Página 1 dos resultados de 1647 itens digitais encontrados em 0.107 segundos

Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the portuguese industrial SMEs

Pereira, Vasco Manuel Figueiredo
Fonte: Universidade da Beira Interior Publicador: Universidade da Beira Interior
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.77%
Industry accounts for about one-third of global final energy use. However, despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-effective energy efficiency measures are not always implemented, resulting in an ―energy efficiency gap‖, which is explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. Considering that SMEs are usually less efficient than Large Enterprises (LEs), this study based on a survey among Portuguese industrial SMEs, investigates the barriers that are inhibiting the adoption of energy efficiency measures and how they vary over firm‘s characteristics and over sector. Additionally the study points some drivers that could overcome those barriers. The results support the existence of barriers to energy efficiency in Portuguese industry, where lack of capital and other investments priorities were considered the most important ones. Furthermore it concludes that factors related with public policy could overcome those barriers, suggesting the need of public intervention to increase the levels of energy efficiency in the Portuguese industry.

Barriers to Trade in Services in the CEFTA Region

Handjiski, Borko; Sestovic, Lazar
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.83%
This paper describes the economic importance of the service sector in Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) countries and current barriers to trade in services between CEFTA countries. It looks at four sectors: construction, land transport, legal services, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services. The intent is to stimulate dialogue on trade in services between decision-makers in CEFTA countries. In CEFTA economies, export of services accounts for about 10 percent of GDP in non coastal countries and much more in coastal countries, where foreign currency earnings from tourism are the dominant form of service = exports. Though CEFTA countries have opened their markets considerably, mostly because they are pursuing accession to the European Union (EU) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), there are still obstacles to trade in services. Some, such as the movement of professional workers, are general; others are sector-specific. In what follows, the next section illustrates the importance of the services sectors in CEFTA economies and analyzes trends in services trade and in intraregional trade for countries that have such data available. The third section describes general barriers to trade in services...

A Framework for Analyzing Competition in the Banking Sector : An Application to the Case of Jordan

Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Martínez Pería, María Soledad
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.77%
This paper proposes a framework to analyze competition in the banking sector using Jordan as an example. In particular, the paper pursues a multi-pronged approach to analyze competition including (i) an examination of the extent to which the market is contestable (that is, has low barriers to bank entry and exit), (b) an evaluation of the behavior of bank spreads, and (iii) an assessment of non-structural and direct measures of bank competition such as the H-statistic and the Lerner Index. This approach provides a more comprehensive framework to examine competition in the banking sector, compared with the commonly used alternative of looking only at bank concentration figures. In the case of Jordan, the analysis indicates that although concentration has declined, competition in the country is low and has decreased over time.

Barriers to Competition in Croatia : The Role of Government Regulation

De Rosa, Donato; Madzarevic-Sujster, Sanja; Boromisa, Ana-Maria; Sonje, Velimir
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.74%
This paper examines product market policies in Croatia by benchmarking them to OECD countries and highlighting how policies that are more conducive to competition would stimulate a more efficient allocation of resources and, in consequence, facilitate convergence to higher income levels. OECD indicators of overall regulation in product markets indicate that Croatias policies in 2007 were generally more restrictive of competition than were the policies in OECD countries. This is especially true for policies concerned with the degree of state control of the economy and with barriers to entrepreneurship. Regulatory obstacles to trade and foreign direct investment, by contrast, are in line with those of pre-accession European Union countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic, and Poland in 2003, as well as Bulgaria and Romania in 2006), albeit well above the OECD average. Regulation of post, electricity, gas, telecoms, air, rail, and road transport, as estimated by the OECD energy transport and communication sectors indicator...

Patterns of International Capital Raisings

Gozzi, Juan Carlos; Levine, Ross; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
This paper documents several new patterns associated with firms issuing securities in foreign markets that motivate the need for and help guide future research. Besides noting that these international capital raisings grew almost four-fold from 1991 to 2005, accounting for 35 percent of all capital raised through security issuances, the paper has three main findings. First, a large and growing fraction of capital raisings, especially debt issuances, occurs in international markets, but a very small number of firms accounts for the bulk of international capital raisings, highlighting the distributional implications of financial globalization. Second, changes in firm performance following equity and debt issuances in international markets are qualitatively similar to those following domestic issuances, suggesting that capital raisings abroad are not intrinsically different from domestic ones. Third, after firms start accessing international markets, they significantly increase the amount raised in domestic markets...

