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Politically Exposed Persons : Preventive Measures for the Banking Sector

Greenberg, Theodore S.; Gray, Larissa; Schantz, Delphine; Gardner, Carolin; Latham, Michael
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
The paper is focused on the banking sector, not on other financial and nonfinancial sectors vulnerable to the laundering of corrupt funds. These other sectors may find the recommendations and good practices provided in this paper relevant, but should analyze the findings of this paper in light of their particular circumstances and specific features. The paper includes a number of practical tools to help guide banks, regulators, and other public authorities. The paper is organized into four major parts: the remainder of this part (part one) sets out some of the main observations and trends in politically exposed person (PEPs) compliance and an analysis of the principal reasons for poor compliance and overall ineffectiveness of systems to detect and monitor PEPs. Part two focuses on the implementation of PEP measures by regulatory authorities and banks. Part three reviews the roles of the public authorities that are primarily involved in preventing abuse by corrupt PEPs. These authorities include the regulatory authority...

Credit Growth and Financial Stability in the Czech Republic

Frait, Jan; Gersl, Adam; Seidler, Jakub
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.69%
The Czech Republic had experienced a credit boom similar to those in other converging economies in the pre-crisis years. Nevertheless, the consequences of this credit boom were limited as was the impact of the global crisis on domestic financial institutions. This paper describes the developments in the Czech banking sector and explains how the tough macroeconomic environment in the Czech Republic acted as a strong tool of macroprudential policy. It concludes that although it is difficult to tame credit booms in small converging economies, a concerted set of microprudential and macroprudential measures, including monetary and fiscal ones, may ensure some success.

Banking Sector Competition in Russia

Anzoategui, Diego; Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad; Melecky, Martin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
The Russian banking sector includes approximately 1,000 banks, but is it competitive? This paper analyzes bank competition in Russia during 2002-2008. The authors examine indicators of concentration and contestability, and compute non-structural measures of competition. They compare competition in Russia to that in Brazil, China, and India, and contrast competition across different groups of banks within Russia. Contestability in Russia is obstructed by uneven supervisory practices and an unclear exit process. Non-structural measures reveal that banks in Russia are less competitive than those in Brazil. Within Russia, large banks and state-owned banks exert more market power than the smaller and privately-owned institutions. Finally, business-oriented banks are more competitive than those concentrating on lending to individuals.

A Framework for Analyzing Competition in the Banking Sector : An Application to the Case of Jordan

Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Martínez Pería, María Soledad
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.61%
This paper proposes a framework to analyze competition in the banking sector using Jordan as an example. In particular, the paper pursues a multi-pronged approach to analyze competition including (i) an examination of the extent to which the market is contestable (that is, has low barriers to bank entry and exit), (b) an evaluation of the behavior of bank spreads, and (iii) an assessment of non-structural and direct measures of bank competition such as the H-statistic and the Lerner Index. This approach provides a more comprehensive framework to examine competition in the banking sector, compared with the commonly used alternative of looking only at bank concentration figures. In the case of Jordan, the analysis indicates that although concentration has declined, competition in the country is low and has decreased over time.

Remittances and Banking Sector Breadth and Depth : Evidence from Mexico

Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; López Córdova, Ernesto; Martínez Pería, María Soledad; Woodruff, Christopher
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
Despite the rising volume of remittances flowing to developing countries, their impact on banking sector breadth and depth in recipient countries has been largely unexplored. The authors examine this topic using municipio-level data on the fraction of households that receive remittances and on measures of banking breadth and depth for Mexico. They find that remittances are strongly associated with greater banking breadth and depth, increasing the number of branches and accounts per capita and the ratio of deposits to gross domestic product. These effects are significant both statistically and economically, even after conducting robustness tests and addressing the potential endogeneity of remittances.

Banking Sector Openness and Economic Growth

Bayraktar, Nihal; Wang, Yan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
Banking sector openness may directly affect growth by improving the access to financial services and indirectly by improving the efficiency of financial intermediaries, both of which reduce the cost of financing, and in turn, stimulate capital accumulation and economic growth. The objective of the paper is to empirically reinvestigate these direct and indirect links using a more advanced econometric technique (GMM dynamic panel estimators). An illustrative model is presented to link financial market development with investment. The empirical results confirm the presence of direct and indirect links, and thus provide support for countries planning to open their banking sector for international competition.

