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The Impact of the Business Environment on Young Firm Financing

Chavis, Larry W.; Klapper, Leora F.; Love, Inessa
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.8%
This paper uses a dataset of more than 70,000 firms in over 100 countries to systematically study the use of different financing sources for new and young firms, in comparison to mature firms. The authors find that in all countries younger firms rely less on bank financing and more on informal financing. However, they also find that younger firms use more bank finance in countries with stronger rule of law and better credit information, and that the reliance of young firms on informal finance decreases with the availability of credit information. Overall, the results suggest that improvements to the legal environment and availability of credit information are disproportionately beneficial for promoting access to formal finance by young firms.

Bank Financing for SMEs around the World : Drivers, Obstacles, Business Models, and Lending Practices

Beck, Thorsten; Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Martínez Pería, María Soledad
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.71%
Using data from a survey of 91 banks in 45 countries, the authors characterize bank financing to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) around the world. They find that banks perceive the SME segment to be highly profitable, but perceive macroeconomic instability in developing countries and competition in developed countries as the main obstacles. To serve SMEs banks have set up dedicated departments and decentralized the sale of products to the branches. However, loan approval, risk management, and loan recovery functions remain centralized. Compared with large firms, banks are less exposed to small enterprises, charge them higher interest rates and fees, and experience more non-performing loans from lending to them. Although there are some differences in SMEs financing across government, private, and foreign-owned banks - with the latter being more likely to engage in arms-length lending - the most significant differences are found between banks in developed and developing countries. Banks in developing countries tend to be less exposed to SMEs...

Bank Financing to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Colombia

Stephanou, Constantinos; Rodriguez, Camila
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.74%
The objective of this paper is to shed light on current trends and policy challenges in the financing of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by banks in Colombia. The paper is motivated by the well-documented financing gap for SMEs, whose causes are complex and multi-dimensional. Based on data collection and interviews with the authorities, a representative sample of banks, and other relevant entities, the authors analyze the evolution and characteristics of this market in recent years. Bank financing to SMEs is becoming a strategic segment for Colombian credit institutions. The current business and risk management models for SME lending are still relatively underdeveloped, but greater sophistication is expected as the market matures. Important institutional and policy constraints to SME lending remain, but are not yet binding. In order to address these constraints before they "begin to bite", the authors identify and describe a potential policy reform agenda.

Market Power and the Matching of Trade Credit Terms

Fabbri, Daniela; Klapper, Leora
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.79%
This paper studies the decision of firms to extend trade credit to customers and its relation with their financing decisions. The authors use a novel firm-level database of Chinese SMEs with unique information on market power in both output and input markets and on the amount, terms, and payment history of trade credit simultaneously extended to customers (accounts receivable) and received from suppliers (accounts payable). The analysis shows that suppliers with relatively weaker market power are more likely to extend trade credit and have a larger share of goods sold on credit. Examination of the importance of financial constraints reveals that access to bank financing and profitability are not significantly related to trade credit supply. Rather, firms that receive trade credit from their own suppliers are more likely to extend trade credit to their customers, and to "match maturity" between the contract terms of payables and receivables. This matching practice is more likely used when firms face strong competition in the product market (relative to their customers)...

Colombia : Bank Financing to Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Colombia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
Small-and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) represent an important part of the Colombian economy, although they are not well documented in official statistics. In particular, there does not exist sufficient periodic data as to their characteristics, evolution, or overall contribution to the economy - in most cases, SMEs tend to be bundled together with micro enterprises in official statistics. The true size of the market is understated due to informality. Lack of access to finance has been cited as an important problem in recent surveys. However, there are significant differences in perceptions as to the size and causes of the financing gap. While there is strong evidence to support its existence following the 1999 crisis, the significant growth of this market in recent years raises some questions as to whether such perceptions remain valid. One of the lessons of the last few years is that banks will expand SME lending on their own accord - in spite of the presence of important constraints - when they perceive the attractiveness of this market and have begun to saturate easier (in terms of business model) market segments such as corporate and consumer lending. However...

