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Environmental policy and growth when inputs are differentiated in pollution intensity

Ricci, Francesco
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
Environmental policy affects the distribution of market shares if intermediate goods are differentiated in their pollution intensity. When innovations are environment-friendly, a tax on emissions skews demand towards new goods which are the most productive. In this case, the tax has to increase along a balanced growth path to keep the market shares of goods of different vintages constant. Comparing balanced growth paths, we find that an increase in the burden of environmental taxation spurs innovation because it increases the market share of recent vintages. As a result the cost of environmental policy in terms of slower growth is weaker and may even be absent.

How partially inhibitory concentrations of chloramphenicol affect the growth of Escherichia coli.

Harvey, R J; Koch, A L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1980 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
In the presence of up to 6 microM chloramphenicol, balanced exponential growth of Escherichia coli occurred at a reduced rate after an adjustment period. The inhibition of ribosome function by chloramphenicol within growing cells was inferred from measurements of growth rate and cell composition during balanced growth and of pulse-labeling of cells by radioactive proline after a 10-min exposure to chloramphenicol. In each case the results were consistent with simple noncompetitive inhibition of protein synthesis, with 50% inhibition occurring at 2 microM chloramphenicol, the concentration that gave 50% binding of chloramphenicol to purified ribosomes in vitro. The differences between these results and those obtained with cell-free protein synthesizing systems were shown to be in part due to slow binding of chloramphenicol and in part due to the slow rate and lack of saturation of the cell-free protein-synthesizing systems now available. During balanced growth in concentrations of chloramphenicol 1 microM or higher, the net rate of maturation of ribosomal ribonucleic acid was also inhibited (50% at 2.8 microM). The specific growth rate during balanced growth was inhibited by 50% at 1.8 microM chloramphenicol, but at higher concentrations inhibition was greater than expected from the simple noncompetitive dose-response observed for inhibition of polypeptide synthesis. However...

Community Flux Balance Analysis for Microbial Consortia at Balanced Growth

Khandelwal, Ruchir A.; Olivier, Brett G.; Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Teusink, Bas; Bruggeman, Frank J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/05/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
A central focus in studies of microbial communities is the elucidation of the relationships between genotype, phenotype, and dynamic community structure. Here, we present a new computational method called community flux balance analysis (cFBA) to study the metabolic behavior of microbial communities. cFBA integrates the comprehensive metabolic capacities of individual microorganisms in terms of (genome-scale) stoichiometric models of metabolism, and the metabolic interactions between species in the community and abiotic processes. In addition, cFBA considers constraints deriving from reaction stoichiometry, reaction thermodynamics, and the ecosystem. cFBA predicts for communities at balanced growth the maximal community growth rate, the required rates of metabolic reactions within and between microbes and the relative species abundances. In order to predict species abundances and metabolic activities at the optimal community growth rate, a nonlinear optimization problem needs to be solved. We outline the methodology of cFBA and illustrate the approach with two examples of microbial communities. These examples illustrate two useful applications of cFBA. Firstly, cFBA can be used to study how specific biochemical limitations in reaction capacities cause different types of metabolic limitations that microbial consortia can encounter. In silico variations of those maximal capacities allow for a global view of the consortium responses to various metabolic and environmental constraints. Secondly...

DRUM: A New Framework for Metabolic Modeling under Non-Balanced Growth. Application to the Carbon Metabolism of Unicellular Microalgae

Baroukh, Caroline; Muñoz-Tamayo, Rafael; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernard, Olivier
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Metabolic modeling is a powerful tool to understand, predict and optimize bioprocesses, particularly when they imply intracellular molecules of interest. Unfortunately, the use of metabolic models for time varying metabolic fluxes is hampered by the lack of experimental data required to define and calibrate the kinetic reaction rates of the metabolic pathways. For this reason, metabolic models are often used under the balanced growth hypothesis. However, for some processes such as the photoautotrophic metabolism of microalgae, the balanced-growth assumption appears to be unreasonable because of the synchronization of their circadian cycle on the daily light. Yet, understanding microalgae metabolism is necessary to optimize the production yield of bioprocesses based on this microorganism, as for example production of third-generation biofuels. In this paper, we propose DRUM, a new dynamic metabolic modeling framework that handles the non-balanced growth condition and hence accumulation of intracellular metabolites. The first stage of the approach consists in splitting the metabolic network into sub-networks describing reactions which are spatially close, and which are assumed to satisfy balanced growth condition. The left metabolites interconnecting the sub-networks behave dynamically. Then...