Outlook for Remittance Flows 2010-11 : Remittance Flows to Developing Countries Remained Resilient in 2009, Expected to Recover During 2010-11

Ratha, Dilip; Mohapatra, Sanket; Silwal, Ani
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.73%
Officially recorded remittance flows to developing countries reached $316 billion in 2009, down 6 percent from $336 billion in 2008. With improved prospects for the global economy, remittance flows to developing countries are expected to increase by 6.2 percent in 2010 and 7.1 percent in 2011, a faster pace of recovery in 2010 than our earlier forecasts. The decline in remittance flows to Latin America that began with the onset of financial crisis in the United States appears to have bottomed out since the last quarter of 2009. Remittance flows to South Asia (and to a smaller extent East Asia) continued to grow in 2009 although at markedly slower pace than in the pre-crisis years. Flows to Europe and Central Asia and Middle-East and North Africa fell more than expected in 2009. These regional trends reveal that: (a) the more diverse the migration destinations, the more resilient are remittances; (b) the lower the barriers to labor mobility, the stronger the link between remittances and economic cycles in that corridor; and (c) exchange rate movements produce valuation effects...

Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2003 : Investing to Unlock Global Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
Strong cyclical dynamics, together with an easing of macroeconomic policies in the United States and elsewhere, have boosted large parts of the global economy, into the initial phase of a recovery in 2002. Nonetheless, the global recovery is fragile, because investment spending is insufficient to underpin continuing growth, although long-term prospects remain promising. Although global competition is creating new opportunities for developing countries, harnessing globalization requires reducing barriers to competition, using targeted interventions carefully, but essentially, supported by sound public investments. International agreements on investment, and competition policies can provide benefits through reciprocity, while agreements on investment policy are likely to have strong development effects, only if they deal with the big issues facing developing countries. Consequently, competition agreements should focus on restraints to competition that hurt developing countries: policy barriers in markets abroad; private restraints on competition; and...

Barriers to Formal Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries

Auriol, Emmanuelle
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.74%
This paper explores new types of barriers to entrepreneurship and thus, to formal sector growth. The authors suggest that developing countries are characterized by a dual economy where a small modern industrialized sector co-exists with a large informal sector with little capital and low marginal productivity of labor. There are two main barriers to entrepreneurship in these instances: (1) administrative; and (2) social. Analysis concludes that tax reformers could widen their area of interest beyond the standard tax parameters by reducing market entry fees, while developing countries could enlarge their formal sectors and hence the tax base. Keeping firms in the informal sector exposes them to weakened property rights and hence increased risks. Taxing some sectors and not others distorts resource allocation. Eliminating such inefficiencies could provide a significant impetus to growth, and tax collection in the medium to long term.

Addressing Regulatory Software Barriers to Business Growth

Kularatne, Chandana; Lopez-Calix, Jose
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.9%
This policy paper explores the relative importance of the software regulatory barriers to growth in Pakistan. Such software barriers have been identified as part of the major constraint in the Framework for Economic Growth of the Government of Pakistan. Indeed, adequate software is needed to provide an environment in which the hardware of growth (physical infrastructure) could be expanded and made more productive. Among possible software constraints, the findings of various international surveys allow to disentangle the relative importance of multiple possible regulatory barriers; first by identifying what is in the books, and then by assessing what is actually experienced on the ground by entrepreneurs. Following the ensuing prioritization of the identified barriers, this paper suggests that the new growth strategy would benefit from focused policy efforts in seven key areas, where regulatory barriers and perceived obstacles are most constraining to business development: getting electricity, paying taxes...

Never Too Late to Get Together Again : Turning the Czech and Slovak Customs Union into a Stepping Stone to EU Integration

Kaminski, Bartlomiej; Javorcik, Beata
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.83%
The Czech and Slovak Customs Union (CSCU), which came into effect in January 1993, differs from regular regional trading arrangements as its goal was to minimize the economic cost of a decline in economic ties between its members rather than to set in motion the mechanism of integration. The creation of the CSCU ensured a smooth and conflict-free break up of Czechoslovakia and resulted in divergence in regulatory regimes of the two republics. This study argues that the process of mutual adjustment triggered by the emergence of national borders is over and that integration within the CSCU, similar in depth and scope to that existing within the European Union (EU), would be a desirable policy objective. By deepening integration, both the Czech and Slovak Republics would be better prepared to handle challenges associated with the EU accession. Such a regulatory realignment would also lower border costs and behind-the-border barriers to trade and result in a more attractive investment environment in both countries.

