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Conservadorismo contábil e o custo do crédito bancário no Brasil; Accounting conservatism and the cost of bank credit in Brazil

Brito, Giovani Antonio Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/12/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.65%
Esta pesquisa investiga a relação entre o conservadorismo contábil e o mercado de crédito bancário no Brasil. O conservadorismo é considerado uma das práticas mais tradicionais e importantes da contabilidade. A literatura teórica e empírica argumenta que o conservadorismo condicional, caracterizado pelo reconhecimento oportuno e assimétrico de perdas econômicas nos números contábeis, aumenta a eficiência dos contratos de crédito, pois permite que os credores identifiquem tempestivamente a elevação do risco dos tomadores e adotem medidas para salvaguardar os seus capitais. O conservadorismo também restringe comportamentos oportunistas dos gestores e dos proprietários em relação aos lucros gerados pela empresa, protegendo os interesses dos credores. Devido aos benefícios proporcionados pelo conservadorismo condicional, os credores podem criar incentivos econômicos para motivar a adoção de práticas conservadoras pelas empresas, por meio da redução nas taxas de juros das operações de crédito. Esta pesquisa examina empiricamente se a adoção de práticas contábeis conservadoras leva à redução no custo do crédito bancário das empresas no Brasil. A amostra analisada é formada por dados de 1.300 empresas e aproximadamente 813 mil contratos de crédito...

Cédula de crédito bancário: aspectos jurídicos de sua negociação e proteção dos investidores; Bank credit note: legal aspects of its negotiation and investors protection

Guazzelli, Tatiana Mello
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/05/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.49%
Muitas controvérsias cercam, atualmente, a negociação da Cédula de Crédito Bancário (CCB), dividindo a doutrina e atraindo a atenção do mercado financeiro e de capitais. A discussão central gira em torno da natureza jurídica da CCB, mais especificamente de seu enquadramento no conceito de valor mobiliário, do qual decorreria a competência da Comissão de Valores Mobiliários para regulamentar e supervisionar as ofertas públicas de CCBs. A análise da natureza jurídica da CCB torna-se, assim, imperativa para a delimitação do campo de atuação da Comissão de Valores Mobiliários. Para fins dessa análise, examina-se neste trabalho, inicialmente, o conceito e características dos títulos de crédito e valores mobiliários. Analisa-se, ainda, o conceito de CCB, sua origem, finalidade no âmbito do mercado financeiro, elementos característicos e modelos de negociação. Este trabalho também tem por escopo a investigação dos riscos associados à CCB e o exame da necessidade e das formas de se assegurar a proteção dos investidores. Diante dos elementos característicos da CCB e do conceito de valor mobiliário adotado pelo direito brasileiro, este trabalho conclui sobre a não caracterização da CCB como valor mobiliário. Este trabalho propõe-se...

Aspectos sobre a desmaterialização dos títulos de crédito à luz da célula de crédito bancário; Notes on negotiable instrumentsdematerialization pursuant to bank credit note

Horta, Francisco Luiz Peduto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/06/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
O presente estudo, alinhado às recentes tendências doutrinárias e aos anseios dos setores econômicos, visa avaliar as práticas mercantis e o ambiente normativo brasileiro para ponderar sobre a necessidade e possibilidade de substituição do papel por documentos eletrônicos na criação de títulos de crédito, realizando uma avaliação da desmaterialização no âmbito dos títulos de crédito em geral para, em seguida, direcionar o foco da avaliação sobre a desmaterialização da Cédula de Crédito Bancário. A estrutura jurídica dos títulos de crédito surge com a finalidade econômica de propiciar um mecanismo simples, rápido e seguro de circulação de riquezas, tendo sido construída ao redor do papel da cártula de modo que no presente trabalho são apresentadas ponderações sobre a aptidão do documento eletrônico, concebido a partir das inovações tecnológicas verificadas nas últimas décadas do século XX, para instrumentalizar um título de crédito apto ao atendimento da finalidade econômica que fundamentou sua criação. Em sua essência, os títulos de crédito são documentos cuja criação dá origem a uma nova obrigação, a obrigação cambiária a qual tem suas condições e características descritas no próprio documento que lhe serve de suporte material. Desde a sua origem na Idade Média...