Beyond Balanced Growth

Kongsamut, Piyabha ; Rebelo, Sergio ; Xie, Danyang
Fonte: University of Rochester. Rochester Center for Economic Research. Publicador: University of Rochester. Rochester Center for Economic Research.
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
Also published as NBER Working Paper #6159 (1997); CEPR Discussion Paper #1693 (1997); International Monetary Fund Working Paper WP/01/85 (2001); and Kongsamut, Piyabha, Rebelo, Sergio, and Danyang Xie. "Beyond Balanced Growth." Review of Economic Studies v68, n4 (October 2001): 869-82.; One of the most striking regularities of the growth process is the massive reallocation of labor from agriculture into industry and services. Balanced growth models are commonly used in macroeconomics because they are consistent with the well-known Kaldor facts about economic growth. These models are, however, inconsistent with the structural change dynamics that are a central feature of economic development. This paper discusses models with generalized balanced growth paths. These paths retain some of the key features of balanced growth but are consistent with the observed labor reallocations dynamics.

Industrial Structure, Appropriate Technology and Economic Growth in Less Developed Countries

Lin, Justin Yifu; Zhang, Pengfei
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
The authors develop an endogenous growth model that combines structural change with repeated product improvement. That is, the technologies in one sector of the model become not only increasingly capital-intensive, but also progressively productive over time. Application of the basic model to less developed economies shows that the (optimal) industrial structure and the (most) appropriate technologies in less developed economies are endogenously determined by their factor endowments. A firm in a less developed country that enters a capital-intensive, advanced industry in a developed country would be nonviable owing to the relative scarcity of capital in the factor endowments of less developed countries.

Partially Awakened Giants: Uneven Growth in China and India

Chaudhuri, Shubham; Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
The paper examines the ways in which recent economic growth has been uneven in China and India and what this has meant for inequality and poverty. Drawing on analyses based on existing household survey data and aggregate data from official sources, the authors show that growth has indeed been uneven-geographically, sectorally, and at the household level-and that this has meant uneven progress against poverty, less poverty reduction than might have been achieved had growth been more balanced, and an increase in income inequality. The paper then examines why growth was uneven and why this should be of concern. The discussion is structured around the idea that there are both "good" and "bad" inequalities-drivers and dimensions of inequality and uneven growth that are good or bad in terms of what they imply for both equity and long-term growth and development. The authors argue that the development paths of both China and India have been influenced by, and have generated, both types of inequalities and that while good inequalities-most notably those that reflect the role of economic incentives-have been critical to the growth experience thus far, there is a risk that bad inequalities-those that prevent individuals from connecting to markets and limit investment and accumulation of human capital and physical capital-may undermine the sustainability of growth in the coming years. The authors argue that policies are needed that preserve the good inequalities-continued incentives for innovation and investment-but reduce the scope for bad ones...

A Model on Knowledge and Endogenous Growth

Chen, Derek H. C.; Looi Kee, Hiau
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
The authors present a model of endogenous growth in which the main engine of economic development is knowledge. Using a two-sector closed economy model that comprises of a conventional goods-producing sector and a research and development sector, their model incorporates two key aspects of knowledge: technology and human capital. Steady-state equilibrium conditions show that the growth rate of per capita income hinges on the growth rate of human capital. While the growth rate of human capital has been previously shown to affect the growth of the economy in transition between steady states or balanced growth paths, the authors are the first to link the growth rate of human capital to the steady-state growth rate of productivity and output per worker. Furthermore, this result does not exhibit scale effects or policy invariance, both of which have been longstanding concerns with the predictions of endogenous growth models developed in the 1990s.

Growth Spillover Effects and Regional Development Patterns : The Case of Chinese Provinces

Luo, Xubei
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
The author discusses regional development patterns in China and examines effective ways of using development aid to attain regional balanced growth through optimizing growth spillover effects. Based on provincial panel data from 1978-99 she constructs an indicator "neighborhood performance" to measure the geographic spillover effects of aggregate growth from and to different provinces according to their relative richness and geographic position. Analysis of a Solow-type growth model suggests that positive spillover effects dominate negative shadow effects at the national level as well as the regional level, and some coastal provinces provide growth pull and growth push forces for their neighbors and serve as locomotives. The results show that the rapid takeoff of the coastal provinces has the largest spillover effects on the Chinese economy, but at the expense of a widening regional gap. A policy of encouraging the growth of the non-coastal regional hubs would have strong forward and backward linkages with the inland and western regions and thus reduce the regional development gap without sacrificing much aggregate growth. The author offers support for the policy of developing inland hubs, and argues that directing development aid to Hubei and Sichuan would optimize the growth spillover impacts on inland regions.

