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Trends in Household Coverage of Modern Infrastructure Services in Africa

Banerjee, Sudeshna; Diallo, Amadou; Foster, Vivien; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Household surveys have long been used to estimate poverty and inequality trends, as well as trends in education and health indicators, but they have not been used to the same extent to assess trends in the access to or coverage of modern infrastructure services. In this paper, we use Demographic and Health Surveys from a larger sample of sub-Saharan African countries in order to collect comparable information across countries on coverage of piped water, flush toilets, electricity, and landline telephones over time. The results suggest that coverage rates for electricity, flush toilets have improved slightly over the last decade. Coverage of piped water has declined, at the same time as coverage of landline (as well as cellular) telephone has increased rapidly. The decline has been primarily in the urban areas while the infrastructure coverage has either increased or remained stable in rural Africa. For all four services, among the poorest households coverage remains virtually inexistent. If business as usual continues...

Philippines : Meeting the Infrastructure Challenges

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
The Philippines enjoys tremendous endowments of natural, and human resources that provide great potential for economic development and poverty reduction. However, overall development outcomes over the last decades have fallen short of potential. The gap can be largely attributed to weak performance of public institutions in providing services to citizens, which leads to a vicious cycle of weak public services, lack of trust in the government, and unwillingness on the part of citizens to provide adequate resources to the government. The key development challenge, therefore, is to reverse the cycle to one of virtuous development where increased government revenue translates into improved service delivery and greater public trust in the government. Infrastructure plays an important role in this development process. Insufficient infrastructure has been a major constraint to economic growth and poverty reduction in the Philippines. Though the country has relatively high access levels to water, sanitation, and electricity, service levels have failed to keep up with rapid population growth and urbanization. Infrastructure development in the country is hampered by a poor business environment; weaknesses in planning, coordination, and financing; and a decrease in private sector involvement in infrastructure provision. The report presents a road map which will help spur the expansion...

Senegal : The National Rural Infrastructure Project (NRIP)

Mohan, P.C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
The objectives of the project - a credit of US$ 28.5 million equivalent over the period 2001-05 - were to: (i) improve decentralized local government and capacity; (ii) establish participatory and decentralized mechanisms for selecting, funding and implementing rural community investment programs; (iii) strengthen national institutions supporting decentralization; and (iv) implement basic infrastructure in a selected number of rural communities. The project was designed as an Adaptable Program of Lending (APL) to support a three-phase program over a 12-year period. The first 4-year period would be used to test and establish mechanisms for sustainable decentralized infrastructure planning and implementation, strengthen the capacity of rural communities to operate and maintain investments and reinforce national institutions responsible for decentralization. The first phase was also to include a program to improve intra-rural community roads and to test maintenance strategies.

Reaching Unserved Communities in Africa with Basic Services : Can Small-Scale Private Service Providers Save the Day?

Kariuki, Mukami; Schwartz, Jordan; Schur, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
With urban and especially periurban populations set to grow at unprecedented rates in Africa, and service coverage continuing to lag, governments and donors have begun to recognize that small-scale providers have an increasingly critical role to play. They have also begun to focus on the importance of creating an environment that enables these providers to supply good quality service. Most African countries face big deficits in infrastructure, and their efforts to scale up the services of small-scale service providers may be impeded by lack of capacity or resources or even by collusion and rent seeking by larger, formal service providers. Improving or extending the services of small scale service providers must therefore be part of-not a substitute for-reform of the infrastructure sector.

Output-Based Aid : Supporting Infrastructure Delivery Through Explicit and Performance-Based Subsidies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
Increasing access to basic infrastructure, and social services is critical to reducing poverty, and achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, increasing access is a challenge because of the gap between what it costs to deliver a desired level of service, and what can be funded through user charges. Subsidies have often played a role in funding this gap, for a variety of socio-economic reasons. However, given the political commitment by a number of countries to increase aid flows, but at the same time the mounting concerns of aid effectiveness, it is critical that subsidies be linked to the actual delivery of services, or "outputs." One way to do this is through Output-Based aid (OBA), a strategy for using explicit performance-based subsidies to deliver basic services-such as water, sanitation, electricity, transport, telecommunications, education, and health care-where policy concerns would justify public funding to complement, or replace user fees. OBA can help improve aid effectiveness by: increasing accountability; improving transparency; increasing value for money; and...