Labor Policy to Promote Good Jobs in Tunisia : Revisiting Labor Regulation, Social Security, and Active Labor Market Programs

Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.; Nucifora, Antonio; Robalino, David
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.78%
Tunisians are striving for the opportunity to realize their potential and aspirations in a country that is rich in both human and physical capital, but whose recent economic growth has failed to create enough opportunities in the form of good and productive jobs. This report highlights the main barriers that hinder the Tunisian labor market from providing income, protection, and prosperity to its citizens and proposes a set of labor policies that could facilitate the creation of better, more inclusive, and more productive jobs. The weak economic performance and insufficient and low-quality job creation in Tunisia is primarily the result of an economic environment permeated by distortions, barriers to competition, and excessive red tape, including in the labor market. This has resulted in the creation of a insufficient number of jobs, especially in the formal sector. To change this situation, policy makers need to address five strategic directives that can promote long-term inclusive growth and formality: foster competition; realign incentives...

Competition, Human Capital and Income Inequality with Limited Commitment

MARIMON, Ramon; QUADRINI, Vincenzo
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.95%
We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model with two-sided limited commitment to study how barriers to competition, such as restrictions to business start-up, affect the incentive to accumulate human capital. We show that a lack of contract enforceability amplifies the effect of barriers to competition on human capital accumulation. High barriers reduce the incentive to accumulate human capital by lowering the outside value of ‘skilled workers’, while low barriers can result in over-accumulation of human capital. This over-accumulation can be socially optimal if there are positive knowledge spillovers. A calibration exercise shows that this mechanism can account for significant cross-country income inequality.

Competition, Human Capital and Income Inequality with Limited Commitment

MARIMON, Ramon; QUADRINI, Vincenzo
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.95%
We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model with two-sided limited commitment to study how barriers to competition, such as restrictions to business start-up, affect the incentive to accumulate human capital. We show that a lack of contract enforceability amplifies the effect of barriers to competition on human capital accumulation. High barriers reduce the incentive to accumulate human capital by lowering the outside value of ‘skilled workers’, while low barriers can result in over-accumulation of human capital. This over-accumulation can be socially optimal if there are positive knowledge spillovers. A calibration exercise shows that this mechanism can account for significant cross-country income inequality.

China's Pattern of Growth : Moving to Sustainability and Reducing Inequality

Kuijs, Louis; Wang, Tao
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.75%
The authors study the sources and pattern of China's impressive economic growth over the past 25 years and show that key issues currently of concern to policymakers-widening inequality, rural poverty, and resource intensity-are to a large extent rooted in China's growth strategy, and resolving them requires a rebalancing of policies. Using both macroeconomic level and sector data and analyses, the authors extend the growth accounting framework to decompose the sources of labor productivity growth. They find that growth of industrial production, led by a massive investment effort that boosted the capital/labor ratio, has been the single most important factor driving GDP and overall labor productivity growth since the early 1990s. The shift of labor from low-productivity agriculture has been limited, and, hence, contributed only marginally to overall labor productivity growth. The productivity gap between agriculture and the rest of the economy has continued to widen, leading to increased rural-urban income inequality. Looking ahead, the authors calibrate two alternative scenarios. They show that continuing with the current growth pattern would further increase already high investment and saving needs to unsustainable levels, lower urban employment growth...

Innovative Financial Mechanism to Implement Energy Efficiency Projects in Mexico

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.83%
This report provides a summary of Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) supported activities in Mexico focused on the creation of a pooled financing program for multiple energy efficiency projects through a single debt instrument. The report is organized as eight chapters. Chapter one provides additional details regarding the ownership, structure and operation of an special purpose entity (SPE); it discusses the flexibility of this structure and how it can serve a pool of private or public sector projects. Chapter two provides an overview of the Mexican energy sector with a focus on the electricity supply, demand and pricing. Chapter three reviews the market potential for energy efficiency investments and provides comparative data on Mexico's energy prices and costs of capital in other countries where the energy efficiency and energy services company (ESCO) market is active. Chapter four reviews the current financial market conditions in Mexico, and the restrictive nature of commercial lending. Chapter five identifies the market...

