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The awareness of chronic fatigue syndrome: A comparative study in Brazil and the United Kingdom

CHO, Hyong Jin; MENEZES, Paulo Rossi; BHUGRA, Dinesh; WESSELY, Simon
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
Objective: While in many Western affluent countries there is widespread awareness of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), little is known about the awareness of CFS/ME in low- and middle-income countries. We compared the awareness of CFS in Brazil and the United Kingdom. Methods: Recognition and knowledge of CFS were assessed among 120 Brazilian specialist doctors in two major university hospitals using a typical case vignette of CFS. We also surveyed 3914 and 2435 consecutive attenders in Brazilian and British primary care clinics, respectively, concerning their awareness of CFS. Results: When given a typical case vignette of CFS, only 30.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 22.7-39.9%] of Brazilian specialist doctors mentioned chronic fatigue or CFS as a possible diagnosis, a proportion substantially lower than that observed in Western affluent countries. Similarly, only 16.2% (95% CI, 15.1-17.4%) of Brazilian primary care attenders were aware of CFS, in contrast to 55.1% (95% CI, 53.1-57.1%) of their British counterparts (P <.001). This difference remained highly significant after controlling for patients` sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics (P <.001). Conclusions: The awareness of CFS was substantially lower in Brazil than the United Kingdom. The observed difference may influence patients` help-seeking behavior and both doctors` and patients` beliefs and attitudes in relation to fatigue-related syndromes. Attempts to promote the awareness of CFS should be considered in Brazil...

Verificação da eficácia do CD-ROM Alfabetização Fônica Computadorizada no desenvolvimento de habilidades de consciência fonológica e de leitura; Verification of the effectiveness of the CD-ROM Alfabetização Fônica Computadorizada in the development of phonological awareness and reading

Manzoli, Priscila Maria de Lima Ribeiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/05/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
Já é conhecida a relação de reciprocidade entre consciência fonológica e habilidades de leitura. Diversas pesquisas demonstraram o efeito direto do treino em habilidades de consciência fonológica sobre a aquisição da leitura e como o treino sistemático da leitura auxilia no desenvolvimento de níveis mais complexos de consciência fonológica. Dentro deste contexto, o objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a eficácia do CD-ROM Alfabetização Fônica Computadorizada no desenvolvimento de habilidades de consciência fonológica e de leitura em crianças do segundo ano do ensino fundamental. Participaram do estudo 81 crianças, com idades entre seis e oito anos, de ambos os sexos, matriculadas no segundo ano de uma escola municipal da periferia de um município com 30.000 habitantes. Para avaliar a consciência fonológica foi aplicada a Prova de Consciência Fonológica. Para avaliar as habilidades de leitura utilizou-se uma versão da Provinha Brasil e uma prova de leitura oral de palavras. Foi adotado um delineamento de comparação de grupos com três momentos de avaliação. No primeiro momento, todas as crianças foram avaliadas. Depois da primeira avaliação, foi conduzida a intervenção somente com as crianças do Grupo 1. Na intervenção...

Awareness do espaço de trabalho em ambientes colaborativos inclusivos na Web; Workspace awareness in Web-based inclusive collaborative environments

Leonelo Dell Anhol Almeida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/02/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.73%
O potencial crescimento do acesso à Web nos mais diversos segmentos da população - sejam elas determinadas por aspectos sócio-econômicos, culturais, de letramento, deficiências físicas ou de habilidades com Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação - tem modificado significativamente a maneira como a Web é utilizada. Uma das principais mudanças é o propósito de uso, antes centrado no trabalho, que agora divide o foco com compartilhamento de informações, socialização e entretenimento. Além disso, a diversidade de público traz consigo diferentes necessidades que são influenciadas pelos aspectos supracitados, entre outros. Nesse contexto, um dos grandes desafios para a Ciência da Computação é o suporte à consciência dos interlocutores em situações colaborativas, que envolve o conhecimento das ações, objetos, presença, identidade e contexto, entre outros fatores. Na área de sistemas colaborativos essa consciência é chamada awareness. Awareness em sistemas colaborativos tem sido investigado desde o início da década de 90, por meio da proposição de frameworks e mecanismos de software. As abordagens existentes na literatura para o design de sistemas colaborativos não oferecem suporte ao conhecimento do público-alvo...