Slovenia : Pilot Diagnostic Review of Governance of the Banking Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
The financial crises of the late 1990s in East Asia and Eastern Europe, as well as the recent corporate governance scandals in Europe and America, have highlighted the need for strong corporate governance in ensuring a sound and stable financial sector. The governance practices of banks are important because banks accept deposits from the public, whose funds the government has an implicit (and often an explicit) obligation to protect. Banks are also subject to information asymmetries and high leverage, both of which make banks vulnerable to a sudden run on deposits where public confidence fails. The Slovenian bank governance review has three objectives to: 1) conduct a review of the Slovenian bank governance framework, 2) make recommendations on provisions that would help to strengthen the governance structure of banks in Slovenia, and 3) refine the good practices developed for the pilot banking governance review program. In addition, the international community has encouraged the strengthening of governance in the banking sector. The Slovenian banking sector has successfully weathered the financial crisis seen in other countries in 1997-1998...

Financial Sector Assessment : Bulgaria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.67%
This Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) summarizes the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) findings for Bulgaria, and reports on the actions of the government and the Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) to date in response to the FSAP recommendations. The FSAP mission visited Sofia during the period October 29 to November 14, 2001. The Bulgaria FSAP took place after five years of aggressive financial reforms in response to the deep economic and financial crisis of 1996-97. After the collapse of the banking system and establishment of the Currency Board Arrangement (CBA) in July 1997, the government and the BNB pursued structural and institutional reforms in both the enterprise and banking sectors, including the privatization of about 85 percent of the banking system assets, mainly to foreign financial institutions, and the upgrading of banking supervision capabilities at the BNB. The FSAP mission occurred at a time when the banking system had stabilized, but financial intermediation remained low compared to the more advanced transition economies. In addition to the assessments of compliance with standards and codes...

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Nigeria - Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.65%
The assessment of the current state of the implementation of the Basel Core Principles (BCP) for effective banking supervision in Nigeria, against the BCP methodology issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) in October 2006, was completed between August 27 and September 19, 2012, as part of a Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) update, undertaken jointly by the Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, and reflects the regulatory and supervisory framework in place as of the date of the completion of the assessment. An assessment of the effectiveness of banking supervision requires a review of the legal framework, both generally and as specifically related to the financial sector, and a detailed examination of the policies and practices of the institutions responsible for banking supervision. Banking systems differ from one country to another, as do their domestic circumstances. The BCPs are capable of application to a wide range of jurisdictions whose banking sectors will inevitably include a broad spectrum of banks. The co-ordination of the activities of the Nigerian banking sector supervisory authorities is conducted under the aegis of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)/Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC) executive committee on supervision which should ensure that operations of the two supervisory authorities are coordinated to remove overlaps...

Financial Sector Assessment : Republic of Lithuania

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.64%
This Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) summarizes the key findings and recommendations of the 2007 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) update report for the Republic of Lithuania. The FSA, which focuses on developmental issues, should be read together with the Financial System Stability Assessment (FSSA) in order to get a full overview of the findings and recommendations of the 2007 Republic of Lithuania FSAP update. The FSAP update team noted progress since the 2002 banking sector vulnerability assessment, and evaluated regulatory and supervisory challenges for the banking and non-banking sectors; cross-border arrangements, safety nets, crisis management preparedness; the pension reform, and capital market development.

Kenya Economic Update, December 2013, No. 9 : Reinvigorating Growth with a Dynamic Banking Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.58%
Kenyans are living two decades longer; the fertility and infant mortality rates have been cut in half; and school enrollment, at both the primary and secondary level, has more than doubled. On the economic front, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita increased eightfold; the largest share of GDP is the services sector, not agriculture; and the financial sector is now the third largest in Sub-Saharan Africa (after South Africa and Nigeria). Kenya strengthened its external position substantially in recent years, accumulating international reserves to meet program targets under the successfully completed international monetary fund (IMF) program. Reforms have improved the resilience of the banking sector to domestic and international shocks. With the advent of mobile information and communications technology (ICT) developments, the ceiling for innovation targeting specific segments of the market and outreach has been raised almost indefinitely. Kenyan banks are ahead of their counterparts in Sub-Saharan Africa in terms of the share of lending to small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in their portfolios. A mature banking sector and more generally...