Inheritance Law Reform and Women’s Access to Capital : Evidence from India’s Hindu Succession Act

Deininger, Klaus; Goyal, Aparajita; Nagarajan, Hari
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.67%
This paper examines whether and to what extent amendments in inheritance legislation impact women's physical and human capital investments, using disaggregated household level data from India. The authors use inheritance patterns over three generations of individuals to assess the impact of changes in the Hindu Succession Act that grant daughters equal coparcenary birth rights in joint family property that were denied to daughters in the past. The causal effect is isolated by exploiting the variation in the timing of father's death to compare within household bequests of land given to sons and daughters in the states of Maharashtra and Karnataka. The analysis shows that the amendment significantly increased daughters' likelihood to inherit land, but that even after the amendment substantial bias persists. The results also indicate a robust increase in educational attainment of daughters, suggesting an alternative channel of wealth transfer.

Aceh Growth Diagnostic : Identifying the Binding Constraints to Growth in a Post-Conflict and Post-Disaster Environment; Diagnosis pertumbuhan Aceh : mengidentifikasi hambatan-hambatan utama pertumbuhan ekonomi pasca konflik dan pasca bencana

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.77%
This report shows that some investors still perceive Aceh as a risky place to do business, despite being relatively peaceful for almost four years. Security incidents, relatively common in post-conflict environments, deter businesses and individuals from investing in Aceh, robbing the economy of necessary capital and innovation. Other consequences of the conflict, including forms of illegal taxation, also hurt investment. The Government of Aceh is aware that until businesses and people change their perceptions of security in Aceh and feel confident that they can reap the full benefits of their investments, little investment will be forthcoming. As a result, growth in the province will be limited and efforts to reduce poverty less effective. There are other problems affecting Aceh's economy. These include the business environment, access to capital and the quality of infrastructure. This report seeks to show how these different factors affect investment and growth, and provides recommendations on how the Government might prioritize and sequence policy changes to improve the investment climate.

Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the portuguese industrial SMEs

Pereira, Vasco Manuel Figueiredo
Fonte: Universidade da Beira Interior Publicador: Universidade da Beira Interior
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.77%
Industry accounts for about one-third of global final energy use. However, despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-effective energy efficiency measures are not always implemented, resulting in an ―energy efficiency gap‖, which is explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. Considering that SMEs are usually less efficient than Large Enterprises (LEs), this study based on a survey among Portuguese industrial SMEs, investigates the barriers that are inhibiting the adoption of energy efficiency measures and how they vary over firm‘s characteristics and over sector. Additionally the study points some drivers that could overcome those barriers. The results support the existence of barriers to energy efficiency in Portuguese industry, where lack of capital and other investments priorities were considered the most important ones. Furthermore it concludes that factors related with public policy could overcome those barriers, suggesting the need of public intervention to increase the levels of energy efficiency in the Portuguese industry.

Labour Market Frictions, Social Policies, and Barriers to Technology Adoption

Morales, Jesús E
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.77%
Barriers to technological changes have recently been shown to be a key element in explaining differences in output per worker across countries. This study examines the role that labour market features and institutions have in explaining barriers to technology adoption. I build a model that includes labour market frictions, capital market imperfections and heterogeneity in workers' skills. I found that the unemployment rate together with the welfare losses that workers experiment after displacement are key factors in explaining the existence of barriers to technology adoption. Moreover, I found that none of these factors alone is sufficient to build these barriers. The theory also suggests that welfare policies like the unemployment insurance system may enhance these kinds of barriers while policies like a severance payment system financed by an income tax seem to be more effective in eliminating them.

Economic Barriers to the Expansion of Nuclear Power in the United States

Reinhardt, Sonya
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 255731 bytes; application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.74%
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is gearing up for a surge in new nuclear power plant applications for the first time in thirty years. Although a new nuclear power plant has not been built in the U.S. in twenty years, concerns about climate change and an increased interest in energy security have put nuclear power back on the table as a technically viable energy option that can provide base load power without emitting carbon dioxide. However, the history of nuclear technology in the U.S. and lower electricity costs from fossil fuels do not allow nuclear power to be competitive on its own. This situation and the capital costs involved in building a nuclear power plant create tremendous economic barriers for the industry. Through an examination of economic barriers, this project attempts to determine whether or not new nuclear power plants can be built in the United States. If they can, what are the key indicators that this is so? If not, what policies could possibly reverse this outcome? The methods to answer these questions include a literature review, personal interviews with NRC employees, and a policy analysis. The analysis section focuses on how current and prospective legislation could address barriers to a nuclear expansion. The results indicate that the competitiveness of nuclear power will be addressed by Production Tax Credits the 2005 Energy Policy Act for the first 5 or 6 plants that are approved by the NRC. Carbon-limiting legislation will assist a nuclear expansion beyond this initial build. An international bottleneck for nuclear-grade materials will slow a nuclear expansion; however...