Prova de consciência morfológica (PCM) : contributos para a sua validação; A morphological awareness test (PCM) : contribution to its validation

Viana, Fernanda Leopoldina; Silva, Cristina Vieira da; Sucena, Ana; Vale, Ana Paula; Ribeiro, Iolanda da Silva
Fonte: Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, UNISINOS, Brasil Publicador: Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, UNISINOS, Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
A relação entre consciência fonológica e consciência morfológica e a contribuição independente de cada uma para a aprendizagem da leitura não reúnem ainda consenso na literatura. Alguns autores argumentam que a consciência morfológica não contribui de forma independente da consciência fonológica para a aprendizagem da leitura. No entanto, outros encontraram dados que indicam que a consciência morfológica tem um papel específi co na progressão da aprendizagem da leitura. Todavia, para além da variedade de tarefas usadas não permitir a comparação de resultados, a ausência de estudos prévios sobre a validade e a fi delidade das mesmas conduz a resultados cuja confi abilidade pode ser posta em causa. Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar uma análise das qualidades psicométricas da PCM - Prova de Consciência Morfológica. A amostra é constituída por 243 crianças do 2.º (n = 79), 3.º (n = 83) e 4.º (n = 81) anos frequentando escolas públicas, urbanas, do distrito do Porto (norte de Portugal). Os resultados revelaram que a PCM possui uma elevada consistência interna (α = .95). Na análise em componentes principais, foi extraído um único fator, com valor próprio igual a 10.88, que explica 54.42% da variância total dos resultados. Os itens são todos saturados no fator...

Implementing artificial awareness with KnowLang

Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike
Fonte: IEEE Computer Society Publicador: IEEE Computer Society
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.65%
peer-reviewed; To become interaction-aware, an autonomic cyber-physical system needs to be aware of its physical environment and whereabouts and its current internal status. This ability is defined as artificial awareness and it helps intelligent software-intensive systems perceive changes, draw inferences for their own behavior and react. Originally, artificial awareness depends on the knowledge we transfer to a system and how we make the system use that knowledge, so it can exhibit intelligence. Artificial awareness requires a means of sensing changes, so the external and internal worlds can be perceived through their raw events and data. To build an efficient awareness mechanism, we need to provide a means of monitoring and knowledge representation along with a proper reasoner deriving awareness conclusions. In this paper, we present an approach to implementing artificial awareness with KnowLang, a special framework for knowledge representation and reasoning. KnowLang provides for a special knowledge context and a special reasoner operating in that context. The reasoner communicates with the host system via special ASK and TELL operators allowing for awareness conclusions and updates.

Der Einfluss verschiedener TIVA-Verfahren auf die neurophysiologischen Parameter bispektraler Index und spektrale Eckfrequenz unter besonderer Berücksichtung potentieller Awareness-Phasen; The influence of different TIVA schemes on the neurophysiological parameters bispectral index and spectral edge frequency with special focus on potential awareness episodes

