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Preventing Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing : A Practical Guide for Bank Supervisors

Chatain, Pierre-Laurent; McDowell, John; Mousset, Cedric; Schott, Paul Allan; van der Does de Willebois, Emile
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.31%
This book is specifically designed for bank supervisors, some of whom may be looking for ways to devise a program of anti-money laundering/combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) supervision. Others may have encountered difficulties in elements of their systems of supervision and are looking for alternatives. Supervisors may also come to recognize even more efficient ways to carry out AML/CFT supervision. The objective of this book is therefore to provide a "how to" reference for practitioners of financial regulation and supervision. The authors have attempted to conceive a practical guide, with the purpose of resolving strategic and operational supervisory issues. They cover the entire spectrum of supervision, ranging from supervision objectives to the design and carrying out of onsite and offsite inspection programs, and from cooperation with other domestic and international AML/CFT authorities to sanctions and enforcement. The international community recognizes that under-regulated or unsupervised entities have the potential to undermine confidence in financial markets and hamper economic recovery. Better transparency...

Bank Activity and Funding Strategies : The Impact on Risk and Returns

Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
This paper examines the implications of bank activity and short-term funding strategies for bank risk and returns using an international sample of 1,334 banks in 101 countries leading up to the 2007 financial crisis. Expansion into non-interest income generating activities such as trading increases the rate of return on assets, and it may offer some risk diversification benefits at very low levels. Non-deposit, wholesale funding, by contrast, lowers the rate of return on assets, although it can offer some risk reduction at commonly observed low levels of non-deposit funding. A sizeable proportion of banks, however, attract most of their short-term funding in the form of non-deposits at a cost of enhanced bank fragility. Overall, banking strategies that rely prominently on generating non-interest income or attracting non-deposit funding are very risky, which is consistent with the demise of the U.S. investment banking sector.

Governance and Bank Valuation

Caprio, Gerard; Laeven, Luc; Levine, Ross
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58%
Which public policies and ownership structures enhance the governance of banks? The authors construct a new database on the ownership of banks internationally and then assess the ramifications of ownership, shareholder protection laws, and supervisory and regulatory policies on bank valuations. Except in a few countries with very strong shareholder protection laws, banks are not widely held, but rather families or the state tend to control banks. The authors find that: (i) Larger cash flow rights by the controlling owner boosts valuations; (ii) Stronger shareholder protection laws increase valuations; and (iii) Greater cash flow rights mitigate the adverse effects of weak shareholder protection laws on bank valuations. These results are consistent with the views that expropriation of minority shareholders is important internationally, that laws can restrain this expropriation, and concentrated cash flow rights represent an important mechanism for governing banks. Finally, the evidence does not support the view that empowering official supervisory and regulatory agencies will increase the market valuation of banks.

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Nigeria - Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.75%
The assessment of the current state of the implementation of the Basel Core Principles (BCP) for effective banking supervision in Nigeria, against the BCP methodology issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) in October 2006, was completed between August 27 and September 19, 2012, as part of a Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) update, undertaken jointly by the Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, and reflects the regulatory and supervisory framework in place as of the date of the completion of the assessment. An assessment of the effectiveness of banking supervision requires a review of the legal framework, both generally and as specifically related to the financial sector, and a detailed examination of the policies and practices of the institutions responsible for banking supervision. Banking systems differ from one country to another, as do their domestic circumstances. The BCPs are capable of application to a wide range of jurisdictions whose banking sectors will inevitably include a broad spectrum of banks. The co-ordination of the activities of the Nigerian banking sector supervisory authorities is conducted under the aegis of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)/Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC) executive committee on supervision which should ensure that operations of the two supervisory authorities are coordinated to remove overlaps...

Foreign Bank Behavior During Financial Crises

Adams-Kane, Jonathon; Caballero, Julian A.; Lim, Jamus Jerome
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.62%
One of the persistent policy problems faced by governments contemplating financial liberalizations is the question of whether to allow foreign banks entry into the domestic economy. This question has become ever more urgent in recent times, due to rapid financial globalization, coupled with the credit contractions experienced as a result of the 2007/08 financial crisis. This paper examines the question of whether opening the financial sector to foreign participation is a good idea for developing countries, using a unique bank-level database of foreign ownership. In particular, the authors examine whether the credit supply of majority foreign-owned financial institutions differ systematically conditional on a crisis event in their home economies. They show that foreign banks that were exposed to crises in their home countries exhibit changes in lending patterns that are lower by between 13 and 42 percent than their non-crisis counterparts.

