo da coluna contaminada apresentaram uma sequência semelhante a da lixiviação isolada da pilha (Zn > Mn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > Cd), confirmando a influência da pilha nas concentrações dos metais no efluente e solo das colunas. Observou-se também que a contaminação de Zn e Mn tende a migrar da camada superior da coluna de solo para as camadas inferiores. O estudo mostrou que as pilhas podem causar uma contaminação significativa do solo para os metais Zn, Mn e Pb e possivelmente também para Cd. Esta contaminação do solo poderia vir a causar uma contaminação da água subterrânea para os metais Zn...

Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles with potential use as anode in lithium ion batteries

Xavier, Camila Soares; Paskocimas, Carlos Alberto; Motta, Fabiana Villela Da; Araújo, Vinícius Dantas; Aragón, Maria José; Tirado, José Luís; Lavela, Pedro; Longo, Elson; Delmonte, Mauricio Roberto Bomio
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1065-1070
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Rechargeable solid-state batteries have long been considered an attractive power source for a wide variety of applications, and in particular, lithium-ion batteries are emerging as the technology of choice for portable electronics. One of the main challenges in the design of these batteries is to ensure that the electrodes maintain their integrity over many discharge-recharge cycles. Fe3O4 deserves great attention as one of the most important electrode active materials due to its high theoretical capacity (926 mAhg- 1), low cost, being environmental-friendly and naturally abundance in worldwide. A simple strategy to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method in a short processing time without further treatment is reported. The material obtained was tested as anode active material for lithium ions batteries. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that small differences in cell performance on cycling observed between samples cannot be strictly correlated to cell resistance. A high reversible capacity of 768.5 mAhg- 1 at 1C over 50 cycles was demonstrated...

Avaliação do estado de carga de baterias chumbo-acidas por espectroscopia de impedancia eletroquimica; Evaluation of lead-acid batteries state-of-charge by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

Jose Rocha Andrade da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/10/2000 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
Os acumuladores de energia estacionários devem ser periodicamente avaliados quanto à sua capacidade de carga, visando assegurar que sua energia acumulada poderá ser prontamente utilizada, quando das falhas do sistema de alimentação convencional. Normalmente, essas avaliações são realizadas através dos testes de capacidade, que apresentam como principais desvantagens, o fato do banco de baterias permanecer indisponível, durante a realização do teste, e o desperdício da energia acumulada nas baterias. Neste trabalho á avaliada a potencialidade do método de espectroscopia de impedância eletroquímica como ferramenta na determinação do estado-de-carga de baterias chumbo-ácidas, através da análise das relações dos seus parâmetros eletroquímicos e sua quantidade de carga armazenada; Stationary lead-acid batteries must have their charge capacity periodically evaluated in order to assure that they are ready to supply energy during conventional supplier faults. Normally, these evaluations are conduct by capacity tests, which present these main disadvantages: batteries remain unavailable while tests are conducted and total energy accumulated in batteries is dissipate during the tests. In this work electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is evaluated as a tool to assess the lead....

Batteries charging systems for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

Monteiro, Vítor; Gonçalves, Henrique; Ferreira, João C.; Afonso, João L.
Fonte: InTech Publicador: InTech
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em 01/08/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
Many countries have a large dependence on imported fossil fuels whose prices increase almost every day. Knowing that much of this consumption is for transportation systems, it becomes essential to seek for alternatives. The natural bet is the electric mobility, namely through Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). However, the wide spread utilization of these vehicles has consequences on the electrical power grid, mainly in terms of load management and electric power quality, which are associated to the batteries charging systems. In this scenario, this chapter assesses the electric mobility integration in Smart Grid context, focusing different approaches to the operation of EVs and PHEVs charging processes and the specifications of the chargers, as well as different topologies of charging systems and their features, modes of operation, typical waveforms, and impact in the electrical power grid in terms of power quality. It is also presented a laboratory prototype of a bidirectional EV charger and shown some experimental results. This prototype was developed to charge the batteries aiming to preserve their lifespan, and to contribute to mitigate the degradation of the power quality. The experimental results show the operation of this prototype during the batteries charging process (G2V – Grid-to-Vehicle operation)...