Rebuilding Infrastructure

Schwartz, Jordan; Halkyard, Pablo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Postconflict countries have had difficulty attracting private investment in infrastructure, and their growth and stability have suffered as a result. But the success of a few countries hints at policy initiatives that governments could pursue to close this destabilizing gap in investment. The emphasis should be on making sure that sector reforms go far enough, getting the timing and sequencing of the reforms right, reducing investor risk, and recognizing the importance of small-scale providers.

Access, Affordability, and Alternatives : Modern Infrastructure Services in Africa

Banerjee, Sudeshna; Wodon, Quentin; Diallo, Amadou; Pushak, Taras; Uddin, Helal; Tsimpo, Clarence; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Africa lags well behind other developing regions in infrastructure access. The limited gains of the 1990s have not increased much in the 2000s. There is clear evidence that many countries are failing to expand services fast enough to keep ahead of rapid demographic growth and even faster urbanization. As a result, if present trends continue, Africa is likely to lag even further behind other developing regions, and universal access will be more than 50 years away in many countries. However, there is variation in performance across countries, even within the low and middle income brackets. A significant number of countries have succeeded in increasing the number of people who have access to water, electricity, and sanitation, by an annual average of 5-10 percent. Further investigation is warranted to explain what determines the superior performance of these countries.

Identifying Traditional and Non-traditional Mechanisms for Reaching the Poor in Infrastructure Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
The improvement of infrastructure services has proven to be a powerful tool in poverty alleviation initiatives. Providing people with access to basic and reliable infrastructure services are tools for improving their standard of living and rising their productivity-thus endowing them with the opportunity for growth. This work aims to document the existing traditional and non-traditional mechanisms used by Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to reach the poor in infrastructure access and affordability, and to provide factual anecdotal case studies that represent this situation at a country, community, and utility specific/sensitive level. The specific objectives are: 1) to identify traditional and alternate mechanisms for targeting the poor or those designed by the poor in order to gain access to and maintain infrastructure services; and b) to design a framework of analysis in order to understand and analyze the various components that account for the traditional and non-traditional tools used to reach the poor (including social tariffs...

Rural Infrastructure in Armenia : Addressing Gap in Service Delivery

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
This report provides public policy makers with the information necessary to develop a rural infrastructure strategy, it was not intended to represent a strategy per se, merely to highlight the issues that need greater consideration in the definition of a strategy. It starts with an inventory of existing rural infrastructure assets and a description of current institutional arrangements. It follows with a snapshot of local preferences and priorities for rural infrastructure development. It goes on to provide a provisional estimate of the costs of rehabilitating and maintaining a basic minimum level of infrastructure in all rural communities, and the incremental costs of enhanced levels, where economically justified. It concludes with a framework to assist in the setting of investment priorities and recommendations for the development of a rural strategy and action plan.

Capturing the Value of Public Land for Urban Infrastructure : Centrally Controlled Landholdings

Peterson, George E.; Thawakar, Vasudha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Government entities in India hold large amounts of public land. Their landholdings include some of the most valuable property in the country. Parts of this patrimony lie vacant or underutilized. Public sector bodies also own large blocs of land that sometimes stand in the way of efficient completion of urban infrastructure networks. At the same time, urban India is deficient in basic infrastructure -- both network infrastructure needed to support economic growth and urban service infrastructure needed to meet basic household needs like water supply, waste removal, and transportation. This condition raises fundamental questions. Are some of government landholdings "surplus" or not needed for service provision? If so, can their economic value be captured to help finance infrastructure investment? This report aims to document evolving government policies toward pubic land management. It examines how active public entities are in identifying "surplus" lands and attempting to monetize them. Public bodies in India have proved reluctant to surrender landholdings. The report therefore considers practical alternatives that have emerged...