Schädle, Bertram
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.67%
Hintergrund der Studie: Intraoperative Wachheit ist Folge einer inadäquaten Ausschaltung von Bewusstsein und Erinnerungsvermögen während Allgemeinanästhesien. Die Folgen intraoperativer Erinnerung sind für die Patienten meist sehr unangenehm. Die vorliegende Arbeit vergleicht erstmals den Einfluss verschiedener TIVA-Verfahren, unter dem adjuvanten Einsatz von Clonidin, auf die hypnotische Komponente der Narkose (Schlaftiefe). Patienten, Material und Methoden: 56 erwachsene ASA I-III Patienten mit der Indikation zur elektiven Mikrolaryngoskopie oder Panendoskopie wurden in die Studie aufgenommen. Als Opioid kamen entweder Alfentanil oder Remifentanil zum Einsatz. Die Patienten erhielten präoperativ 4µg/kg/KG Clonidin i.v. oder Placebo. Daraus resultierte ein vierarmiges Studiendesign mit jeweils n=14 Patienten: Clonidin/Alfentanil-Gruppe (CA), Clonidin/Remifentanil-Gruppe (CR), Placebo/Alfentanil-Gruppe (PA = bisheriges Standardverfahren) und Placebo/Remifentanil (CR). Zur Erfassung der Hypnosetiefe wurden bispektraler Index und spektrale Eckfrequenz abgeleitet. Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse: Es konnten eindeutige Zusammenhänge zwischen der Art des eingesetzten TIVA-Verfahrens und der intraoperativen Hypnosetiefe aufgezeigt werden. Hierbei erwies sich in vielerlei Hinsicht die präoperative adjuvante Gabe von Clonidin in der Kombination mit dem Opioid Remifentanil (CR) gegenüber dem bisherigen Standardregime unter Einsatz des Opioids Alfentanil (PA) als überlegen. Explizite Erinnerung trat jedoch bei keinem unserer Studienpatienten auf. Schlussfolgerungen: Der Einsatz von Neuromonitoring während total intravenöser Anästhesie scheint empfehlenswert. Dabei ist der bispektrale Index als eine validierte Methode unserer Ansicht nach gegenüber der spektralen Eckfrequenz zu bevorzugen. Der Einsatz von Remifentanil scheint im Sinne der Fragestellungen der Studie den entscheidenden Effekt auf eine stabile intraoperative Hypnosetiefe zu haben.; Background and Goal of Study: The risk of awareness is a problem inherent in TIVA. The bispectral index (BIS) is meanwhile well established as a neuromonitoring device (1). To define the need of neuromonitoring for the preven-tion of potential awareness episodes...

Contribution to improve mobility uses through context-awareness

Yndurain Gil, Elena
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.72%
Dey, in his paper “Towards a Better Understanding of Context and Context-Awareness”, argues that context-awareness is important in applications in which the user’s context changes rapidly, such as in mobile environments for ubiquitous computing. In his paper, Dey defines context as “any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity”. In mobile environments, the entity is the mobile device itself. The device is both pervasive and person-­centric; it can continuously capture information about its users and their context through its sensors. The use of context has gained importance in ubiquitous computing since the 1990s, and the technique has recently been used in mobile devices to improve their uses and applications. For mobile context-awareness to become a reality, further research is required, particularly in the field of context prediction, which can expand the possibilities of context-awareness applications by expanding the applications’ situation awareness. In this PhD dissertation, we focus on the use of data obtained through mobile device sensors and user behavior to derive and predict context to improve mobility for both the users’ experience and for the applications’ functionality. We contribute to context-­aware mobile computing by showing how mobile devices can automatically learn from the user’s context and can adapt to improve the mobile experience. We begin our work with a state-­‐of-­‐the-­‐art analysis of “context-awareness” proposals for mobile systems and applications and of the current tools used to infer context from the existing environmental variables. In this dissertation...

Single operator control of multiple uninhabited air vehicles situational awareness requirement

Sebalj, Derek.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 97 p. : ill. (some col.) ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.65%
1. While the technology to automate these vehicles continues to progress at a rapid pace, less attention has been paid to the Human Factors aspect. Theoretically, technology exists to enable single operator control of multiple UAVs; however, the human operator must interact with the vehicle, especially if the vehicle will be used to apply deadly force. What information does the operator readily need to make these critical decisions? How will the human operators be able maintain the situational awareness of all vehicles under their control and make informed decisions as to their employment in dynamic situations? One possible aid to maintaining Situational Awareness is an overall Situational Awareness display that gives an overview of the vehicle locations, both geographically and in relation to one another. The question to be answered is whether this display adds useful information to the operator without further straining the operator's limited attention resources. Experiment participants were tasked to provide supervisory control of four simulated UAVs in a simulated environment and make tasking decisions for the UAVs based on static ground targets that required investigation. Accuracy of situational awareness information was measured with and without the additional Situation Awareness display to determine the net benefit of adding an additional display to the operator's station. Results indicate that the Situational Awareness diplsay helped the UAV pilot make more accurate decisions regarding the UAV in closest proximity to a target requiring reinvestigation. Contrary to expectations...