Lending Concentration, Bank Performance and Systemic Risk : Exploring Cross-Country Variation

Beck, Thorsten; De Jonghe, Olivier
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.51%
Using both market-based and annual report-based approaches to measure lending specialization for a broad cross-section of banks and countries over the period 2002 to 2011, this paper is the first to empirically gauge the relationship between bank lending specialization and bank performance and stability in an international sample. Theory suggests that banks might benefit from specialization in the form of higher screening and monitoring efficiency, while a diversified loan portfolio might also enhance stability. This paper finds that sectoral specialization increases volatility and systemic risk exposures, while not leading to higher returns. The paper also documents important time, cross-bank, and cross-county variation in this relationship, which is stronger post 2007, for richer countries, countries without regulatory requirements on diversification, banks with lower market power, and banks with more traditional intermediation models.

Bank Concentration and Crises

Beck, Thorsten; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Levine, Ross
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
The authors study the impact of bank concentration, regulations, and national institutions on the likelihood of suffering a systemic banking crisis. Using data on 79 countries over the period 1980-97, they find that crises are less likely (1) in more concentrated banking systems, (2) in countries with fewer regulatory restrictions on bank competition and activities, and (3) in economies with better institutions, that is, institutions that encourage competition and support private property rights.

Predicting Bank Insolvency in the Middle East and North Africa

Calice, Pietro
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
This paper uses a panel of annual observations for 198 banks in 19 Middle East and North Africa countries over 2001-12 to develop an early warning system for forecasting bank insolvency based on a multivariate logistic regression framework. The results show that the traditional CAMEL indicators are significant predictors of bank insolvency in the region. The predictive power of the model, both in-sample and out-of-sample, is reasonably good, as measured by the receiver operating characteristic curve. The findings of the paper suggest that banking supervision in the Middle East and North Africa could be strengthened by introducing a fundamentals-based, off-site monitoring system to assess the soundness of financial institutions.

Republic of Korea Financial Sector Assessment Program : Detailed Assessment of Observance - Basel Core Principles folr Effective Banking Supervision

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
This assessment of the current state of the implementation of the Basel core principles for effective banking supervision (BCP) in the Republic of Korea has been completed as part of a financial sector assessment program (FSAP) update undertaken by the international monetary fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) during 2013. It reflects the regulatory and supervisory framework in place as of the date of the completion of the assessment. An assessment of the effectiveness of banking supervision requires a review of the legal framework, and detailed examination of the policies and practices of the institution(s) responsible for banking regulation and supervision. In line with the BCP methodology, the assessment focused on the financial services commission - financial supervisory authority (FSC-FSS). This FSAP provides introduction; information and methodology used for assessment; institutional and macroeconomic setting and market structure - overview; preconditions for effective banking supervision; summary compliance with the Basel core principles; and detailed assessment.

Republic of Korea Financial Sector Assessment Program Technical Note : Crisis Preparedness and Crisis Management Framework

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
Korea experienced a financial crisis in the late 1990s, which it overcame successfully. The rich experiences gained in handling past crises have helped in the establishment of a broad crisis management framework in Korea. The successful management of the 1997 financial crisis is reported to have been guided by the following principles: (i) bold and decisive measures are required to regain market confidence, rather than incremental ones; (ii) though Government will take the lead in crisis management initiatives, private capital should be encouraged to fully participate in the process; (iii) bank recapitalization and creation of a bad bank are not mutually exclusive options; the crisis management measures should be politically acceptable and have built-in exit strategies with clear time-frames; (iv) moral hazard should be minimized; and (v) all forms of financial protectionism must be rejected. Korea responded to the 2008 global financial crisis with certain policy measures that helped the Korean financial and real sectors to weather the immediate effects of the global crisis. These included policy and financial support to stabilize the money...