Engines of Growth: Education and Innovation

Stadler, Manfred
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: ResearchPaper
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
The paper presents a dynamic general-equilibrium model of education, quality and variety innovation, and scale-invariant growth. We consider endogenous human capital accumulation in an educational sector and quality and variety innovation in two separate R&D sectors. In the balanced growth equilibrium education and innovation appear as in-line engines of growth and government can accelerate growth by subsidizing education or by enhancing the effectiveness of the educational sector.

R&D Policy in Economies with Endogenous Growth and Non-Renewable Resources

Agnani, Betty; Guti??rrez, Mar??a Jos??; Iza, Amaia
Fonte: Universidad de Granada. Departamento de Teor??a e Historia Econ??mica Publicador: Universidad de Granada. Departamento de Teor??a e Historia Econ??mica
Tipo: Relatório
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
The aim of this paper is to analyze how active R&D policies affect the growth rate of an economy with endogenous growth and non-renewable resources. We know from Scholz and Ziemens (1999) and Groth (2006) that in infinitely lived agents (ILA) economies, any active R&D policy increases the growth rate of the economy. To see if this result also appears in economies with finite lifetime agents, we developed an endogenous growth overlapping generations (OLG) economy ?? la Diamond which uses non-renewable resources as essential inputs in final good???s production. We show analytically that a sufficient condition guaranteeing that an active R&D policy increases the growth rate of the economy actually implies a reduction of the use of the non-renewable resources. Numerically we show that in economies with low intertemporal elasticity of substitution (IES), active R&D policies lead the economy to increase the depletion of non-renewable resources. Nevertheless, we find that active R&D policies always imply increases in the endogenous growth rate, in both scenarios. Furthermore, when the IES coefficient is lower (greater) than one, active R&D policies affect the growth rate of the economy in the ILA more (less) than in OLG economies.

Growth and structural transformation

Herrendorf, Berthold; Rogerson, Richard; Valentinyi, Ákos
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
Structural transformation refers to the reallocation of economic activity across the broad sectors agriculture, manufacturing, and services. This review article synthesizes and evaluates recent advances in the research on structural transformation. We begin by presenting the stylized facts of structural transformation across time and space. We then develop a multi-sector extension of the one-sector growth model that encompasses the main existing theories of structural transformation. We argue that this multi-sector model serves as a natural benchmark to study structural transformation and that it is able to account for many salient features of structural transformation. We also argue that this multi-sector model delivers new and sharper insights for understanding economic development, regional income convergence, aggregate productivity trends, hours worked, business cycles, wage inequality, and greenhouse gas emissions. We conclude by suggesting several directions for future research on structural transformation.; For financial support, Herrendorf thanks the Spanish Ministry of Education (Grants ECO2009-11165 and ECO2012-31358); Rogerson thanks both the NSF and the Korea Science Foundation (WCU-R33-10005); and Valentinyi thanks the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA) (Project K-105660-ny)

China's Pattern of Growth : Moving to Sustainability and Reducing Inequality

Kuijs, Louis; Wang, Tao
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
The authors study the sources and pattern of China's impressive economic growth over the past 25 years and show that key issues currently of concern to policymakers-widening inequality, rural poverty, and resource intensity-are to a large extent rooted in China's growth strategy, and resolving them requires a rebalancing of policies. Using both macroeconomic level and sector data and analyses, the authors extend the growth accounting framework to decompose the sources of labor productivity growth. They find that growth of industrial production, led by a massive investment effort that boosted the capital/labor ratio, has been the single most important factor driving GDP and overall labor productivity growth since the early 1990s. The shift of labor from low-productivity agriculture has been limited, and, hence, contributed only marginally to overall labor productivity growth. The productivity gap between agriculture and the rest of the economy has continued to widen, leading to increased rural-urban income inequality. Looking ahead, the authors calibrate two alternative scenarios. They show that continuing with the current growth pattern would further increase already high investment and saving needs to unsustainable levels, lower urban employment growth...

Sudan - Toward Sustainable and Broad-Based Growth

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
Sudan is in the 10th year of its longest and strongest growth episode since independence, benefiting from the advent of oil in 1999. This report proposes a growth strategy for Sudan that reduces its dependence on oil, while building an economic foundation for a diversified, inclusive and sustainable growth path. Specifically, Sudan's near term strategy should focus on: a) developing and maintaining the necessary enabling environment for growth, specifically macroeconomic stability and effective fiscal management (chapter one); b) implementing policies aimed at improving the investment climate and broadening private sector-led growth (chapters two and five); c) increasing returns to the agriculture sector as the highest potential engine of growth and poverty reduction over the medium-term (chapter four); d) developing a comprehensive reconstruction plan for the South (chapter six); and e) complementing technocratic reforms with good governance. Sudan needs a new, more balanced growth vision that is less reliant on oil...

