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Iluminação e ventilação natural em espaços vivenciais

Boga, Ana Marta Abrantes
Fonte: Repositório Científico Lusófona Publicador: Repositório Científico Lusófona
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.11%
Este tema está relacionado com a nossa vivência diária, ou seja, é tão natural o sol que nasce no horizonte como o vento que abana uma árvore. Nós, seres humanos, assim como todos os seres vivos, não conseguimos sobreviver sem luz e sem ar, por isso, a ventilação e a iluminação naturais são dois aspectos importantes para o conforto do dia-a-dia. Esta dissertação aborda estes dois temas, por no nosso ponto de vista, considerarmos que o ser humano necessita em simultâneo destes dois factores, ou seja, não sobrevive apenas com um deles. Deste modo, tomaremos consciência até onde poderemos ir sem sentirmos a falta de um deles. Tal como as plantas necessitam da luz solar (iluminação) para fazer a sua fotossíntese, e do vento (ventilação) para espalhar o seu pólen para que possa ocorrer a polinização, os seres humanos como organismos vivos que são, também carecem de luz solar e ar para sobreviver, uma vez que constituem uma das necessidades básicas para a sobrevivência e continuidade da espécie humana. Qualquer espaço arquitectónico para nele se viver ou trabalhar, necessita de comunicar com o exterior através de aberturas ou vãos que nos prendem à vista.; This research is related to our daily living...

Ventilação e iluminação naturais na obra de João Filgueiras Lima, Lelé: estudo dos hospitais da rede Sarah Kubitschek Fortaleza e Rio de Janeiro; Natural ventilation and lighting in João Filgueiras Lima, Lelé: research of Sarah Kubitschek hospital Fortaleza and Rio de Janeiro

Perén Montero, Jorge Isaac
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/12/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
A conjugação das variáveis luz e vento e sua consideração desde a concepção do edifício são fundamentais para garantir uma eficiente ventilação e iluminação natural. A orientação e a forma do edifício também são importantes. No entanto, a ventilação natural depende da integração dos seus princípios básicos; por diferença de pressão e pelo efeito chaminé. Os fundamentos da ventilação e da iluminação naturais em climas quentes são ilustrados através da obra do arquiteto João Filgueiras Lima, Lelé. Economia de energia, boas condições visuais, psicológicas, higiênicas e uma agradável sensibilidade espacial, entre outros aspectos, subjetivos e relativos ao conforto ambiental, caracterizam à eficaz incorporação da luz e da ventilação natural nas suas obras. Analisam-se os hospitais da rede Sarah Kubitschek, Fortaleza e Rio de Janeiro, duas das obras que melhor ilustram as soluções técnicas e arquitetônicas, propostas pelo arquiteto, que favorecem a entrada do vento e da luz natural. Evidencia-se o aprimoramento dos sheds e demais sistemas de ventilação como as galerias e o piso técnico assim como os sistemas flexíveis de fechamento; o forro de painéis de policarbonato basculantes e os arcos retráteis...

Lighting management system in industrial environments; Sistema de gestão de iluminação em ambientes industriais; System zarządzania oświetleniem w środowiskach przemysłtowych

Machnicki, Krzysztof Marek
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.4%
A presente dissertação aborda a concepção e implementação de um sistema de gestão de iluminação para ambientes industriais. O objectivo principal deste sistema é fornecer controlo avançado em instalações de iluminação já existentes de forma a reduzir o consumo de energia e aumentar a eficiência global do sistema, sem recorrer a mudanças significativas na infra-estrutura de iluminação. Em ambientes industriais, as instalações de iluminação convencionais são geralmente baseadas em lâmpadas de alta potência com um controlo básico de ligado/desligado, através de interruptores manuais que actuam sobre contactores. A ideia do sistema proposto é oferecer um controlo automático que ajuste a iluminação, medida por um conjunto de sensores, a níveis pré-definidos pelo usuário. Tal é conseguido através da actuação sobre os contactores, ligando/desligando lâmpadas ou grupos de lâmpadas específicos. Por exemplo, durante o dia quando a luz natural é maior, o sistema deve compensar reduzindo o número de lâmpadas que estão acesas, reduzindo assim o consumo de energia e aumentando a eficiência do sistema de iluminação. O estudo sobre sistemas de gestão de iluminação começa com uma introdução à problemática do elevado consumo energético das instalações de iluminação industriais...