Moldova Financial Sector Assessment Program; Bank Crisis Resolution

International Monetary Fund
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66%
The FSAP mission to Moldova included an assessment of the financial crisis resolution framework, focusing on bank resolution arrangements. The FSAP did not include an assessment of crisis resolution arrangements in respect of insurance, Financial Market Infrastructure (FMI) or other types of financial institutions. However, many of the findings and recommendations made in this report in relation to bank crisis resolution are also likely to be pertinent to other parts of the financial sector. Accordingly, the authorities are encouraged to draw on this Technical Note to assist them in reviewing the crisis resolution framework applicable to insurance, FMI and other categories of financial institution. The assessment was undertaken having regard to the principles set out in the Financial Stability Board’s (FSB’s) key attributes of effective resolution regimes for financial institutions (key attributes). In undertaking this assessment, the mission reviewed relevant legislation applicable to bank crisis resolution...

How Bank Competition Affects Firms' Access to Finance

Love, Inessa; Martínez Peria, María Soledad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.51%
Combining multi-year, firm-level surveys with country-level panel data for 53 countries, the authors explore the impact of bank competition on firms' access to finance. They find that low competition, as measured by high values of the Lerner index, diminishes firms' access to finance, while commonly-used bank concentration measures are not robust predictors of firms' access to finance. In addition, they find that the impact of competition on access to finance depends on the environment that banks operate in. Some features of the environment, such as greater financial development and better credit information, can mitigate the damaging impact of low competition. But other characteristics, such as high government bank ownership, can exacerbate the negative effect.

Financial Sector Assessment Program - Republic of Korea : Insurance Core Principles

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.54%
This report is an assessment of Korea's compliance with International Association of Insurance Supervisors' Insurance Core Principles (ICPs), as adopted in October 2011. The review was carried out as part of the 2013 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) assessment of Korea, and was based on the regulatory framework in place, the supervisory practices employed, and other conditions as they existed in April 2013. The assessment was carried out by Craig Thorburn, Lead Insurance Specialist, Non-Bank Financial Institutions Group, Capital Markets Practice, World Bank. The assessment is based solely on the laws, regulations, and other supervisory requirements and practices that were in place at the time of assessment.

Corporate Governance and Bank Insolvency Risk : International Evidence

Anginer, Deniz; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry; Ma, Kebin
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
This paper finds that shareholder-friendly corporate governance is positively associated with bank insolvency risk, as proxied by the Z-score and the Merton's distance to default measure, for an international sample of banks over the 2004-08 period. Banks are special in that "good" corporate governance increases bank insolvency risk relatively more for banks that are large and located in countries with sound public finances, as banks aim to exploit the financial safety net. Good corporate governance is specifically associated with higher asset volatility, more nonperforming loans, and a lower tangible capital ratio. Furthermore, good corporate governance is associated with more bank risk-taking at times of rapid economic expansion. Consistent with increased risk-taking, good corporate governance is associated with a higher valuation of the implicit insurance provided by the financial safety net, especially in the case of large banks. These results underline the importance of the financial safety net and too-big-to-fail policies in encouraging excessive risk-taking by banks.

Bank Regulation and Supervision around the World : A Crisis Update

Čihák, Martin; Demirgüç-Kunt, Aslı; Pería, María Soledad Martinez; Mohseni-Cheraghlou, Amin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.72%
This paper presents the latest update of the World Bank Bank Regulation and Supervision Survey, and explores two questions. First, were there significant differences in regulation and supervision between crisis and non-crisis countries? Second, what aspects of regulation and supervision changed significantly during the crisis period? The paper finds significant differences between crisis and non-crisis countries in several aspects of regulation and supervision. In particular, crisis countries (a) had less stringent definitions of capital and lower actual capital ratios, (b) faced fewer restrictions on non-bank activities, (c) were less strict in the regulatory treatment of bad loans and loan losses, and (d) had weaker incentives for the private sector to monitor banks' risks. Survey results also suggest that the overall regulatory response to the crisis has been slow, and there is room to improve regulation and supervision, as well as private incentives to monitor risk-taking. Specifically, comparing regulatory and supervisory practices before and after the global crisis...