Financing Small and Medium Enterprises in the Republic of South Africa

Fuchs, Michael; Iacovone, Leonardo; Jaeggi, Thomas; Napier, Mark; Pearson, Roland; Pellegrini, Giulia; Villegas Sanchez, Carolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.73%
Numerous studies worldwide have highlighted the important contribution made by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to employment, income and economic growth. In a study of 76 developed and developing economies, Ayyagari and others (2007) found that SMEs account for more than 60 percent of total manufacturing employment and that SMEs contributed significant proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). SME growth requires external financing, but constraints to accessing credit, consistently rated as some of the greatest barriers to the operation and growth of firms, affect SMEs more severely than large firms (Beck and Demirguc-Kunt 2006; Beck and others 2006). The purposes of this report are to: a) analyze the availability of bank finance to SMEs in South Africa and how availability might be enhanced in the context of the economic downturn; and b) offer concrete policy recommendations on how to lessen obstacles to bank SME financing and reduce the negative effects of the economic downturn (or of a similar downturn in future) on access to finance. The report is structured in 5 sections: section two provides a short overview of existing studies and data on SME finance in South Africa. Section three presents the main results of the surveys. Section four provides policy considerations. Section five concludes.

The Financing and Growth of Firms in China and India : Evidence from Capital Markets

Didier, Tatiana; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.73%
This paper studies the extent to which firms in China and India use capital markets to obtain financing and grow. Using a unique data set on domestic and international capital raising activity and firm performance, it finds that the expansion of financial market activity since the 1990s has been more limited than what the aggregate figures suggest. Relatively few firms raise capital. Even fewer firms capture the bulk of the financing. Moreover, firms that issue equity or bonds are different and behave differently from other publicly listed firms. Among other things, they are typically larger and grow faster. The differences between users and non-users exist before the capital raising activity, are associated with the probability of raising capital, and become more accentuated afterward. The distribution of issuing firms shifts more over time than the distribution of those that do not issue, suggesting little convergence in firm size among listed firms.

Credit Reporting and Financing Constraints

Love, Inessa; Mylenko, Nataliya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.75%
The authors combine firm-level data from the World Bank Business Environment Survey (WBES) with data on private and public credit registries to investigate whether the presence of a credit registry in a country is associated with lower financing constraints, as perceived by managers, and with higher share of bank financing. They find that the existence of private credit registries is associated with lower financing constraints and higher share of bank financing, while the existence of public credit registries does not seem to have a significant effect on these perceived financing constraints. The authors also find that small- and medium-sized firms tend to have a higher share of bank financing in countries where private registries exist and stronger rule of law is associated with more effective private credit registries. Finally, the authors find some evidence that the presence of a public credit registry benefits younger firms relatively more than older firms.

Banking on Foreigners : The Behavior of International Bank Lending to Latin America, 1985–2000

Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad; Powell, Andrew; Hollar, Ivanna Vladkova
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
Rising international bank financing to developing countries has fueled a debate on the behavior of these claims. The authors analyze claims from seven home (lender) countries on ten host (borrower) countries in Latin America. They find that banks transmit shocks from their home countries and changes in their claims on other countries spill over to individual hosts. However, lending has become less "indiscriminate" and more responsive to host conditions over time. Responsiveness to the latter becomes less "pro-cyclical" as exposure increases. Finally, foreign bank lending reacts more to positive than to negative host shocks and is not significantly curtailed during crises.

World Bank Support for Social Safety Nets 2007-2013 : A Review of Financing, Knowledge Services, and Results

Andrews, Colin; Kryeziu, Adea; Seo, Dahye
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
This review examines World Bank support to social safety nets between FY2007-13, including both financing and knowledge services. During this time period World Bank financing for safety nets totaled just over United States (U.S.) 12 billion dollars, 273 financing activities in 93 countries, the World Bank spent approximately U.S. 118 million dollars on 281 safety net studies and supported approximately 129 credible safety net impact evaluations covering in 24 countries. Among the 93 countries represented in the portfolio, 42 received little or no safety net support from the World Bank prior to FY2007. The growth in Bank support is especially notable during the period of the food, fuel, and financial crises. The analysis delves into these trends by region, type of intervention, and instruments involved. Finally, it delineates implications and outlook for the future based on lessons learned, results measured, and evaluative evidence.