The Impact of Knowledge Awareness and Peer Talk on a Cognitive Conflict Task; Der Einfluss von Knowledge Awareness und Peer Talk auf eine kognitive Konfliktaufgabe

Baumeister, Antonia
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
This dissertation combined and extended two research areas in order to predict learners' cognition and behavior in the context of a knowledge-rich, cognitive conflict task: research on the concept of knowledge awareness (Engelmann, Dehler, Bodemer, & Buder, 2009) and research on the conflict elaboration theory (Mugny, Butera, Sanchez-Mazas, & Pérez, 1995). Knowledge awareness is an approach developed in the field of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), and it is defined as "an individual’s state of being informed and having perceived information about others’ knowledge", that is, especially others' externalized task-relevant knowledge (Engelmann et al., 2009, p. 950). According to the conflict elaboration theory that is based on educational and social psychological theories and findings, confronting learners with a task solution that deviates from their own solution offers a great potential for learning. Further, a combined classification of the related concepts of knowledge awareness in CSCL and expertise awareness in computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) was suggested in this dissertation. This classification was based on a literature review of 30 computer-based applications for supporting knowledge or expertise awareness and a review of 22 studies which contributed to clarifying the psychological effects of knowledge or expertise awareness. Engelmann and colleagues (2009) introduced context-based...

The Development of Rubrics to Measure Undergraduate Students' Global Awareness and Global Perspective: A Validity Study

Doscher, Stephanie
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.67%
Higher education institutions across the United States have developed global learning initiatives to support student achievement of global awareness and global perspective, but assessment options for these outcomes are extremely limited. A review of research for a global learning initiative at a large, Hispanic-serving, urban, public, research university in South Florida found a lack of instruments designed to measure global awareness and global perspective in the context of an authentic performance assessment. This quasi-experimental study explored the development of two rubrics for the global learning initiative and the extent to which evidence supported the rubrics’ validity and reliability. One holistic rubric was developed to measure students’ global awareness and the second to measure their global perspective. The study utilized a pretest/posttest nonequivalent group design. Multiple linear regression was used to ascertain the rubrics’ ability to discern and compare average learning gains of undergraduate students enrolled in two global learning courses and students enrolled in two non-global learning courses. Parallel pretest/posttest forms of the performance task required students to respond to two open-ended questions...

An Exploration of Levels of Phonological Awareness as Predictors of Word Reading in Korean Children Learning English

Fraser, Christine M
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.67%
Until recently, the majority of research in the area of English phonological awareness has centered on segmental phonology as predictors of reading. Current research, however, has expanded the concept of phonological awareness to include prosodic sensitivity⎯the awareness of suprasegmental information. The present study explores the role of five segmental and suprasegmental levels of English phonological awareness as predictors of individual differences in word reading in Korean children learning English. 104 native Hangul speaking children in Grade 3 were assessed on English levels of stress, syllable, rime, simple phoneme, and consonant cluster awareness, as well as, English and Hangul word reading. Hierarchical regression models indicated that awareness of syllables, onset/rime units, and phonemes within consonant clusters were uniquely predictive of individual differences in L2 English word reading after accounting for cognitive ability, English background variables, and L1 word reading. Awareness of stress-timed patterns contributed to common variance in English and Hangul word reading, but was not uniquely predictive in final regression models. No level of phonological awareness was predictive of Hangul word reading. Results support the notion that segmental phonological elements not present in L1 may be predictive of individual differences in L2 word reading. Furthermore...