All-solid-state batteries : an overview for bio applications

Sousa, R.; Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, J. A.; Gonçalves, L. M.; Correia, J. H.
Fonte: IEEE Publicador: IEEE
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /02/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.26%
Batteries are crucial for most of bio applications. Batteries based on a liquid or polymer electrolyte needs a weight protective packaging which decreases their energy density and increases their size. This paper aims to identify, on the one hand, the efforts performed in thin-film batteries until now, and on the other hand, to provide an overview about the future perspectives in integration of batteries with flexible electronic circuits and energy harvesting systems. The overview highlights the need for an on-going investigation that aims to replace metallic lithium anode of batteries through different approaches. Other materials, namely silicon or germanium, seem promising when combined with nanostructures. Three dimensional and integrated batteries will increase its volumetric capacity.; This work was financial supported by FCT funds with the project PTDC/EEAELC/114713/2009, with second author scholarship SFRH/BD/78217/2011 and strategic project from Algoritmi Centre FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022674.

Physical processing efficiency of saline vs. alkaline spent batteries

Cabral, Marta; Nogueira, C. A.; Margarido, F.
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 12/10/2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.26%
Physical processing of spent batteries which includes shredding and sieving operation is the first step for chemical treatment by hydrometallurgy. A laboratory study was carried out to evaluate physical processing efficiency, by analysing the resulting particle size, of alkaline and saline mignon-type Zn-MnO2 batteries. After shredding with a tip shredder, results obtained showed that alkaline batteries were more efficiently size reduced than saline batteries. Difference in particle size distribution was larger for granulometric fraction -20+11.2 mm and also higher for saline batteries. Average diameters (d50) for saline and alkaline batteries were respectively 9.1 and 6.2 mm. Chemical composition carried out on several granulometric fractions allowed to identify metals distribution through size categories. This analysis showed that zinc concentration with the grain size was almost constant, while manganese decreased when particle size increased. More than 95% of iron scarp from the battery cases had a particle size higher than 5.6 mm.

Development of new organic electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

Furtado, Olívia; Rangel, C. M.
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 10/11/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%
The need for a clean and sustainable energy supply in the transportation sector have prompted electric vehicles as one of the options to reduce fossil fuel dependency and greenhouse gases emissions. Furthermore, electric vehicles are seen as enablers of the storage capacity of electric grids. In this context, the reasobnable energy density and cyclability reached by lithium-ion batteries based on inorganic cathodes have placed them in considerable advantage regarding energy conversation and storage [1, 2]. For higher energy density, lower cost and more environmentally acceptable batteries research efforts are presently focus on organic-based electrodes as a new approach to conventional inorganic cathodes. [3]. In his work, we carried out the development of a derivative of polymide (PI) for use as electrochemically active cathode material in rechargeable lithium batteries. Even though the application of polyimide as electrode material is scarcely found due to its insulating character, its aromatic imide group can be electrochemically oxidized and reduced in a reversible manner [4, 5]. This paper will present the studies on the synthesis and chemical characterization of a polyimide derivate and its evaluation as cathode organic polymer after electrochemical characterization. Test half-cell testing and battery constitution are being planned. The use of polyimide derivates is considered promising because of the potentiial increase in specific discharge capacity...

Recycling of exhausted batteries and EAF dusts by leaching with several aqueous media

Pedrosa, Fátima; Cabral, Marta; Margarido, F.; Nogueira, C. A.
Fonte: Trans Tech Publications Publicador: Trans Tech Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
Zinc is a base metal present in several products of general use, and therefore found in numerous residues and end-of-life products. The two main sources of zinc containing wastes are spent Zn-MnO2 portable batteries and electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts from steelmaking plants. The recovery of metals from these residues by appropriate recycling processes is mandatory due to environmental, economic and resource conservation issues. Concerning the similar composition of both residues, their simultaneous processing can be envisaged. The research herein described consists on the hydrometallurgical treatment of zinc bearing waste, where several leaching routes for solubilising metals, mainly zinc, are studied. The leaching of shredded batteries and EAF dusts was carried out using three different leaching solutions containing sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid or ammonium chloride. The acid leaching of zinc in the oxide form (zincite) using both acids, was very efficient and quick, allowing the recovery of practically all Zn contained in batteries and about of 80% of Zn in dusts. Regarding to the leaching media the behaviour of lead oxides present in dusts was different, being insoluble with H2SO4 and partially soluble with HCl (40-90% yield...