The Use of Asset Management Companies in the Resolution of Banking Crises

Klingebiel, Daniela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.68%
Asset management companies have been used to address the overhang of bad debt in the financial system. There are two main types of asset management company: those set up to expedite corporate restructuring and those established for rapid disposal of assets. A review of seven asset management companies reveals a mixed record. In two of three cases, asset management companies for corporate restructuring did not achieve their narrow goal of expediting bank or corporate restructuring, suggesting that they are not good vehicles for expediting corporate restructuring. Only a Swedish asset management company successfully managed its portfolio, acting sometimes as lead agent in restructuring - and helped by the fact that the assets acquired had mostly to do with real estate, not manufacturing, which is harder to restructure, and represented a small fraction of the banking systems assets, which made it easier for the company to remain independent of political pressures and to sell assets back to the private sector. Asset management companies used to dispose of assets rapidly fared somewhat better. Two of four agencies (in Spain and the United States) achieved their objectives...

Moldova Financial Sector Assessment Program; Stress Testing

International Monetary Fund
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.51%
This note discusses the stress tests that were carried out on Moldova’s banking system as part of the 2014 financial sector assessment program (FSAP) update. The objective of this exercise was to assess the resilience of the banking system to major sources of risk. The stress tests were conducted in collaboration with the National Bank of Moldova (NBM), and complement other approaches, such as the analysis of financial indicators and the assessment of the quality of supervision. The stress tests focused on the banking system and covered all 14 banks operating in the country. Four macroeconomic scenarios were considered in the financial stability assessment. The stress tests include a comprehensive assessment of risk factors. Potential credit risk losses on the loan book represent the most important risk factor for the banking system. The stress tests also assessed the liquidity in foreign currency, and yielded similar results. However, there are a couple of banks whose ability to meet the liquidity norms is based on relatively large-scale cross-border interbank placements...

Moldova Financial Sector Assessment Program; Corporate Governance Review of the Moldovan Banking Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
The banking sector in Moldova is in the midst of structural changes with worrisome corporate governance issues at the core. Corporate governance is at the center of a stable and profitable banking sector which is essential to support economic growth and productivity. However, the banking system in Moldova suffers from critical governance weaknesses which the National Bank of Moldova (NBM) has been unable to effectively address. The illicit schemes used to gain control of the majority of the banking sector’s assets have involved raider attacks by unidentified individuals whose subsequent, de facto, related party transactions have caused the deterioration of bank balance sheets. The recent changes in controlling ownership have resulted in nontransparent appointments of board members and Chief Executive Officers (CEOs). This has led to substantial blurring of the roles and responsibilities of ownership, oversight (board), and management, resulting in no clear accountability. The legal and institutional corporate governance framework in Moldova is weak. Sound corporate governance is first and foremost dependent upon the motivations of owners and the resultant business culture they instill through their selection and appointment of board members. In Moldova...

Financial Sector Assessment : Fiji

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.68%
The financial sector in Fiji is generally sound but has concentrated too heavily on domestic exposures producing a lack of risk diversification. This concentration is an increasing vulnerability, as foreign currency earnings become more dependent on tourism and remittances from workers overseas. Fiji has a financially strong and highly profitable banking sector, good supervision and laws, and a high degree of long-term contractual savings through the insurance and pension sectors. The major distortion arises, however, from the Fiji National Provident Fund (FNPF), which itself accounts for about 40 percent of financial system assets. This paper takes a close look at Fiji's financial sector as it relates to the following: macroeconomic environment and risk; monetary policy, the financial sector stability and performance of the banking, insurance and Provident national fund; the regulatory framework; access to finance; payment systems; and anti laundering and terrorism. The paper also gives and overall assessment and key recommendations.

Financial Sector Assessment : Slovakia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
An International Monetary Fund-World Bank team assessed Slovakia's financial sector in the context of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) through two missions in November 29 to December 12, 2006. The main objective of the FSAP was to assist the authorities to assess potential areas of vulnerability and current initiatives to develop the local financial sector. This report gives an overall assessment of the financial sector in Slovakia. The report gives an updated overall assessment, economic background, discusses the banking sector, financial conditions and stress testing, non-bank financial institutions, pension funds, capital markets and the financial infrastructure of Slovakia. The report also discusses liquidity management, safety nets, deposit protection funds, accounting and auditing, and market infrastructure.

