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Barriers to Trade in Services in the CEFTA Region

Handjiski, Borko; Sestovic, Lazar
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.75%
This paper describes the economic importance of the service sector in Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) countries and current barriers to trade in services between CEFTA countries. It looks at four sectors: construction, land transport, legal services, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services. The intent is to stimulate dialogue on trade in services between decision-makers in CEFTA countries. In CEFTA economies, export of services accounts for about 10 percent of GDP in non coastal countries and much more in coastal countries, where foreign currency earnings from tourism are the dominant form of service = exports. Though CEFTA countries have opened their markets considerably, mostly because they are pursuing accession to the European Union (EU) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), there are still obstacles to trade in services. Some, such as the movement of professional workers, are general; others are sector-specific. In what follows, the next section illustrates the importance of the services sectors in CEFTA economies and analyzes trends in services trade and in intraregional trade for countries that have such data available. The third section describes general barriers to trade in services...

Export Discoveries, Diversification and Barriers to Entry

Klinger, Bailey; Lederman, Daniel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.87%
The literature on the relationship between economic diversification and development has grown rapidly in recent years, partly due to the surprising finding that diversification rises with gross domestic product per capita up to a certain point. Export diversification along the extensive margin is inextricable from the introduction of new export products. The authors test the hypothesis that the threat of imitation inhibits the introduction of new exports -- export discoveries -- under the assumption that the intensive and extensive margins of exports are correlated within broad country-industry groups. Econometric evidence from panel-data techniques that are appropriate for count data (the number of discoveries) suggests that discoveries within countries and industries rise with the growth of exports along the intensive margin (relative to the growth of non-export gross domestic product) but the magnitude of this partial correlation increases with domestic barriers to entry and with customs delays in exporting. However...

Barriers to Competition in Croatia : The Role of Government Regulation

De Rosa, Donato; Madzarevic-Sujster, Sanja; Boromisa, Ana-Maria; Sonje, Velimir
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.68%
This paper examines product market policies in Croatia by benchmarking them to OECD countries and highlighting how policies that are more conducive to competition would stimulate a more efficient allocation of resources and, in consequence, facilitate convergence to higher income levels. OECD indicators of overall regulation in product markets indicate that Croatias policies in 2007 were generally more restrictive of competition than were the policies in OECD countries. This is especially true for policies concerned with the degree of state control of the economy and with barriers to entrepreneurship. Regulatory obstacles to trade and foreign direct investment, by contrast, are in line with those of pre-accession European Union countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic, and Poland in 2003, as well as Bulgaria and Romania in 2006), albeit well above the OECD average. Regulation of post, electricity, gas, telecoms, air, rail, and road transport, as estimated by the OECD energy transport and communication sectors indicator...

Improving The Business Environment in East Java : Views From The Private Sector

World Bank; Asia Foundation
Fonte: Jakarta: World Bank and Asia Foundation Publicador: Jakarta: World Bank and Asia Foundation
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.84%
This report presents the results of research undertaken by The World Bank and The Asia Foundation to identify barriers to trade and investment in East Java. This activity was initiated by the World Bank and The Asia Foundation with several important aims: (i) to support private sector participation in the public planning process related to potential World Bank assistance for infrastructure projects; (ii) to provide an opportunity for the private sector to express their concerns to local governments and to make recommendations for improving the business climate; and (iii) to encourage increased coordination between local governments in stimulating trade between regions. The role of the Asia Foundation / World Bank Team was to identify barriers to trade and investment and to facilitate activities to introduce a sustainable and replicable process for how regional governments can best work with the private sector in creating a conducive business climate.

Croatia : A Strategy for Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Growth

Madzarevic-Sujster, Sanja
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.89%
Croatia`s current economic challenges include sluggish growth, excessive public spending, high unemployment, and a deteriorating external environment. Croatian economy was making a fragile recovery and dealing with slow export growth, low investment, and persistent unemployment. At the end of 2011, Croatia gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (in purchasing power terms) declined to 61 percent average, a loss of 2 percentage points since 2008.The country incomplete structural reform agenda needs attention and action to promote greater competitiveness and a shift to productivity-based, private sector-led growth. It also faces the strategic challenge of maximizing the benefits of European Union (EU) membership, especially in terms of access to markets and the use of EU structural funds, requiring structural changes in the social sectors, education system, and business environment. Accelerating economic recovery requires Croatia to complete its currently unfinished structural reform agenda and shift to productivity-based...