Financing Municipal Energy Efficiency Projects

Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.81%
Improving the energy efficiency (EE) of municipally owned buildings, such as schools and hospitals, and municipal infrastructure, such as public lighting, water supply, and district heating, offers budgetary savings on energy bills and a wide range of environmental and socioeconomic benefits. But relatively few municipal EE projects have been developed and implemented successfully. The challenges that limit EE investments in municipal buildings and facilities can be grouped into three broad areas: (i) a lack of awareness and incentives; (ii) insufficient implementation capacity; and (iii) limited access to financing. All three sets of challenges need to be addressed to scale up successful implementation of municipal EE projects. This Guidance Note focuses on the key issues faced by municipalities in accessing financing for EE investments, particularly for projects in the following four areas: indoor lighting, building retrofits, public lighting, and municipal utilities. The guidance note discusses the following potential financing mechanisms that can be used by municipalities to finance EE measures: budget financing...

Potentials and Constraints of Using Warehouse Receipts Financing

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.82%
The paper starts with an overview of Cambodia’s rice sector, with a particular attention to aspects which affect its need for external working capital finance, and characteristics and constraints that could hinder access to such finance (e.g., warehousing capacity, processing constraints, logistics, and market risks). Chapter two describes the general conditions for crop-based financing in Cambodia’s rice sector. Chapter three discusses policy options for enhancing the use of paddy and rice as collateral for financing. The chapter sets out the two main modalities: collateral management, and public warehousing. Both collateral management and public warehousing work best when certain support structures are in place, in particular an indemnity system, a system for the electronic trading of warehouse receipts, and a facility for refinancing warehouse receipt loans (which could be managed by the Central Bank or outsourced to another competent entity such as an investment fund). These are discussed in separate sections. The various sections describe the situation as currently prevails in Cambodia...

Financial Mechanisms for Clean Energy in Small Island Developing States

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.74%
This report explores the potential financing mechanism options that can be employed to catalyze more private sector investment in clean energy (renewable energy and energy efficiency) in the small island developing states (SIDS). Various financial instruments that have been used successfully to date are described and placed in the context of the issues and constraints of the SIDS, with suggested options for discussion and follow up. Green infrastructure finance, as defined in the report, makes the important point that is the combination of financial and nonfinancial interventions and instruments that can make green investments in infrastructure more affordable and less risky to private sponsors, financial markets, and governments. The objective of this report is to identify and assess options that can help increase investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency in SIDS through the adoption and funding of financing mechanisms by SIDS and development partners with special attention given to the role that the private sector can play. Many renewable energy technologies are characterized by high initial capital costs with relatively low operating costs compared to thermal alternatives. By providing an analysis of options for a financing facility to catalyze renewable energy and energy efficiency...

Assessing Firms' Financing Constraints in Brazil

Claessens, Stijn; Sakho, Yaye Seynabou
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.84%
Firm surveys often indicate that firms complain a lot about lack of access to financial services, but financing constraints are difficult to identify, given demand and supply considerations and with only surveys based on firms' perceptions. Specifically, it is difficult to separate demand for access to finance of viable firms with good growth opportunities from that of firms that are not creditworthy and should not deserve financing. In Brazil, one of the main constraints to finance is related to the high level of interest rates, which affects both bank funding costs as well as bank intermediation spreads and, as such, the cost of finance and hence the demand and supply of bank financing. This paper analyzes a unique loan level data set that covers almost a decade of monthly firm bank information from credit registry information that is not publicly available as well as two cross-sections of Brazil's Investment Climate Assessment surveys in 2004 and 2008 that provide detailed information on firms' micro characteristics as well as perceptions of credit. The data allow identification of how firms' characteristics...

Côte d'Ivoire; The World Bank Group Country Opinion Survey FY 2014

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
The Country Opinion Survey in Côte d’Ivoire assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Côte d’Ivoire perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Côte d’Ivoire on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Côte d’Ivoire; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Côte d’Ivoire; 3) overall impressions of the WBG’s effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Côte d’Ivoire; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG’s future role in Côte d’Ivoire.