Infrastructure and Employment Creation in the Middle East and North Africa

Estache, Antonio; Ianchovichina, Elena; Bacon, Robert; Salamon, Ilhem
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
The state of national labor markets has always been a concern for governments and development agencies such as the World Bank. Key labor market indicators, such as the rate of unemployment, send signals about the health of an economy and mirror citizens' attitudes. Being gainfully employed is an important aspect of an individual's well-being both financially and socially, as 'initial failures in finding a job can lead to persistent joblessness, a loss of interest in further schooling, delayed family formation, mental distress, and negative manifestations of citizenship' (World Bank 2007). Increased expenditure on infrastructure projects has a short-run effect on employment creation as more workers are hired to build infrastructure. These jobs last only during the investment phase of the project, and, without a continuous injection as in a stimulus-type program, such jobs will be temporary. However, the investment program will have created a larger stock of infrastructure capital and this permanent addition facilitates additional growth in the economy. The extra demand from this incremental growth creates more jobs...

Private Solutions for Infrastructure in Angola : A Country Framework Report

Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
The Country Framework Report (CFR) for Angola is one of a series of country reviews aimed at improving the environment for private sector involvement in infrastructure. The report seeks to assist the Government of Angola in developing policies, and a framework to promote private participation in the rebuilding, and development of the country's infrastructure. Following the years of conflict, and the resulting damage to the country's infrastructure, as well as the negative impacts on economic growth and development, the country's investment needs are enormous. This study is particularly focused on how to maximize the private sector's role and contribution. The report's scope is on investment in infrastructure in the following sectors: electricity and gas; water and sanitation; transport; and, telecommunications. For each sector, a separate section in the report covers the current situation, opportunities for private sector participation in infrastructure (PPI), PPI barriers, and, measures and actions to promote more private involvement. A further section covers cross-sectoral issues. This CFR concludes with an action plan that identifies the steps that need to be taken to promote...

Private Solutions for Infrastructure in Lesotho : A Country Framework Report

Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
The report looks at Lesotho, a predominantly mountainous, land-locked, poor country with a small population, limited natural resources, and a very fragile ecology. It has low gross national income, and a significant poverty level. To ameliorate this condition, the government has embarked on a pro-poor, growth strategy that includes public, and private investment in infrastructure. It explores the level of private participation at this phase in the evolution of the reforms, which is considerable, given the country's small size, limited institutional capacity, and lack of public and private investment capital. Telecommunications has recorded the most significant reform of any of the infrastructure sectors. Other than telecommunications, reforms in other sectors have not advanced significantly. Not surprisingly, the report identifies specific lessons learned from the telecommunications sector, and examines their relevance to reform efforts under way in the other sectors. In summary, this report finds that private participation in infrastructure could offer Lesotho three key advantages: 1) augmenting budget resources in cases where the private sector undertakes to finance projects...

Fostering the Development of Greenfield Mining-related Transport Infrastructure through Project Financing

International Finance Corporation; Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
The purpose of this study is to serve as a guide on developing Greenfield transport infrastructure (rail and port) primarily used to support mining operations ('mining-related infrastructure'), through Public-Private Partnership (PPP) schemes and on a project finance basis. The focus is on key financing issues and considerations, as well as recommendations for governments and private-sector participants, specifically in the context of sub-Saharan Africa and similar regions. Over the past decade, the rapid economic growth in newly industrialized markets has fueled a strong demand for various commodities (such as iron, coal, bauxite and copper), with significant impact on their prices. The last ten years have seen an unprecedented rise in the price of mineral commodities worldwide. From the mid-2000s through the early 2010s, the world's largest mining companies embarked in the planning of numerous and often very large mining projects to satisfy what was seen as an ever growing double digit demand for minerals (iron ore...

International Benchmarking of Lesotho's Infrastructure Performance

Bogetić, Željko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
The author provides a preliminary benchmarking of infrastructure performance in Lesotho in four major sectors--electricity, water and sanitation, information and communication technology, and road transportation--against the relevant group of comparator countries using a new World Bank international data base with objective and perception-based indicators of infrastructure performance from over 200 countries. The results of the benchmarking are revealing of several major, comparative deficiencies in infrastructure performance in Lesotho: (1) extremely low access to electricity and its affordability; (2) poor coverage, quality, and the cost of local (non-cellular) telephony; and (3) poor quality of roads. Infrastructure service delivery in electricity, telephony, and roads is well below what would be expected, on average, for a country in Lesotho's income group. In these sectors, Lesotho also compares unfavorably with many other geographical country groups. Unless addressed, such infrastructure shortfalls are likely to adversely affect the welfare of Lesotho's poor...