Situation Awareness Information Requirements For Commercial Airline Pilots

Endsley, Mica R.; Farley, Todd C.; Jones, William M.; Midkiff, Alan H.; Hansman, R. John
Fonte: International Center for Air Transportation Publicador: International Center for Air Transportation
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.65%
Situation awareness is presented as a fundamental requirement for good airmanship, forming the basis for pilot decision making and performance. To develop a better understanding of the role of situation awareness in flying, an analysis was performed to determine the specific situation awareness information requirements for commercial aircraft pilots. This was conducted as a goal-directed task analysis in which pilots' major goals, subgoals, decisions and associated situation awareness information requirements were delineated based on elicitation from experienced commercial airline pilots. A determination of the major situation awareness information requirements for visual and instrument flight was developed from this analysis, providing a foundation for future system development which seeks to enhance pilot situation awareness and provide a basis for the development of situation awareness measures for commercial flight.

Reviewing the quality of awareness support in collaborative applications

Ochoa Delorenzi, Sergio; Pino Urtubia, José Alberto; Herskovic, Valeria; Antunes, Pedro
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
Artículo de publicación ISI; Awareness to users is a valuable feature of a collaborative system. Therefore, the designers of a system of this type may find it useful to receive hints on the awareness support provided by the system when it is under development or evolution. This paper proposes a tool for their use to obtain suggestions on the awareness features provided by the system and those not currently supported by it. The considered kinds of awareness were obtained from a review of a significant number of proposals from the literature. The tool is based on a checklist of design elements related to these awareness types to be applied by the application designer. The construction of this checklist was done as follows. The process started with an analysis of the types of awareness to be provided. This step ended with 54 selected design elements and six awareness types. Experts on the development of collaborative systems used their experience to provide correlations between the design elements and the types of awareness previously identified, thus encapsulating their expertise within the checklist. The proposal was applied to three existing collaborative systems and the results are presented. The obtained results suggest that the checklist is adequate to provide helpful hints that may be used to improve an application’s awareness support.; This paper was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (PTDC/EIA/102875/2008) and Fondecyt (Chile) Grants N◦ 1120207 and 11110056.

Rhythmic perception and entrainment in 5-year-old children; An exploration of the relationship between temporal accuracy at four isochronous rates and its impact on phonological awareness and reading development; An investigation into how the structure of simple songs and nursery rhymes could best increase 'large grain' phonological awareness skills (rhyme and syllable awareness) in 4 to 5 year old children as part of a classroom based pre-literacy strategy

Verney, John Parker
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Faculty of Education; Centre For Neuroscience and Education Publicador: University of Cambridge; Faculty of Education; Centre For Neuroscience and Education
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%
The thesis discusses the impact of rhythmic awareness on phonological awareness skills. It compares the effectiveness of various musical stimuli - drumming to music or a metronome and singing to simply chanting to an isochronous pulse rate.; Phonological awareness is an important component of early literacy and many children struggle to master its key elements, such as the ability to hear syllables and rhymes within the speech stream. The hypothesis explored within this study is that since music and language have parallel auditory perceptual mechanisms then training in rhythmic activities, such as music, could lead to increased understanding of the rhythmic nature required to decode early language and literacy skills. Previous research investigating the relationship between the constructs of music perception and phonological awareness has been promising, but generally inconclusive. Within the study I examine whether there is a link between the temporal processing required to process rhythmic entrainment in both phonological awareness skills and music. The data are interpreted with respect to a theoretical framework linking music and language based on temporal sampling. The ?temporal sampling theory? (Goswami, 2011) suggests that the decoding of both language and music is linked to the perception of accent and beat...