End-of-life Zn–MnO2 batteries: electrode materials characterization

Cabral, Marta; Pedrosa, Fátima; Margarido, F.; Nogueira, C. A.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
Physical and chemical characterization of several sizes and shapes of alkaline and saline spent Zn–MnO2 batteries was carried out, aiming at contributing for a better definition of the applicable recycling processes. The characterization essays included the mass balance of the components, cathode and anode elemental analysis, the identification of zinc and manganese bearing phases and the morphology analysis of the electrode particles. The electrode materials correspond to 64–79% of the total weigh of the batteries, with the cathodes having clearly the highest contribution (usually more than 50%). The steel components, mainly from the cases, are also important (17–30%). Elemental analysis showed that the electrodes are highly concentrated in zinc (from 48–87% in anodes) and manganese (from 35–50% in cathodes). X-Ray powder diffraction allowed for identifying several phases in the electrodes, namely zinc oxide, in the anodes of all the types of saline and alkaline batteries tested, while zinc hydroxide chloride and ammine zinc chloride only appear in some types of saline batteries. The manganese found in the cathode materials is present as two main phases, MnO·Mn2O3 and ZnO·Mn2O3, the latter corroborating that zinc migration from anode to cathode occurs during the batteries lifespan. A unreacted MnO2 phase was also found presenting a low crystalline level. Leaching trials with diluted HCl solutions of alkaline and saline battery samples showed that all zinc species are reactive attaining easily over than 90% leaching yields...

Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles with potential use as anode in lithium ion batteries

Xavier,Camila Soares; Paskocimas,Carlos Alberto; Motta,Fabiana Villela da; Araújo,Vinícius Dantas; Aragón,Maria José; Tirado,José Luís; Lavela,Pedro; Longo,Elson; Delmonte,Mauricio Roberto Bomio
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
Rechargeable solid-state batteries have long been considered an attractive power source for a wide variety of applications, and in particular, lithium-ion batteries are emerging as the technology of choice for portable electronics. One of the main challenges in the design of these batteries is to ensure that the electrodes maintain their integrity over many discharge-recharge cycles. Fe3O4 deserves great attention as one of the most important electrode active materials due to its high theoretical capacity (926 mAhg- 1), low cost, being environmental-friendly and naturally abundance in worldwide. A simple strategy to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method in a short processing time without further treatment is reported. The material obtained was tested as anode active material for lithium ions batteries. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that small differences in cell performance on cycling observed between samples cannot be strictly correlated to cell resistance. A high reversible capacity of 768.5 mAhg- 1 at 1C over 50 cycles was demonstrated, suggesting its prospective use as anode material for high power lithium ion batteries.

Performance analysis of ten brands of batteries for hearing aids

Penteado,Silvio Pires; Bento,Ricardo Ferreira
Fonte: Fundação Otorrinolaringologia Publicador: Fundação Otorrinolaringologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
INTRODUCTION: Comparison of the performance of hearing instrument batteries from various manufacturers can enable otologists, audiologists, or final consumers to select the best products, maximizing the use of these materials. AIM: To analyze the performance of ten brands of batteries for hearing aids available in the Brazilian marketplace. METHODS: Hearing aid batteries in four sizes were acquired from ten manufacturers and subjected to the same test conditions in an acoustic laboratory. RESULTS: The results obtained in the laboratory contrasted with the values reported by manufacturers highlighted significant discrepancies, besides the fact that certain brands in certain sizes perform better on some tests, but does not indicate which brand is the best in all sizes. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to investigate the performance of ten brands of hearing aid batteries and describe the procedures to be followed for leakage, accidental intake, and disposal.

A pulsed power system design using lithium-ion batteries and one charger per battery

Filler, Frank E.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 82 p. : ill. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; The work documented in this thesis realizes a small-scale implementation of a Battery Management System (BMS) that has the charging, storage, and discharge capabilities to meet scaled down requirements of a pulsed power system. Further, this work establishes a flexible battery research and testing capability resident at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). The designed architecture will provide this flexibility by providing the capability to change charging methodologies and types of batteries with only a change of the FPGA software. The BMS design uses lithium-ion batteries as the energy storage medium and uses one charger per battery for maximum charging flexibility. In order to meet a pulsed power system's requirements, the BMS performs three functions: charging lithium-ion batteries, storing energy for the pulsed power application in lithium-ion batteries, and discharging the energy in pulses to simulate the requirements of a pulse power system. To perform these three functions the BMS has several elements to include the power source, the charger, the batteries, the FPGA controller, and the discharge mechanism. The design and construction of the BMS and these individual elements will be explored in detail in this thesis.; US Marine Corps (USMC) author.