Addressing Regulatory Software Barriers to Business Growth

Kularatne, Chandana; Lopez-Calix, Jose
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.02%
This policy paper explores the relative importance of the software regulatory barriers to growth in Pakistan. Such software barriers have been identified as part of the major constraint in the Framework for Economic Growth of the Government of Pakistan. Indeed, adequate software is needed to provide an environment in which the hardware of growth (physical infrastructure) could be expanded and made more productive. Among possible software constraints, the findings of various international surveys allow to disentangle the relative importance of multiple possible regulatory barriers; first by identifying what is in the books, and then by assessing what is actually experienced on the ground by entrepreneurs. Following the ensuing prioritization of the identified barriers, this paper suggests that the new growth strategy would benefit from focused policy efforts in seven key areas, where regulatory barriers and perceived obstacles are most constraining to business development: getting electricity, paying taxes...

Growing Women-led Enterprises in the Mekong : Testing a Methodology for Accelerating Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
According to a recent global entrepreneurship monitor, 48 percent of entrepreneurs globally are women. Growth-oriented women entrepreneurs face challenges such as lack of access to support services and relevant knowledge as well as regulatory and legal barriers. Recognizing the barriers that often prevent women from growing their businesses, infoDev embarked on a small pilot project designed to test a new methodology for increasing the capacity, confidence, and networks of growth-oriented women leading small businesses. The objective was to test whether this methodology will indeed lead to business expansion. infoDevapos;s pilot - the Mekong womenapos;s entrepreneurship challenge (MWEC) - set out to test a methodology based primarily on structured facilitation of peer-to-peer learning among growth-oriented women entrepreneurs. This report discusses the design, outcomes, and lessons of MWEC in further detail and provides a few preliminary recommendations for the design of future programs targeting the growth of women-owned enterprises.

Impact Evaluation of Business License Simplification in Peru : An Independent Assessment of an International Finance Corporation-Supported Project

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.85%
This evaluation assesses the impact of International Finance Corporation's (IFC's) Business License Simplification Project in the municipality of Lima, Peru. It reviews two previous evaluations sponsored by IFC and adds new evidence. Under the project, IFC's Foreign Investment Advisory Services (FIAS) worked with the municipality of Lima to reform the administrative process for obtaining a business license in Cercado de Lima, one of 44 districts that comprise metropolitan Lima. According to the municipality, 64 percent of the businesses in this district lacked a business license in 2005, and most of them were microenterprises. The project was implemented from January 2005 to March 2007. The present evaluation conducted an independent review of both previous studies, collected additional data, verified the previous findings, and placed the findings in the context of related studies and evaluations. The goal was to take stock of the results, collect and use other evidence, and draw lessons for future IFC and World Bank operations. This chapter describes and compares the divergent evidence on which procedures were simplified by the license reform and by how much. A second chapter reviews existing evaluations and previous relevant findings from other countries; a third replicates and extends the regression evidence on the impact of license reform on critical business outcomes...

Growth Challenges and Government Policies in Armenia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.85%
This report reviews growth trends in Armenia for the period 1994-2000, outlines major weaknesses of existing development patterns, and suggests a package of policy recommendations designed to accelerate enterprise restructuring, attract investment, and encourage the creation of new businesses in the medium term (three to five years). Such steps are needed to sustain (and preferably to increase) the current growth rates, to stop emigration among the young and skilled, and to reduce poverty. The government needs to focus much more clearly on generating the environment for private sector led growth by removing bottlenecks in policies, infrastructure, and institutions that prevent new private businesses from flourishing. International aid donors can help by supporting the removal of administrative barriers for investments, the rehabilitation of infrastructure, and the creation of "restructuring agencies" that will enable firms in key sectors to overcome or avoid common constraints to business growth in Armenia. Successful restructuring by such firms should have a demonstration effect on the country's economy and help consolidate public support for moving forward the program of reform begun a decade ago.

Armenia : Growth Challenges and Government Policies, Volume 1. Main Conclusions and Recommendations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.85%
This report reviews growth trends in Armenia for the period 1994-2000, outlines major weaknesses of existing development patterns, and suggests a package of policy recommendations designed to accelerate enterprise restructuring, attract investment, and encourage the creation of new businesses in the medium term (three to five years). Such steps are needed to systain (and preferably to increase) the current growth rates, to stop emigration among the young and skilled, and to reduce poverty. The government needs to focus much more clearly on generating the environment for private sector led growth by removing bottlenecks in policies, infrastructure, and institutions that prevent new private businesses from flourishing. International aid donors can help by supporting the removal of administrative barriers for investments, the rehabilitation of infrastructure, and the creation of "restructuring agencies" that will enable firms in key sectors to overcome or avoid common constraints to business growth in Armenia. Successful restructuring by such firms should have a demonstration effect on the country's economy and help consolidate public support for moving forward the program of reform begun a decade ago.