Programa de entrenamiento de conciencia fonológica para niños sordos bilíngües; Phonological awareness training program for brazilian bilinguals deaf children; Programa de treinamento de consciência fonológica para crianças surdas bilíngües

Souza, Érika Costa de; Bandini, Heloisa Helena Motta
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2007 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.65%
Um dos pré-requisitos básicos para a aquisição de leitura e escrita é a consciência fonológica. Estudos têm comprovado que quando expostas a um treinamento formal de consciência fonológica as crianças ouvintes melhoram esta habilidade e, conseqüentemente, aprimoram o desenvolvimento da leitura e da escrita. Entretanto, não há evidências deste tipo de procedimento para crianças surdas. Este estudo objetivou estruturar um Programa de Treinamento de Consciência Fonológica para crianças surdas bilingües e verificar sua efetividade. Participaram do estudo quatro crianças, que foram avaliadas quanto à consciência fonológica antes e após o Treinamento de Consciência Fonológica. Foram verificados efeitos positivos nos níveis de consciência fonológica destas crianças após a realização do Treino. Este estudo fornece indícios de que um Treinamento de Consciência Fonológica pode aprimorar o desenvolvimento da consciência fonológica em crianças surdas usuárias de língua de sinais.; Un pre-requisito básico para la adquisición de la lectura y la escritura es la conciencia fonológica. Estudios han mostrado que los niños oyentes expuestos a un entrenamiento formal de conciencia fonológica mejoran estas habilidades. No existiendo evidencias de este procedimiento en niños sordos. El objetivo fue estructurar un Programa de Entrenamiento de Conciencia Fonológica para niños sordos bilingües y verificar su efectividad. Participaran del estudio cuatro niños...

Visual Object-Category Processing with and without Awareness

Harris, Joseph Allen
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.71%

Any information represented in the brain, whether an individual is aware of it or not, holds the potential to affect behavior. The extent of visual perceptual processing that occurs in the absence of awareness is therefore a question of broad import and interest to the field of cognitive neuroscience. A useful approach for examining the extent and quality of visual processing that occurs in the absence of awareness is the dissociation paradigm. In this approach, experimenters track implicit measures of the visual process of interest across conditions of awareness modulated by visual presentation manipulations. Object-category discrimination by the visual system represents a relatively sophisticated level of representation that may or may not occur in the absence of awareness. Here, electrophysiological measures (scalp-recorded event-related potentials, or ERPs) of object-category discrimination by the brain (the face-specific N170 ERP component and the longer-latency face-specific negativity) were tracked across conditions of visual awareness as manipulated by multiple presentation paradigms (sandwich masking, object-substitution masking, the attentional blink, and motion-induced blindness). In addition, where possible, other related comparisons examining lower-level visual processes and higher-level attentional processes were employed to help delineate the specific level and mechanism by which awareness was disrupted in each case. The experiments implicated a unique set of mechanisms of reducing awareness for each method...

Visualizing threat and impact assessment to improve situation awareness

Nusinov, Michael Cooper
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.65%
Situation awareness comes from combined knowledge of the environment, friendly actions and adversaries' actions. Impact assessment applies that knowledge to determine the consequences of those actions on specific missions and assets. In domains such as asymmetric warfare and cyber security, impact assessment is critical to provide timely and comprehensive situation awareness. An analyst needs to be able to quickly and accurately assess a situation, see the factors affecting important assets, and come to a conclusion on what the best course of actions are to take. Many attempts have been made to visualize a situation from observed raw data for better awareness. However none have attempted to visualize the impact and threat of observed actions on assets and missions. This thesis investigates critical visual elements that will enhance situation awareness. Our approach leverages results of threat and impact assessment of ongoing situations. These include changes in effects on assets and missions by activities, and the projection of current situations into the future. This set of information is strategically placed and displayed to facilitate analysts to perform forensic and real-time analysis. While other visualization tools have focused on achieving situational awareness through representing raw data in a meaningful way...

Situational awareness in the marine towing industry

Towns, Boris
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
Loss of situational awareness has been cited as the most common cause of accidents in the maritime industry. However, current research has not proven beneficial in determining the factors that underpin situational awareness. This study examined situational awareness among licensed captains and pilots of the inland towing industry. Twenty towboat captains, who operate on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) from New Orleans, LA to Houston, TX and who represented 16 towing vessel companies, were interviewed and participated in an integrated survey that explored fatigue, communication, dangerous drugs and alcohol, social stress, and mental workload. These factors were believed to have a direct influence on situational awareness among towing vessel captains. These factors were compared and resulted in the identification of mental workload as the predominant factor affecting situational awareness. Upon further examination of mental workload, it was found that loss of situational awareness is likely to occur when a towing vessel captain is distracted by a cell phone conversation with their company or steers his or her tow in the vicinity of recreational vessels. In addition, the results also indicated complacency potential, a function of attitude toward automation and perception of mental workload. It was concluded that outreach and education to recreational boaters...