OPTIMIZATION OF BATTERIES FOR PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

English, JEFFREY
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid...

Smart platform towards batteries analysis based on internet-of-things

Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; Ferreira, João C.; Afonso, João L.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /11/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.33%
This paper presents a new approach of pre-defined profiles, based in different voltage and current values, to control the charging and discharging processes of batteries in order to assess their performance. This new approach was implemented in a prototype that was specially developed for such purpose. This prototype is a smart power electronics platform that allows to perform batteries analysis and to control the charging and discharging processes through a web application using pre-defined profiles. This platform was developed aiming to test different batteries technologies. Considering the relevance of the energy storage area based in batteries, especially for the batteries applied to electric mobility systems, this platform allows to perform controlled tests to the batteries, in order to analyze the batteries performance under different scenarios of operation. Besides the results obtained with the batteries, this work also intends to produce results that can contribute to an involvement in the strengthening of the Internet-of-Things.; FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia within the Project Scope: Pest-OE/EEI/UI0319/2014.

Sustainability impact of nanomaterial enhanced lithium ion batteries

Ganter, Matthew
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Dissertação
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
Energy storage devices are becoming an integral part of sustainable energy technology adoption, particularly, in alternative transportation (electric vehicles) and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind which are intermittent). The most prevalent technology exhibiting near-term impact are lithium ion batteries, especially in portable consumer electronics and initial electric vehicle models like the Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf. However, new technologies need to consider the full life-cycle impacts from material production and use phase performance to the end-of-life management (EOL). This dissertation investigates the impacts of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries throughout the life cycle and develops strategies to improve each step in the process. The embodied energy of laser vaporization synthesis and purification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was calculated to determine the environmental impact of the novel nanomaterial at beginning of life. CNTs were integrated into lithium ion battery electrodes as conductive additives, current collectors, and active material supports to increase power, energy, and thermal stability in the use phase. A method was developed to uniformly distribute CNT conductive additives in composites. Cathode composites with CNT additives had significant rate improvements (3x the capacity at a 10C rate) and higher thermal stability (40% reduction in exothermic energy released upon overcharge). Similar trends were also measured with CNTs in anode composites. Advanced free-standing anodes incorporating CNTs with high capacity silicon and germanium were measured to have high capacities where surface area reduction improved coulombic efficiencies and thermal stability. A thermal stability plot was developed that compares the safety of traditional composites with free-standing electrodes...

Baterias Térmicas: Revisão; Thermal Batteries: Review

Gisela F. Almada; Centro Tecnológico do Exército; Maria Jose P. Vieira; Centro Tecnológico do Exército; Mirna T. Rupp; Centro Tecnológico do Exército; Eduardo A. Ponzio; Universidade Federal Fluminense
Fonte: Revista Virtual de Química Publicador: Revista Virtual de Química
Tipo: ; Formato: binary/octet-stream
Publicado em 01/09/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.26%
Baterias térmicas são baterias não-recarregáveis, que utilizam sais fundidos como eletrólito, sólidos e não-condutores à temperatura ambiente. A alta temperatura interna atingida pela queima de um material pirotécnico, integrante à bateria, funde o eletrólito. Uma alta taxa de potência pode ser fornecida (> 500 Wkg-1), pois  o eletrólito fundido é altamente condutor. O par eletroquímico utilizado em baterias térmicas modernas é Li(liga)/FeS2, com tensão nominal de 1,94 V a 500 oC. As baterias térmicas são construídas para serem capazes de atuar em condições ambientais severas como alta rotação e impacto. Além disso, possuem uma alta confiabilidade e uma longa vida de prateleira (> 10 anos) Por estes motivos são utilizadas em aplicações militares, principalmente em artefatos de artilharia. Neste artigo, será feita uma revisão sobre a moderna tecnologia utilizada em baterias térmicas, suas principais características, com enfoque exclusivo em cada um de seus componentes. Serão mostrados, também, os últimos desenvolvimentos estudados com o objetivo de aumentar o fornecimento de potência e vida útil de tais baterias. DOI: 10.5935/1984-6835.20130043; Thermal batteries are non rechargeable batteries that use molten salts as electrolytes...