A guideline for analyzing circadian wheel-running behavior in rodents under different lighting conditions

Jud, Corinne; Schmutz, Isabelle; Hampp, Gabriele; Oster, Henrik; Albrecht, Urs
Fonte: Biological Procedures Online Publicador: Biological Procedures Online
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/07/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.11%
Most behavioral experiments within circadian research are based on the analysis of locomotor activity. This paper introduces scientists to chronobiology by explaining the basic terminology used within the field. Furthermore, it aims to assist in designing, carrying out, and evaluating wheel-running experiments with rodents, particularly mice. Since light is an easily applicable stimulus that provokes strong effects on clock phase, the paper focuses on the application of different lighting conditions.

Meeting Report: The Role of Environmental Lighting and Circadian Disruption in Cancer and Other Diseases

Stevens, Richard G.; Blask, David E.; Brainard, George C.; Hansen, Johnni; Lockley, Steven W.; Provencio, Ignacio; Rea, Mark S.; Reinlib, Leslie
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.11%
Light, including artificial light, has a range of effects on human physiology and behavior and can therefore alter human physiology when inappropriately timed. One example of potential light-induced disruption is the effect of light on circadian organization, including the production of several hormone rhythms. Changes in light–dark exposure (e.g., by nonday occupation or transmeridian travel) shift the timing of the circadian system such that internal rhythms can become desynchronized from both the external environment and internally with each other, impairing our ability to sleep and wake at the appropriate times and compromising physiologic and metabolic processes. Light can also have direct acute effects on neuroendocrine systems, for example, in suppressing melatonin synthesis or elevating cortisol production that may have untoward long-term consequences. For these reasons, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences convened a workshop of a diverse group of scientists to consider how best to conduct research on possible connections between lighting and health. According to the participants in the workshop, there are three broad areas of research effort that need to be addressed. First are the basic biophysical and molecular genetic mechanisms for phototransduction for circadian...

Meeting Report: The Role of Environmental Lighting and Circadian Disruption in Cancer and Other Diseases

Blask, David E.; Brainard, George C.; Hansen, Johnni; Provencio, Ignacio; Rea, Mark S.; Reinlib, Leslie; Stevens, Richard G.; Lockley, Steven Ward
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
Light, including artificial light, has a range of effects on human physiology and behavior and can therefore alter human physiology when inappropriately timed. One example of potential light-induced disruption is the effect of light on circadian organization, including the production of several hormone rhythms. Changes in light–dark exposure (e.g., by nonday occupation or transmeridian travel) shift the timing of the circadian system such that internal rhythms can become desynchronized from both the external environment and internally with each other, impairing our ability to sleep and wake at the appropriate times and compromising physiologic and metabolic processes. Light can also have direct acute effects on neuroendocrine systems, for example, in suppressing melatonin synthesis or elevating cortisol production that may have untoward long-term consequences. For these reasons, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences convened a workshop of a diverse group of scientists to consider how best to conduct research on possible connections between lighting and health. According to the participants in the workshop, there are three broad areas of research effort that need to be addressed. First are the basic biophysical and molecular genetic mechanisms for phototransduction for circadian...

Energy Access, Efficiency, and Poverty : How Many Households Are Energy Poor in Bangladesh?

Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%
Access to energy, especially modern sources, is a key to any development initiative. Based on cross-section data from a 2004 survey of some 2,300 households in rural Bangladesh, this paper studies the welfare impacts of household energy use, including that of modern energy, and estimates the household minimum energy requirement that could be used as a basis for an energy poverty line. The paper finds that although the use of both traditional (biomass energy burned in conventional stoves) and modern (electricity and kerosene) sources improves household consumption and income, the return on modern sources is 20 to 25 times higher than that on traditional sources. In addition, after comparing alternate measures of the energy poverty line, the paper finds that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, compared with 45 percent that are income poor. The findings suggest that growth in electrification and adoption of efficient cooking stoves for biomass use can lower energy poverty in a climate-friendly way by reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Reducing energy poverty helps reduce income poverty as well.

Energy Poverty in Rural and Urban India : Are the Energy Poor Also Income Poor?