Mozambique : Financial Sector Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.68%
Mozambique's overall macroeconomic performance in recent years has been impressive. Macroeconomic stability, a sustained structural reform effort, substantial foreign aid flows and, until recently, a benign international environment has generated an average annual real gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate of 7½ percent for most of the past decade. While inflation has been relatively high (around 10 percent annually) and volatile in recent years, reflecting the predominance of food (52 percent) and energy (23 percent) in the consumer basket, underlying inflationary pressures appear to be contained. As a result, the banking sector's soundness, in particular asset quality, improved substantially. Between end-2003 and 2008, non-performing loans (NPLs) for the system as a whole declined dramatically (from 14.4 to 2.9 percent), largely reflecting the restructuring of problem banks and assets and a supportive macroeconomic environment. This Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) focuses on the key developmental challenges still facing the Mozambican financial sector. Section two provides an assessment of the structure and performance of the banking sector and the main impediments to financial deepening and outreach. Section three presents the state of development and key challenges in the pension and insurance sectors...

Banking Sector Stability, Efficiency, and Outreach in Kenya

Beck, Thorsten; Cull, Robert; Fuchs, Michael; Getenga, Jared; Gatere, Peter; Randa, John; Trandafir, Mircea
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.75%
Although Kenya's financial system is by far the largest and most developed in East Africa and its stability has improved significantly over the past years, many challenges remain. This paper assesses the stability, efficiency, and outreach of Kenya's banking system, using aggregate, bank-level, and survey data. Banks' asset quality and liquidity positions have improved, making the system more resistant to shocks, and interest rate spreads have declined, in part due to reduction in the overhead costs of foreign banks. Outreach remains limited, but has improved in recent years, driven by mobile payments services in the domestic remittance market. Fostering a level regulatory playing field for all deposit-taking institutions is a key remaining challenge. Specifically, an effective but not overly burdensome framework for regulation and supervision of microfinance institutions and cooperatives is a priority. Maintaining an openness to new, and non-bank, providers of financial services, which has enabled the success of mobile payments...

Foreign Entry in Turkey's Banking Sector, 1980-97

Denizer, Cevdet
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
Despite high and volatile inflation, a record number of foreign and local banks entered Turkey's banking sector after the country relaxed rules about bank entry, and generally eliminated controls on interest rates, and financial intermediation in 1980. The country's financial integration with the rest of the world took a big step forward with the opening up of the capital account in 1989. Capital inflows rose significantly, and the financial system became increasingly linked with external markets. The author examines one dimension of liberalization: the impact of foreign banks entering the financial sector. Between 1980 and the end of 1997, 17 foreign banks, and a number of new local banks entered the sector. The author investigates how these banks' entry into the sector affected performance, based on three measures: net interest margin, overhead expenses, and return on assets (all expressed as a percentage of total assets). He finds that: 1) Foreign bank ownership is related to all three performance measures. 2) Foreign bank entry reduced the overhead expenses of domestic commercial banks, strengthening profits. 3) Despite their small scale operations, foreign banks entering the sector had a strong effect on competition. But the market could use more competition. 4) There are strong indications that foreign banks had a positive impact on financial...

Financial Intermediation in the Pre-Consolidated Banking Sector in Nigeria

Hesse, Heiko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.64%
This paper uses unique bank-by-bank balance sheet and income statement information to investigate the intermediation efficiency in the Nigerian pre-consolidated banking sector during 2000-05. The author analyzes whether the Central Bank of Nigeria's policy of recent banking consolidation can be justified and rationalized by looking at the determinants of spreads. A spread decomposition and panel estimations show that the reform of the banking sector could be the first step to raise the intermediation efficiency of the Nigerian banking sector. The author finds that larger banks have enjoyed lower overhead costs, increased concentration in the banking sector has not been detrimental to the spreads, both increased holdings of liquidity and capital might have led to lower spreads in 2005, and a stable macroeconomic environment is conducive to a more efficient channeling of savings to productive investments.