Consciência da doença na demência; Awareness of disease in dementia

Dourado, Marcia; Laks, Jerson; Leibing, Annette; Engelhardt, Eliasz
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Psiquiatria Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Psiquiatria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2006 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
CONTEXTO: A consciência da doença é um conceito relacionado ao conhecimento da presença de comprometimento generalizado, à falta de reconhecimento dos déficits cognitivos ou, também, da percepção dos prejuízos nas atividades de vida diária causados pela doença de Alzheimer. OBJETIVO: Esta revisão comparou as definições e as hipóteses etiológicas para a consciência da doença na doença de Alzheimer. MÉTODO: Busca nas bases de dados ISI, Medline, Lilacs e Scielo de artigos clínicos seccionais, longitudinais, prospectivos, retrospectivos e de caso-controle entre 1984 e 2004 utilizando as palavras-chave "consciência do déficit", "consciência da doença", insight e "doença de Alzheimer". Os artigos foram examinados para avaliar a definição expressa do conceito de "consciência da doença" e divididos por áreas, segundo seus objetivos. RESULTADOS: Os conceitos "consciência da doença", "consciência do déficit", "consciência do déficit cognitivo", insight, "consciência de si" e "anosognosia" foram usados como sinônimos nos 43 artigos selecionados, independentemente de apresentarem explicações orgânicas, psicossociais ou diferença de percepções entre pacientes e familiares. CONCLUSÃO: A consciência da doença pode ser definida como a capacidade de perceber em si e na vida diária alterações causadas por déficits relacionados ao adoecimento. Essa definição é passível de operacionalização e pode auxiliar no exame da consciência da doença na demência.; BACKGROUND: Awareness of disease is a concept related to the recognition of deficits...

Awareness of eye diseases in an urban population in southern India

Dandona,Rakhi; Dandona,Lalit; John,Rajesh K.; McCarty,Catherine A.; Rao,Gullapalli N.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of awareness of eye diseases in the urban population of Hyderabad in southern India. METHODS: A total of 2522 subjects of all ages, who were representative of the Hyderabad population, participated in the population-based Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. Of these subjects, 1859 aged >15 years responded to a structured questionnaire on cataract, glaucoma, night blindness and diabetic retinopathy to trained field investigators. Having heard of the eye disease in question was defined as ‘‘awareness’’ and having some understanding of the eye disease was defined as ‘‘knowledge’’. FINDINGS: Awareness of cataract (69.8%) and night blindness (60.0%) was moderate but that of diabetic retinopathy (27.0%) was low, while that of glaucoma (2.3%) was very poor. Knowledge of all the eye diseases assessed was poor. Subjects aged > 30 years were significantly more aware of all eye diseases assessed except night blindness. Multivariate analysis revealed that women were significantly less aware of night blindness (odds ratio (OR) = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.63-0.97). Education played a significant role in awareness of these eye diseases. Study subjects of upper socioeconomic status were significantly more aware of night blindness (OR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.29-3.74) and those belonging to upper and middle socioeconomic strata were significantly more aware of diabetic retinopathy (OR = 2.79; 95% CI = 2.19-3.56). Muslims were significantly more aware of cataract (OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.84-3.02) and less aware of night blindness (OR = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.42-0.64). The major source of awareness of the eye diseases was a family member/friend/relative suffering from that eye disease. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that there is a need for health education in this Indian population to increase their level of awareness and knowledge of common eye diseases. Such awareness and knowledge could lead to better understanding and acceptance of the importance of routine eye examinations for the early detection and treatment of eye diseases...