A relação entre expansão territorial do crédito bancário e desigualdade econômica inter-regional no Brasil contemporâneo (2000-2010); The relationship between territorial expansion of bank credit and interregional economic inequality in contemporary Brazil (2000-2010)

Ribeiro, Clarisse Coutinho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/03/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
Esta pesquisa aborda a relação entre território e moeda. O objetivo central é analisar a relação entre a expansão territorial do crédito bancário e a desigualdade econômica inter-regional no Brasil contemporâneo (2000-2010). A hipótese subjacente é que a redução das desigualdades econômicas inter-regionais favoreceu a expansão territorial do crédito bancário no país durante o período analisado. Para alcançar o objetivo e comprovar a hipótese central, a metodologia utilizada abarca uma análise teórica por meio do diálogo entre três das principais abordagens sobre o tema, a saber: marxista, pós-keynesiana e economia cultural. Além disso, analisamos o contexto histórico e apresentamos um estudo empírico, que abrange tanto as análises estatísticas de regressões temporais quanto as análises cartográficas. Os resultados principais da pesquisa mostram que as quebras das barreiras financeiras, sobretudo regulatórias e macroeconômicas, associadas com políticas sociais propiciaram um maior poder de compra em especial às populações de regiões com alta demanda reprimida, como também um maior acesso ao crédito para consumo para essas regiões. Isso acarretou no maior crescimento do crédito que o país já presenciou e também em uma significativa expansão territorial do crédito dos bancos comerciais.; This research addresses the relationship between territory and money. The main objective is to analyze the relationship between territorial expansion of bank credit and interregional economic inequality in contemporary Brazil (2000-2010). The underlying hypothesis is that the reduction of inter-regional economic inequalities favored the territorial expansion of bank credit in the country during the above period. To achieve the objective and prove the central hypothesis a methodology is used...

Bank credit and economic growth:a dynamic panel data analysis

Leitão, Nuno Carlos
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Santarém Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Santarém
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
This study examines the link between bank lending and economic growth for European Union (EU-27) for the period 1990 to 2010. We apply a dynamic panel data (GMM-system estimator). This estimator permits to solve the problems of serial correlation, heteroskedasticity and endogeneity for some explanatory variables. As the results show, savings promotes growth. The inflation and bank credit have a negative impact on economic growth as previous studies.

Bank Involvement with SMEs : Beyond Relationship Lending

de la Torre, Augusto; Martínez Pería, María Soledad; Schmukler, Sergio L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.83%
The "conventional wisdom" in academic and policy circles argues that, while large and foreign banks are generally not interested in serving SMEs, small and niche banks have an advantage in doing so because they can overcome SME opaqueness through relationship lending. This paper shows that there is a gap between this view and what banks actually do. Banks perceive SMEs as a core and strategic business and seem well positioned to expand their links with SMEs. The recent intensification of bank involvement with SMEs in various emerging markets documented in this paper is neither led by small or niche banks nor highly dependent on relationship lending. Rather, all types of banks are catering to SMEs and larger, multiple-service banks have in fact a comparative advantage in offering a wide range of products and services on a large scale, through the use of new technologies, business models, and risk management systems.

Trade Credit and Bank Credit : Evidence from Recent Financial Crises

Love, Inessa; Preve, Lorenzo A.; Sarria-Allende, Virginia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.68%
The authors study the effect of financial crises on trade credit in a sample of 890 firms in six emerging economies. They find that although provision of trade credit increases right after the crisis, it consequently collapses in the following months and years. The authors observe that firms with weaker financial position (for example, high pre-crisis level of short-term debt and low cash stocks and cash flows) are more likely to reduce trade credit provided to their customers. This suggests that the decline in aggregate credit provision is driven by the reduction in the supply of trade credit, which follows the bank credit crunch. The results are consistent with the "redistribution view" of trade credit provision, in which bank credit is redistributed by way of trade credit by the firms with stronger financial position to the firms with weaker financial stand