Madagascar : Back to the Future on the Road to Sustained and Balanced Growth, Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 1, Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
The objective of this study is to accompany Malagasy authorities in their transition towards economic emergence. If the contribution of foreign capital and the abundance of natural resources should help the Malagasy economy escape from the poverty trap by increasing its domestic savings and investment capacities, as well as its technological capacities. International experience reminds us that this transition is far from being automatic. Indeed, there are more examples of countries that have failed than of those who have succeeded. The successes of Chile, Tunisia, Malaysia, Mauritius, and Botswana can inspire the Malagasy policy makers while showing them which economic policy choices become imperative. This study is divided into four parts. The first part begins with an analysis of Madagascar's economic performance, trying to recall its fragility in spite of the good results recorded over these last few years. This fragility will be highlighted through the relatively narrow basis of the economic growth that has greatly relied on foreign capital inflows...

Madagascar : Back to the Future on the Road to Sustained and Balanced Growth, Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 2, Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
The objective of this study is to accompany Malagasy authorities in their transition towards economic emergence. If the contribution of foreign capital and the abundance of natural resources should help the Malagasy economy escape from the poverty trap by increasing its domestic savings and investment capacities, as well as its technological capacities. International experience reminds us that this transition is far from being automatic. Indeed, there are more examples of countries that have failed than of those who have succeeded. The successes of Chile, Tunisia, Malaysia, Mauritius, and Botswana can inspire the Malagasy policy makers while showing them which economic policy choices become imperative. This study is divided into four parts. The first part begins with an analysis of Madagascar's economic performance, trying to recall its fragility in spite of the good results recorded over these last few years. This fragility will be highlighted through the relatively narrow basis of the economic growth that has greatly relied on foreign capital inflows...

A Dynamic Model of Tourism and Economic Growth: the Role of Physical and Human Capital

Brida, Juan Gabriel; London, Silvia; Rojas, Mara Leticia
Fonte: Economics Bulletin Publicador: Economics Bulletin
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
This paper study the relationships between tourism and economic growth by introducing a dynamic model whose ingredients are an economy producing a non-traded consumption good consumed by domestic residents and foreign tourists and a capital good. The model analyses the relationships between tourism growth, physical and human capital accumulation and changes in the terms of trade. From this analysis, several interesting results are obtained that depend on initial conditions of the main variables and on variations in terms of trade.. First, it is shown that tourism allows local population to enjoy a given welfare level with a lower saving rate than they would have in a closed economic system. Second, it is revealed that along the balanced growth path, the rate of human capital accumulation in the tourism industry acts negatively on the rate of change in the terms of trade. A more productive industry becomes more cheaper and cheaper for the rest of the world and for the residents themselves. Third, it is shown that when prices steadily increase, the model implies an unbalanced relationship between domestic and tourism demands. In that case, the economy could assign all production to internal consumption, vanishing the tourism industry.: or...

Growth, Habit Formation, and Catching-up with the Joneses

Alonso Carrera, Jaime; Caballé, Jordi; Raurich, Xavier
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
When habits are introduced multiplicatively in a capital accumulation model, the consumers' objective function might fail to be concave. In this paper we provide conditions aimed at guaranteeing the existence of interior solutions to the consumers' problem. We also characterize the equilibrium path of two growth models with multiplicative habits: the internal habit formation model, where individual habits coincide with own past consumption, and the external habit formation (or catching-up with the Joneses) model, where habits arise from the average past consumption in the economy. We show that the introduction of external habits makes the equilibrium path inefficient during the transition towards the balanced growth path. We characterize in this context the optimal tax policy.; Financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology through grants SEC2000-0684, BEC2002-01995 and HI2001-0039, the Generalitat of Catalonia through the Barcelona Economics program (CREA) and grant SGR2001-00162 is gratefully acknowledged.

Models for Converging Economies

Harvey, Andrew C.; Carvalho, Vasco
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 530269 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
EN_GB
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
The aim of this article is the development of models for converging economies. After discussing models of balanced growth, univariate models of the gap between per capital income in two economies are examined. The preferred models combine unobserved components with an error correction mechanism and allow a decomposition into trend, cycle and convergence components. A new type of second-order error correction mechanism is shown to be particularly useful in this respect. The levels of per capita income in two economies may be modelled jointly by bivariate convergence models. These models generalise balanced growth models and can be based on autoregressive or unobserved components formulations. Both approaches provide coherent forecasts but the unobserved components models also yield a description of trends, cycles and convergence components. The methods are applied to data on the US and Japan. The generalisation to multivariate series is then set out.

Growth, Cycles and Convergence in US Regional Time Series

Carvalho, Vasco; Harvey, Andrew C.
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 1053145 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
EN_GB
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Growth, Cycles and Convergence in US Regional Time Series