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Samad, Hussain A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%
Energy poverty is a frequently used term among energy specialists, but unfortunately the concept is rather loosely defined. Several existing approaches measure energy poverty by defining an energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper proposes an alternative measure that is based on energy demand. The energy poverty line is defined as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. This approach was applied to cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2005 household survey representative of both urban and rural India. The findings suggest that in rural areas some 57 percent of households are energy poor, versus 22 percent that are income poor. For urban areas the energy poverty rate is 28 percent compared with 20 percent that are income poor. Policies to reduce energy poverty would include support for rural electrification, the promotion of more modern cooking fuels...

Energy Efficient Lighting Options for Afghanistan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
This study examines the potential options for implementing an energy efficient lighting program in Afghanistan. It analyzes the range of energy efficient options available in the region and identifies the best choices for specific market segments in off-grid and grid connected areas. Based on this analysis, it is recommended that in rural areas, where grid (local or from main network) is neither available nor likely to be available soon, lead emitting diode (LED) lights coupled with solar (photovoltaic) PV panels offer the least cost solution for expansion of energy access. In grid-connected areas, compact and tube fluorescent lamps are recommended for existing household connections, as well as community and street lighting. The analysis also shows there are numerous barriers and potential problems with implementing an energy efficiency program in Afghanistan. Therefore a phased implementation program is suggested, with careful oversight of the quality of products entering the market.

Latin America & the Caribbean - Urban Services Delivery and the Poor : The Case of Three Central American Cities (Vol. 1 of 2) : Service Delivery and Poverty

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.11%
The present study describes, and quantifies the provision of basic urban services to the poor, in three Central American cities in El Salvador, Honduras, and, Panama. It also identifies priority areas for government intervention, using specialized household surveys to quantify current deficits, and to rank households from poor to rich, using aggregate consumption as the measure of welfare. The urban poverty profile is examined in each city, through migration, growth, and mobility patterns, including education and labor characteristics. In terms of land and housing, in all three cities, almost half of the poor who reported being property owners have weak, or no documentation over their properties, and, considerable portions of the poor population, are not connected to the public aqueduct, while few if any, receive help from the government. High dependency on public transportation was reported, e.g., one hundred percent in El Salvador, ninety seven percent in Tegucigalpa. Institutional, and policy issues explain the current situation: in terms of decentralization...

Mini-Grid Design Manual

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
The manual has been prepared to encourage, and support the design of improved village electrification schemes, anticipating its usefulness for rural development agencies, as well as for national, and provincial energy companies, and authorities. Theoretical and field experiences describe power mini-grid - i.e., low voltage network within a village, supplied at a single point by a diesel genset, or micro-hydropower plant. The manual focuses on the design of the system to distribute the power generated to consumers, and, designs covered in this manual range from low-cost designs to serve basic lighting needs, to more conventional designs that may become interconnected to the grid within the near future. Discussions on mini-grids do not involve the use of medium voltage (MV), however, it should be recognized that it may occasionally be necessary to use MV to reduce overall costs. The manual includes several examples of mini-grids, to illustrate the context in which such projects have been implemented, with additional detailed case studies. It also contains qualitative descriptions of the issues to be addressed in planning for mini-grids...

Capturing the Multi-Dimensionality of Energy Access

Bhatia, Mikul; Angelou, Nicolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.11%
There are two initial challenges in defining and measuring energy access: the absence of a universal definition of energy access and the difficulty of measuring any definition in an accurate manner. The multi-tier approach to measuring energy access proposed in the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) Global Tracking Framework of 2013 introduces a five-tier measurement methodology based on various energy attributes, such as quantity, quality, affordability, and duration of supply. The approach makes it possible to compute a weighted index of access to energy for a given geographical area. Separate notes focus on multi-tier measurement of energy access for households, productive enterprises, and community institutions. The type of data required for a multi-tiered assessment of energy access in a given area can be obtained through surveys of actual energy availability and use among a scientific sample of all users in a given category (households, enterprises, community institutions). Survey questionnaires elicit information about each energy attribute...