Bank Deleveraging : Causes, Channels, and Consequences for Emerging Market and Developing Countries

Feyen, Erik; Kibuuka, Katie; Ötker-Robe, İnci
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.8%
Just before the 2008-09 global financial crisis, policymakers were concerned about the rapid growth of bank credit, particularly in Europe; now worry centers on a potential global credit crunch led by European banking institutions. Overall, credit conditions across Europe deteriorated markedly in late 2011. Spillover effects are being felt around the globe and imply significant channels through which deleveraging could have disruptive consequences for credit conditions in emerging markets, particularly in emerging Europe. Significant liquidity support provided by the European Central Bank was a "game changer," at least in the short term, as it helped revive markets and limited the risk of disorderly deleveraging. However, the extent, speed, and impact of European bank deleveraging remain highly dependent on the evolution of economic growth and market conditions, which in turn are guided by the ultimate impact of European Central Bank liquidity support, resolution of the sovereign debt crisis within the Euro Area, and the ability of the European rescue fund to provide an effective firewall against contagion.

The Impact of Funding Models and Foreign Bank Ownership on Bank Credit Growth : Is Central and Eastern Europe Different?

Feyen, Erik; Letelier, Raquel; Love, Inessa; Maimbo, Samuel Munzele; Rocha, Roberto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.8%
This paper provides new evidence on the factors affecting protracted credit contraction in the wake of the global financial crisis. The paper applies panel vector autoregressions to a global panel that consists of quarterly data for 41 countries for the period 2000-2011 and documents that domestic private credit growth is highly sensitive to cross-border funding shocks around the world. This relationship is significantly stronger in Central and Eastern Europe, a region with considerably stronger foreign presence, higher cross-border funding, and elevated loan-to-deposit ratios compared with the rest of the world. The paper shows that high foreign ownership per se does not appear to explain credit response differences to foreign funding shocks. Rather, there is a stronger response in countries that exhibit high loan-to-deposit ratios and a high reliance on foreign funding relative to local deposits. The results suggest that funding model differences were at the heart of the post-crisis credit contraction in several Central and Eastern European countries. These findings have important regulatory and supervisory implications for emerging countries in Central and Eastern Europe as well as for other countries.

World Bank Research Digest, Vol. 4(1)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
In this issue: changing the climate for development; focus: foreign direct investment (FDI) protectionism on the rise; do poorer countries have less capacity for redistribution? Does trade credit substitute for bank credit during a financial crisis? Demographic and socioeconomic patterns of HIV/AIDS prevalence in Africa; making (more) sense of subjective rankings; and legacy of the caste system in the enforcement of norms.

World Bank Lending for Financial Inclusion

Kumar, Anjali; Narain, Sushma; Rubbani, Swizen
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.84%
The purpose of the paper is to present a more granular view of such projects through the in-depth focus on a limited number of case studies, with a view to understanding what factors in the design of such lending have helped achieve objectives of expanded access, and what forms of interventions may have been less successful. It examines the nature of Bank lending vehicles, the partnering borrower institutions, the country environments in which its loans were extended, as well as broader elements of good practice that make for loan success. It examines the beneficiaries targeted and results achieved. It aims to draws lessons that suggest what factors could lead to success or failure in Bank operations focused on financial access. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: section two briefly describes the set of the Bank s projects selected for detailed review. Sections three to six contain the core findings of the review. Section 3 focuses on alternative forms of borrower institutions that have served as vehicles for Bank projects...