Infrastructure Gap in South Asia : Inequality of Access to Infrastructure Services

Biller, Dan; Andres, Luis; Herrera Dappe, Matias
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.31%
The South Asia region is home to the largest pool of individuals living under the poverty line, coupled with a fast-growing population. The importance of access to basic infrastructure services on welfare and the quality of life is clear. Yet the South Asia region's rates of access to infrastructure (sanitation, electricity, telecom, and transport) are closer to those of Sub-Saharan Africa, the one exception being water, where the South Asia region is comparable to East Asia and the pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean. The challenge of increasing access to these services across the South Asia region is compounded by the unequal distribution of existing access for households. This study improves understanding of this inequality by evaluating access across the region's physical (location), poverty, and income considerations. The paper also analyzes inequality of access across time, that is, across generations. It finds that while the regressivity of infrastructure services is clearly present in South Asia, the story that emerges is heterogeneous and complex. There is no simple explanation for these inequalities...

Voting with their Feet? Access to Infrastructure and Migration in Nepal

Shilpi, Forhad; Sangraula, Prem; Li, Yue
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
Using bilateral migration flow data from the 2010 population census of Nepal, this paper provides evidence on the importance of public infrastructure and services in determining migration flows. The empirical specification, based on a generalized nested logit model, corrects for the non-random selection of migrants. The results show that migrants prefer areas that are nearer to paved roads and have better access to electricity. Apart from electricity's impact on income and through income on migration, the econometric results indicate that migrants attach substantial amenity value to access to electricity. These findings have important implications for the placement of basic infrastructure projects and the way benefits from these projects are evaluated.

Toward an Urban Sector Strategy : Georgia's Evolving Urban System and its Challenges

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Urban Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
This review analyzes the profile, trends and challenges of Georgia's changing urban landscape since independence in 1991 and provides policy suggestions to facilitate the economic transition of the country through its cities. In its analysis and subsequent recommendations on policy interventions, this report draws on a program of diagnostics called the 'Urbanization Review' (UR). The UR diagnostic is based on three main pillars of urban development which have emerged as key areas of policy engagement for successful cities. These are: a) planning, charting a course for cities by setting the terms of urbanization, especially policies for using urban land and expanding basic infrastructure and public services; b) connecting, physically linking people to jobs, and businesses to markets; and c) financing, raising and leveraging up-front capital to meet the increasing demand for infrastructure and services. In moving forward, the review recommends that Georgia focus on: a) developing a national urban strategy that recognizes the contribution of each city to the overall economy...

Peru : Social Safety Nets in Peru

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
The report argues that the Peru's Social Safety Net (SSN) reform process needs to be anchored to a coherent national social safety net and poverty reduction strategy. The report suggests that the SSN interventions should be differentiated, as appropriate, between the urban and rural parts of Peru. For instance, workfare programs to deal with cyclical unemployment only make sense in urban areas; and a nationally-led small-scale infrastructure program (such as FONCODES) only makes sense for rural areas. The Report also argues that the implementation arrangements for the SSN strategy should be differentiated for rural and urban areas, due the differences in capacity between the municipal administrations in the major cities and the rest of the country. In the 30 biggest cities, SSN programs should be decentralized, to ensure better responsiveness to local needs and improved transparency. In the rest of the country, for the foreseeable future, strong national agencies will be needed to ensure that SSN programs are effective...

Poverty, Living Conditions, and Infrastructure Access : A Comparison of Slums in Dakar, Johannesburg, and Nairobi

Gulyani, Sumila; Talukdar, Debabrata; Jack, Darby
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
In this paper the authors compare indicators of development, infrastructure, and living conditions in the slums of Dakar, Nairobi, and Johannesburg using data from 2004 World Bank surveys. Contrary to the notion that most African cities face similar slum problems, find that slums in the three cities differ dramatically from each other on nearly every indicator examined. Particularly striking is the weak correlation of measures of income and human capital with infrastructure access and quality of living conditions. For example, residents of Dakar's slums have low levels of education and high levels of poverty but fairly decent living conditions. By contrast, most of Nairobi's slum residents have jobs and comparatively high levels of education, but living conditions are but extremely bad . And in Johannesburg, education and unemployment levels are high, but living conditions are not as bad as in Nairobi. These findings suggest that reduction in income poverty and improvements in human development do not automatically translate into improved infrastructure access or living conditions. Since not all slum residents are poor...