The World Bank Policy for Projects on International Waterways : An Historical and Legal Analysis

Salman, Salman M. A.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
This study deals with the evolution and context of the Bank policy for projects on international waterways. It starts with a brief description of how the Bank has faced the challenges stemming from such projects, and the different approaches deliberated by the Bank that led to the issuance of the first policy in 1956. The study then reviews the implementation experience of the policy and analyzes the principles and procedures, as well as the main features of each of the policies issued in 1956, 1965, and 1985 respectively. The principles of international water law prevailing at each stage of the policy issuance are examined and compared with those of the Bank policy. The study also discusses in detail the notification process: its basis, by whom, to whom, its content, different riparian's responses, and the exceptions to the notification requirement. It then analyzes how the Bank handles an objection from one or more of the riparian's to projects proposed for Bank financing. It also examines how the Bank has dealt with transboundary groundwater...

Bank Financing of SMEs in Five Sub-Saharan African Countries : The Role of Competition, Innovation, and the Government

Berg, Gunhild; Fuchs, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.69%
This paper provides an overview of the state of access to bank financing for SMEs in five Sub-Saharan African countries and analyzes the drivers behind banks' involvement with SMEs. The paper builds on data collected through five in-depth studies in Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, and Tanzania between 2010 and 2012. The paper shows that the share of SME lending in the overall loan portfolios of banks varies between 5 and 20 percent. Reasons for this finding vary, but key contributing factors are the structure and size of the economy and the extent of Government borrowing, the degree of innovation mainly as introduced by foreign entrants to financial sectors, and the state of the financial sector infrastructure and enabling environment.

The Greening of Macedonia's Public Buildings : Financing Options for the National Program for Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 2012-18

Limaye, Dilip; Meyer, Anke
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.76%
The Government of Macedonia (GOM) plans to launch a National Program for Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings (NPEEPB, or "the program") to achieve energy efficiency (EE) improvements in the buildings sector and meet the strategic targets outlined in the energy development strategy of the Republic of Macedonia until 2030, the EE strategy until 2020, and the national EE action plan in 2010-18. The NPEEPB, coordinated by the Ministry of Economy (MOE), aims to retrofit existing public buildings and to lead by example in the implementation of EE measures. Its targets are public buildings that are used for administrative and other activities of public interest and that are fully owned by government institutions or municipalities. This report focuses on the financing mechanisms that are considered the best fit with the institutional environment to achieve the goals of the NPEEPB, and describes in detail the implementation of the proposed financing mechanisms: a full-service EE fund, a dedicated EE credit line...

The Impact of the Business Environment on Young Firm Financing

Chavis, Larry W.; Klapper, Leora F.; Love, Inessa
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.71%
A unique dataset of over 70,000 firms, most of which are small, in over 100 countries, is utilized to systematically study the use of different financing sources for new and young firms. Consistent age-related patterns emerge. Across all countries younger firms rely less on bank financing and more on informal financing. There is a clear substitution effect: as firms mature, more firms switch out of informal finance toward bank finance, while the total proportion of firms using external finance remains relatively unchanged. Importantly, these relationships hold for firms of different sizes, firms in different sectors, and firms located in countries with different income levels and on different continents. Thus, these patterns of young firm financing show clear universal tendencies. Given that even small firms increasingly use formal bank financing over time, these results suggest that information asymmetry plays an important role in decreasing a young firm's ability to obtain bank finance.

Capital Market Instruments to Mobilize Institutional Investors to Infrastructure and SME Financing in Emerging Market Economies; Report for the G20

World Bank Group; International Monetary Fund; OECD
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC; International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC; and OECD, Paris Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC; International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC; and OECD, Paris
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.75%
This report seeks to identify key capital markets instruments that can help mobilize institutional investors to infrastructure and small and medium enterprises (SME) financing in emerging market economies (EMEs). EMEs face financing gaps in infrastructure and SMEs that if not addressed can stifle growth and affect shared prosperity. This report is structured as follows: this section explains the objective of this report and the scope of the work undertaken. Section two provides an overview of the size and importance of institutional investors in EMEs and their current portfolio allocation. Sections three and four analyze key capital markets instruments that might help to mobilize institutional investors in EMEs to infrastructure and SME financing, and their current use in AEs and EMEs. Section five explains the challenges affecting the development of capital markets instruments in EMEs. Section six provides an overview of the role of governments and multilateral development banks (MDBs). Section seven draws conclusions and offer recommendations about actions that EMEs will need to undertake to mobilize institutional investors to infrastructure and SME financing.