West Bank and Gaza : Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes - Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC)
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes for Accounting and Auditing (ROSC A&A) is a part of the World Bank (WB) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) joint initiative to review countries use of 12 internationally recognized standards/codes related to economic stability and private and financial sector development, including evaluating the country's accounting and auditing practices based on internationally recognized benchmarks and, based on that review, to make policy recommendations to help it bridge the gaps between current practices and those considered adequate. ROSC policy recommendations are intended to help strengthen a country's financial architecture, attract more foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment, and mobilize domestic savings, which, in turn, would allow for pension savings. In addition, improved financial reporting allows investors to better evaluate corporate prospects and make informed investment and voting decisions, which results in a lower cost of capital and a better allocation of capital and resources. Financial reporting is also the bedrock of corporate governance...

Foreign Bank Subsidiaries' Default Risk During the Global Crisis : What Factors Help Insulate Affiliates from Their Parents?

Anginer, Deniz; Cerutti, Eugenio; Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.68%
This paper examines the association between the default risk of foreign bank subsidiaries and their parents during the global financial crisis, with the purpose of understanding what factors can help insulate affiliates from their parents. The paper finds evidence of a significant positive correlation between parent banks' and foreign subsidiaries' default risk. This correlation is lower for subsidiaries that have higher capital, retail deposit funding, and profitability ratios and that are more independently managed from their parents. Host country regulations also influence the extent to which shocks to the parents affect the subsidiaries' default risk. In particular, the correlation between the default risk of the subsidiary and the parent is lower for subsidiaries operating in countries that impose higher capital, reserve, provisioning, and disclosure requirements and tougher restrictions on bank activities.

What Drives Bank Competition? Some International Evidence

Claessens, Stijn; Laeven, Luc
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
Using bank-level data, the authors apply the Panzar and Rosse (1987) methodology to estimate the extent to which changes in input prices are reflected in revenues earned by specific banks in 50 countries' banking systems. They then relate this competitiveness measure to indicators of countries' banking system structures and regulatory regimes. The authors find systems with greater foreign bank entry and fewer entry and activity restrictions to be more competitive. They find no evidence that the competitiveness measure negatively relates to banking system concentration. Their findings confirm that contestability determines effective competition, especially by allowing (foreign) bank entry and reducing activity restrictions on banks.

How Does Corporate Governance Affect Bank Capitalization Strategies?

Anginer, Deniz; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry; Ma, Kebin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
This paper examines how corporate governance and executive compensation affected bank capitalization strategies for an international sample of banks in 2003-2011. "Good" corporate governance, which favors shareholder interests, is found to give rise to lower bank capitalization. Boards of intermediate size, separation of the chief executive officer and chairman roles, and an absence of anti-takeover provisions, in particular, lead to low bank capitalization. However, executive options and stock wealth invested in the bank are associated with better capitalization except just before the crisis in 2006. In that year, stock options wealth was associated with lower capitalization, which suggests that potential gains from taking on more bank risk outweighed the prospect of additional loss. Banks' tendencies to continue payouts to shareholders after experiencing negative income shocks are shown to reflect executive risk-taking incentives.

Determinants of loan and lease losses experienced by north american bank holding companies in 2008

França, Carlos Manuel Franco
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /04/2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.8%
Mestrado em Finanças; This study analyzes the determinants of loan and lease losses experienced by North American Bank Holding Companies in 2008, as a result of the credit crisis initially triggered by residential lending to high-risk borrowers. The performed analysis is based on financial information on Bank Holding Companies obtained from the Federal Reserve System and on macroeconomic data for the United States of America at national, regional and state levels. For both larger and smaller Bank Holding Companies, higher credit losses were associated with higher loan portfolio average spreads and higher shares of construction and land-related loans. The fact that the Bank Holding Company was audited by one of the "Big Four" auditing firms also proved to be relevant. Larger Bank Holding Companies' credit losses were also found to be influenced by lower gross domestic product growth rates, higher proportions of restructured loans and higher shares of foreign loans. Larger housing price declines, lower shares of foreign loans and lower provisioning ratios of delinquent loans also resulted in higher credit losses for smaller Bank Holding Companies. This study also demonstrates that larger and listed Bank Holding Companies incurred in higher credit losses comparatively to smaller and unlisted Bank Holding Companies...