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Lighting Africa

Murphy, Daniel; Sharma, Arsh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
This knowledge note is the first of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Lighting Africa, a joint IFC and World Bank program launched in 2007, was the first private-sector-oriented effort to leverage new LED lighting technologies to build sustainable markets that provide safe, affordable, and modern off-grid lighting to communities in Africa that lack access to electricity. By 2030 the program aims to enable the private sector to reach 250 million people who now depend on fuel-based lighting. The case study for Africa is important, because the continent faces a huge rural electricity deficit. Global electrification in 2010 was estimated to be about 83 percent. The deficit of 17 percent encompasses some 1.2 billion people. Achieving universal access to modern energy services is one of the three complementary objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. Lighting Africa succeeded as a catalyst for the off-grid lighting market in Sub-Saharan Africa. Another success is apparent in the spectacular trajectory of solar lantern sales in Kenya. On the climate front...

LEDs for general and horticultural lighting; LEDs para iluminación en general y para horticultura

Girón González, Emilio
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.42%
The work begins with an introductory part about Light Emitting Diode (or LEDs) and how these devices work. This report also shows an overview of different artificial light sources such as incandescent lamps, fluorescents tube and high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps. The LED lighting is more energy-efficient than other artificial lighting, since they require less energy to operate. The following part of the work reports LEDs for General Lighting that describes some basic concepts such as spectrum, wavelength, Color Rendering Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT); in order to establish and acquire the best possible lighting for people. The rest of the document is referred to LED lighting for horticulture applications. The Sun is an important energy source for humanity and plants. Its energy is capable of originating the photosynthesis process in plants. Nevertheless, the Scandinavian countries (such as Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark) have problems to see the sun in autumn and winter season; therefore, they need to utilize artificial lighting to generate a huge variety of vegetation in greenhouses. LEDs are used in plant growth, since these devices supply good-quality lighting. Experimental measurements are also taken to combine the spectrum of various colors and to acquire the best light source with these blends...

Options for the Development of Liberia's Energy Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.11%
Liberia suffered successive armed conflicts from 1989 to 2003 that devastated its economy, infrastructure, human capital, and institutions, including those of the energy sector. The Accra peace agreement of August 2003 marked a transition toward national reconciliation and stabilization that allowed the country to hold elections in 2005. The newly elected Government endorsed programs and policies aimed at improving governance, building capacity, and managing post conflict recovery through stabilizing the economy and supporting economic reconstruction. The purpose of this paper is to present stakeholders in the Liberian energy sector-and the Liberian citizen in general-with options that might expand access and modernize energy services. The four pillars of the National Energy Policy (NEP) are: 1) universal energy access, including the development of an energy master plan; 2) least-cost production of energy and protection of the most vulnerable households; 3) the adoption of international best practices in the electricity sector; and 4) the acceleration of public and private partnership in the sector. The electricity demand estimate for Liberia has been based on available data...

Restoring Balance : Bangladesh's Rural Energy Realities

Asaduzzaman, M.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.35%
This study, the first to concentrate on Bangladesh's energy systems and their effects on the lives of rural people, drew on these background studies, as well as other World Bank-financed research on IAP and rural infrastructure, to present a rural energy strategy for the country. The study's broad aim was to identify ways to improve the living standard in rural Bangladesh through better and more efficient use of energy, while creating an environment conducive to growth and poverty reduction. For any developing country, the crux of a rural energy strategy is to have more and better choices for meeting rural demand for energy through market mechanisms and sound policy. This goes hand in hand with the development of competent implementing institutions, which are critical to the process. Also important are new supply- and demand side technologies that can be used to raise rural people's welfare and improve productivity to increase growth prospects. Accordingly, the rural energy strategy advocated by this study aims to satisfy the types of demand that increase household welfare and raise rural growth prospects as energy becomes a direct input into the production process.

Expanding Women's Role in Africa's Modern Off-Grid Lighting Market

Alstone, Peter; Niethammer, Carmen; Mendonça, Brendon; Eftimie, Adriana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.45%
Lighting is a basic human need and, along with cooking, is a fundamental driver of fuel demand for low-income households in the developing world. Women and men without access to electricity typically rely on expensive, inefficient and hazardous lighting devices like kerosene lamps and candles to bring light to their homes and businesses. The annual spending for fuel based lighting worldwide approaches $40 billion, and a growing range of modern lighting products that incorporate innovative designs and business models are gaining market share. Modern off-grid lighting devices combine the latest advances in clean energy technology (for example, solar, LED, and advanced batteries) to provide a safe, efficient, affordable alternative to fuel based lighting. This report focuses on women's role in the expanding market for modern off-grid lighting. In the context of access to energy and lighting, the aim of this work is to identify whether there are any women-specific opportunities in the off-grid lighting market that could enhance product profitability while also improving lives.