Armenia : Growth Challenges and Government Policies, Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.86%
This report reviews growth trends in Armenia for the period 1994-2000, outlines major weaknesses of existing development patterns, and suggests a package of policy recommendations designed to accelerate enterprise restructuring, attract investment, and encourage the creation of new businesses in the medium term (three to five years). Such steps are needed to systain (and preferably to increase) the current growth rates, to stop emigration among the young and skilled, and to reduce poverty. The government needs to focus much more clearly on generating the environment for private sector led growth by removing bottlenecks in policies, infrastructure, and institutions that prevent new private businesses from flourishing. International aid donors can help by supporting the removal of administrative barriers for investments, the rehabilitation of infrastructure, and the creation of "restructuring agencies" that will enable firms in key sectors to overcome or avoid common constraints to business growth in Armenia. Successful restructuring by such firms should have a demonstration effect on the country's economy and help consolidate public support for moving forward the program of reform begun a decade ago.

World Bank Group Assistance to Low-Income Fragile and Conflict-Affected States : An Independent Evaluation

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.66%
Fragile and conflict-affected states (FCS) have become an important focus of World Bank Group assistance in recent years as recognition of the linkages between fragility, conflict, violence, and poverty has grown. Addressing issues of recurring conflict and political violence and helping build legitimate and accountable state institutions are central to the Bank Group's poverty reduction mission. This evaluation assesses the relevance and effectiveness of World Bank Group country strategies and assistance programs to FCS. The operationalization of the World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development (2011 WDR) is also assessed, to see how the framework has been reflected in subsequent analytical work, country assistance strategies, and the assistance programs. The evaluation framework was derived from the concepts and priorities articulated in recent WDRs, policy papers, and progress reports issued by Bank Group management, to draw lessons from FCS. The framework is organized around the three major themes emerging from the 2011 WDR: building state capacity, building capacity of citizens, and promoting inclusive growth and jobs. The evaluation focuses on International Development Association (IDA)-only countries, which are deemed to have certain characteristics such as very low average income and no access to private finance...

Bulgaria - Administrative and regulatory barriers to business

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.92%
The present report on the Administrative and Regulatory Barriers to Business is part of an ongoing World Bank analytical and advisory support to the Government of Bulgaria in the area of regulatory reform. Since 2006, the World Bank has provided analytical and advisory support to the government in this area. In 2007, the Bank reviewed administrative procedures in the tourism, food, and road transportation sectors, calling for reduction and simplification of certain burdensome administrative regimes and emphasizing superfluous regulation at the municipality level. This report aims to identify ways in which Bulgaria can further remove obstacles to business regulation, recognizing that achieving pre-crisis growth levels, raising labor productivity and improving the business environment will require continued reforms to eliminate administrative and regulatory barriers to business. The report serves three purposes, such as: 1) providing the economic backdrop and comparators of Bulgaria's regulatory environment; 2) reporting on survey results including assessments by and perceptions of senior managers of Bulgarian enterprises; and 3) identifying strategic reform recommendations...

The Business Environment in Southern Africa : Issues in Trade and Market Integration - Summary

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
This report assesses some of the key barriers to greater trade and factor market integration in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). The SADC has been a free trade area since 2008, and has an ambitious agenda for further trade integration. This report assesses the roles that cross-country differences in business environments have had in impeding cross-border trade flows and the cross-border integration of credit markets and the labor market based on the analysis of microeconomic data on firms and households. The aim of the assessment is to help inform the policy and business environment harmonization agenda of the community. The full report discusses and illustrates the use of price data in monitoring intraregional trade integration. The report evaluates the extent of integration of labor markets among members the statistical agencies of which regularly collect the minimum data required for this purpose, which are South Africa, Mauritius, Tanzania, and Zambia. The results show that, although there is considerable integration of South Africa's labor market with many others in the region...

The Business Environment in Southern Africa : Issues in Trade and Market Integration - Full report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.95%
This report assesses some of the key barriers to greater trade and factor market integration in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). The SADC has been a free trade area since 2008, and has an ambitious agenda for further trade integration. This report assesses the roles that cross-country differences in business environments have had in impeding cross-border trade flows and the cross-border integration of credit markets and the labor market based on the analysis of microeconomic data on firms and households. The aim of the assessment is to help inform the policy and business environment harmonization agenda of the community. The full report discusses and illustrates the use of price data in monitoring intraregional trade integration. The report evaluates the extent of integration of labor markets among members the statistical agencies of which regularly collect the minimum data required for this purpose, which are South Africa, Mauritius, Tanzania, and Zambia. The results show that, although there is considerable integration of South Africa's labor market with many others in the region...