Maximizing the World Bank Group’s Impact in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
This report provides an overview of the World Bank Group’s engagement in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, highlighting the new operating model of the World Bank Group. In particular, the report provides insight on the key challenges and strategic engagement of each sector (Global Practice) in MENA and details some of the key cross-cutting challenges that countries face. This report serves as a basis to convene international thought leaders, as well as internal and external stakeholders, in the context of developing a new strategy for the Middle East and North Africa region later this year. The region faces three challenges in particular: (a) long-standing distortions that have generated jobless growth and poor service delivery as well as low financial access and inclusion; (b) severe imbalances that threaten macroeconomic stability; and (c) deep political and social tensions, at times escalating into violent conflict. The World Bank Group’s current engagement supports four key pillars: (a) strengthening governance; (b) ensuring economic and social inclusion; (c) creating jobs; and (d) accelerating sustainable growth. Progress on these pillars can be made through a two-pronged approach focused on addressing the immediate needs arising from humanitarian crises throughout the region while also giving sustained attention to the investments and reforms needed for medium- and long-term development. This two-pronged approach is necessary to help governments cope with immediate pressures on already fragile institutions and at the same time develop long-term strategies to address deep-seated issues that have hindered inclusive growth and prosperity for decades. This report details nine specific cross-cutting challenges: climate change; decentralization; disaster risk management; fragility...

World Bank Group and World Bank Corporate Scorecards, October 2015

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Annual Report
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.65%
In July 2013, the World Bank Group launched its Strategy, outlining how it will partner more effectively with clients to help them achieve the ambitious goals of eradicating extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity through economic growth, inclusion, sustainability and resilience. In April 2014, the World Bank Group Corporate Scorecard was launched for the first time and the World Bank Scorecard revised to monitor the implementation of the strategy. The World Bank Group Scorecard provides view of the results and performance indicators of the three World Bank Group institutions: the World Bank (WB), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). This brochure presents the scorecards, updated with the latest data available in fiscal year 2015. The scorecards are structured in three tiers. A tier one and two presents indicators monitoring aspects of growth, inclusiveness, and sustainability and resilience. Tier three captures the progress in implementing the World Bank Group strategy and includes measures of both operational and organizational effectiveness.

Determinants of Long-Term versus Short-Term Bank Credit in EU Countries

Park, Haelim; Ruiz, Claudia; Tressel, Thierry
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.78%
This paper empirically examines the determinants of credit at different maturities across European Union countries during the last decade. The paper documents the lengthening of maturities since the early 2000s, and whether these patterns were driven by similar factors in advanced countries and in emerging market countries. Before the 2008 crisis, long-term credit expanded faster than short-term credit in most countries in the sample, and contracted less than short-term credit after 2008. The paper finds that domestic deposits and foreign liabilities were more important sources of funding in emerging market countries than in advanced countries. Moreover, trade openness and initial banking sector depth matter more for emerging market countries than for advanced countries.

World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update 2010, Volume 2 : Robust Recovery, Rising Risks

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
Output has recovered to above pre-crisis levels throughout developing East Asia and, in some countries, is expanding at near pre-crisis rates. Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is likely to rise 8.9 percent in the region in 2010, up from 7.3 percent in 2009 and in line with the average growth rate during 2000-08. Economic expansion is projected to slow to about 7.8 percent in 2011, as spare capacity becomes scarce, fiscal and monetary stimulus measures are gradually unwound, and economic growth in the advanced economies remains relatively flat. Encouragingly, the private sector is once again becoming the engine of growth, confidence is returning, and trade flows have returned to pre-crisis levels. But the recovery so far has generated little incremental manufacturing employment in some of the middle-income countries. With output gaps closing rapidly and private investment recovering strongly, the authorities in most East Asian countries are unwinding their stimulus measures. Finally, a more consistent application of policy incentives for investment and growth across space is called for...

Bank Ownership and Lending Patterns during the 2008-2009 Financial Crisis : Evidence from Latin America and Eastern Europe

Cull, Robert; Martínez Pería, María Soledad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.79%
This paper examines the impact of bank ownership on credit growth in developing countries before and during the 2008-2009 crisis. Using bank-level data for countries in Eastern Europe and Latin America, it analyzes the growth of banks' total gross loans as well as the growth of corporate, consumer, and residential mortgage loans. Although domestic private banks in Eastern Europe and Latin America contracted their loan growth rates during the crisis, there are differences in foreign and government-owned bank credit growth across regions. In Eastern Europe, foreign bank total lending fell by more than domestic private bank credit. These results are primarily driven by reductions in corporate loans. Furthermore, government-owned banks in Eastern Europe did not act counter-cyclically. The opposite was true in Latin America, where the growth of government-owned banks' corporate and consumer loans during the crisis exceeded that of domestic and foreign banks. Contrary to the case of foreign banks in Eastern Europe...