Machine Vision Based Inspection: Case Studies on 2D Illumination Techniques and 3D Depth Sensors

YAN, MICHAEL T
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
This paper investigates two distinct, but related, topics in machine vision. The first is the effect of lighting on the performance of a 2D vision-based inspection system. The lighting component of machine vision has often been overlooked; an attempt was made to quantify the impact on existing machine vision algorithms. The second topic explores the applications of a data-rich 3D vision sensor that is capable of providing depth data in a wide range of ambient lightning conditions for industrial applications. A focus is placed on inspection systems with the depth data provided by the sensor. Three basic lighting geometries were compared quantitatively based on discriminant analysis in an inspection task that checked for the presence of J-clips on an aluminum carrier. Two different LabVIEW® machine vision algorithms were used to evaluate backlight, bright field and dark field illumination on their ability to minimize the span of the pass (clip present) and fail (clip absent) sample sets, as well as maximize the separation between these sample sets. Results showed that there were clear differences in performance with the different lighting geometries, with over a 30% change in performance. Although it has long been accepted that the choice of lighting for machine vision systems is not a trivial exercise...

Propuesta de un modelo de negocio de iluminación para el uso eficiente y sostenible de la energía

Rincón Espitia, Miguel Andres
Fonte: Facultad de administración Publicador: Facultad de administración
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/06/2014 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.38%
La iluminación eficiente consiste en brindar luz a un espacio determinado utilizando recursos que consuman poca energía, produzcan confort para quien las utiliza y reduzcan el costo ambiental de producirlas. Este tipo de iluminación pretende generar valor agregado tanto al usuario como al inversionista que la posee, amortizando su inversión a través del ahorro generado al utilizar nuevas tecnologías y produciendo beneficios a través del tiempo debido a su equilibrio con el medio ambiente y vida útil extendida. La idea del presente estudio es brindar un modelo de iluminación eficiente que incluya los parámetros básicos que necesite un sistema de iluminación para ser considerado de valor agregado y amigable con el medio ambiente demostrando sus ventajas y desventajas en el momento de efectuar la selección a partir de unos criterios que incluyen aspectos económicos, técnicos y ambientales.; Universidad del Rosario; The meaning of efficient lighting is to provide light to a space using low-energy resources, producing comfort for those who use them and reducing the environmental cost of producing them. This type of lighting aims to generate added value to both the user and the investor who owns it, amortizing the investment through savings generated by using new technologies and benefits occurring over time due to environmental balance and extended life. The idea of this document is to provide a model of efficient lighting including the basic parameters that need a lighting system to be considered an added value and environmentally friendly showing their advantages and disadvantages starting by the selection from criteria that include economic...

The verbalizations of the effects of light and contrast in audio description

Maszerowska, Anna
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.38%
La interpretació del llenguatge cinematogràfic és de fa molt temps al centre de les investigacions centrades en l'audescripció. Mentre que molts investigadors han estudiat com els moviments de càmera, les tècniques d'edició i la composició del pla s'expressen als guions d'audiodescripció, la llum i el contrast, codis fonamentals del llenguatge fílmic, no han despertat fins ara massa interès acadèmic. Aquesta tesi té com a objectiu respondre a aquest buit parant esment a les estratègies emprades pels audiodescriptors quan s'enfronten amb configuracions d'il·luminació rellevants. A tal fi, al llarg del projecte de doctorat s'ha realitzat un estudi de cas múltiple de 13 pel·lícules amb audiodescripció. El corpus ha estat analitzat tenint en compte quatre categories generals de funcions de la il·luminació: puntuació argumental, percepció de l'escenari, percepció dels personatges i orientació de la mirada, totes elles prèviament identificades després d'un ampli escrutini de la literatura dels Estudis Fílmics. A la fase preliminar de la investigació, els fragments d'audescripció amb aspectes rellevants de configuració de la il·luminació pertanyen a un corpus de sis pel·lícules policíaques. En aquesta etapa de la recerca van sorgir dues macroestratègies per audiodescriure la llum: audiodescripció pròpiament descriptiva o audiodescripció centrada en l'efecte. A la segona fase...