Women in Vanuatu : Analyzing Challenges to Economic Participation

Bowman, Chakriya; Cutura, Jozefina; Ellis, Amanda; Manuel, Clare
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.95%
Women's contributions to poverty reduction, economic growth, and private sector development are increasingly recognized globally. A growing amount of research demonstrates the link between women's empowerment and societal well-being. Yet research also indicates that woman's economic contributions continue to lag behind their achievements in health and education, and a variety of barriers still prevent women in many parts of the world from fully contributing to the economy. Women in Vanuatu: analyzing challenges to economic participation is a step toward filling this gap, spurred by the growing recognition in Vanuatu and the broader pacific region of the need to better address gender inequalities. The publication presents a comprehensive analysis of institutional, legal, and regulatory barriers to women's full economic participation in Vanuatu and proposes measures to address these to ensure a level playing field for both women and men. This work has been a collaborative effort between Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) and the World Bank's Gender Group...

Better Regulation for Higher Growth : Bulgaria's Business Regulation - Achievements and Recommendations

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
Removing regulatory obstacles that create barriers to business is a major objective for economic policymakers. There is broad understanding among policymakers and development practitioners that microeconomic reforms aimed at strengthening property rights, unleashing competition, and reducing the cost of doing business are critical to creating a sound investment climate and promoting economic growth (World Bank 2004; World Bank 2005; Lewis 2004). It is also commonly agreed that these changes need to be credible and sustained for private firms to respond by increasing investment and production (World Bank 2005). This report summarizes the findings of three topical studies of the World Bank: Administrative and Regulatory Barriers to Business (volume two) studies the overall burden of regulation for companies in comparison to other new European Union (EU) peers and specifically assesses Information Technology (IT) and manufacturing companies and the role of key stakeholders. The ex-post impact assessment of the act on limiting administrative regulation and administrative control on economic activity (Volume three) makes an assessment of how the act has been enforced...

Gender and Economic Growth in Kenya : Unleashing the Power of Women

Ellis, Amanda; Cutura, Jozefina; Dione, Nouma; Gillson, Ian; Manuel, Clare; Thongori, Judy
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76%
This report examines the legal, administrative, and regulatory barriers that are preventing women in Kenya from contributing fully to the Kenyan economy. Building on the 2004 Foreign Investment and Advisory Service (FIAS) report, "Improving the Commercial Legal Framework and Removing Administrative and Regulatory Barriers to Investment," this study looks at the bureaucratic barriers facing women in Kenya through a gender lens. The report makes specific recommendations to address gender-related barriers in the context of ongoing government and donor initiatives to encourage private sector development as the key driver of poverty reduction and economic growth, in line with Kenya's Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation 2003-2007 (ERS). Addressing these constraints will not only allow women to make a full contribution to the economy but also improve their livelihoods and those of their families and help create a more enabling environment for all businesses in Kenya.

Building Competitiveness in Africa's Agriculture : A Guide to Value Chain Concepts and Applications

Webber, C. Martin; Labaste, Patrick
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.87%
The development and business communities involved in the African agriculture and agribusiness sectors have recently experienced a strong resurgence of interest in promoting value chains as an approach that can help design interventions geared to add value, lower transaction costs, diversify rural economies, and contribute to increasing rural household incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries. Enhancing value chain competitiveness is increasingly recognized as an effective approach to generating growth and reducing the rural poverty prevalent in the region. This is a welcome development for practitioners who have long been convinced of the need to look differently at agriculture not just as a means of survival, but as smaller or larger commercial businesses linked to domestic and global markets and of the need to identify and tap into new sources of potential growth and value addition in the sector. Hopefully, renewed engagement will lead to a substantial increase in the flow of financial resources and technical assistance devoted to supporting market-driven...

SME Contributions to Employment, Job Creation, and Growth in the Arab World

Nasr, Sahar; Rostom, Ahmed
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.9%
Recent economic and political developments have highlighted a challenge shared across the Arab region of generating employment, promoting inclusive growth, and improving competitiveness. In the short run, weakened macroeconomic fundamentals in the developing economies of the Middle East and North Africa are a key challenge. The region's main challenge is to achieve sustainable growth that delivers the quantity and quality of jobs needed. An inclusive and competitive private sector has proven to be one of the most effective and long-term solutions for this challenge. This paper provides an analytical framework to diagnose and identify key challenges to the growth of small and medium enterprises that is supported by a quantitative model based on the World Bank's Enterprise Surveys database. The findings reconfirm that the route to a sustained role for small and medium enterprises in job creation requires improving the credibility of reforms, the effectiveness of policies, and equitable enforcement. Although one size fits all is infeasible for Arab countries...