Financial Sector Assessment Program Update : Republic of Poland - Credit, Growth, and Financial Stability

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.8%
Two main issues at the interface between economic growth and financial stability are germane to this year's article four consultation and the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) update: the first is why the recent pace of financial catching-up has been so much slower in Poland than in its regional peers, and whether this might hamper Poland's long-term economic prospects; and the second question is how significant the prudential risks associated with rapid growth in housing loans are. The chapter is organized as follows: section II.B discusses credit developments in the last decade and factors driving these developments and assesses implications for economic growth. Section II.C examines reasons for rapid growth of foreign currency lending and implications for financial stability. Section II.D (and appendix) review cross-country experiences with policy responses to rapid credit growth of foreign currency credit and discuss recent policy measures taken in Poland. Section II.E concludes the chapter.

European Bank Deleveraging : Implications for Emerging Market Countries

Feyen, Erik; Kibuuka, Katie; Ötker-Robe, Inci
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.77%
Just before the 2008-9 global financial crises, policy makers were concerned about the rapid growth of bank credit, particularly in Europe; now, worry centers on a potential global credit crunch led by European banking institutions. While recognizing that concrete evidence is limited by significant data gaps and lags, this note discusses the dynamics of European bank deleveraging and possible implications for emerging market economies (EMEs). Overall, the information available as of early 2012 shows a marked deterioration of credit conditions across Europe. Data also suggest that spillover effects are already being felt around the globe and imply significant channels through which deleveraging could have disruptive short and long-term consequences for credit conditions in EMEs, particularly in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). However, the significant liquidity support provided by the European Central Bank (ECB) since December may be a 'game changer,' at least in the short term, because it has helped revive markets and limited the risk of disorderly deleveraging. The extent...

Credit-less Recoveries : Neither a Rare nor an Insurmountable Challenge

Sugawara, Naotaka; Zalduendo, Juan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.74%
This paper examines why some countries experience economic recoveries without pick-up of bank credit (credit-less) and how different this recovery pattern is from the case where credit is increased as an economy recovers (credit-with). To answer these questions, the paper uses quarterly data covering 96 countries and identifies 272 recovery episodes. It finds that more than 25 percent of all recoveries are credit-less and around 45 percent of all credit-less recoveries occurred in 2009-10. It also finds that output and investment growth tends to be lower in credit-less events but, by eight quarters after the trough date, the gap between credit-less and credit-with episodes is mostly exhausted. Results of the probit estimations show that the size of the downturn and the extent of external adjustment are associated with the likelihood of credit-less recoveries. Moreover, fiscal loosening tends to be related to credit-less events while monetary easing and a country's decision to seek an International Monetary Fund-supported program reduce the probability of credit-less recoveries. Finally...

Principles for Public Credit Guarantee Schemes for SMEs

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.74%
Access to finance, particularly credit, is widely recognized as problematic for small and medium enterprises (SMEs), hampering their growth and development. To address this challenge, many governments around the world intervene in SME credit markets through credit guarantee schemes (CGSs). A CGS offers risk mitigation to lenders by taking a share of the lenders’ losses on SME loans in case of default. CGSs can contribute to expand access to finance for SMEs. Yet they may bring limited value added and prove costly if they are not designed and implemented well. There have been efforts in recent years to identify good practices for CGSs, but the international community still lacks a common set of principles or standards that can help governments establish, operate, and evaluate CGSs for SMEs. The Principles for Public Credit Guarantees for SMEs are filling this gap. The Principles provide a generally accepted set of good practices, which can serve as a global reference for the design, execution, and evaluation of public CGSs around the world. The Principles propose appropriate governance and risk management arrangements...