Página 1 dos resultados de 109 itens digitais encontrados em 0.006 segundos

Neural network model for designing automotive devices using SMD LED

ORTEGA, A. V.; SILVA, I. N.
Fonte: KOREAN SOC AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Publicador: KOREAN SOC AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
The advantages offered by the electronic component LED (Light Emitting Diode) have resulted in a quick and extensive application of this device in the replacement of incandescent lights. In this combined application, however, the relationship between the design variables and the desired effect or result is very complex and renders it difficult to model using conventional techniques. This paper consists of the development of a technique using artificial neural networks that makes it possible to obtain the luminous intensity values of brake lights using SMD (Surface Mounted Device) LEDs from design data. This technique can be utilized to design any automotive device that uses groups of SMD LEDs. The results of industrial applications using SMD LED are presented to validate the proposed technique.

Sistemas de comunicação CAN FD: modelamento por software e análise temporal.; CAN FD communication systems: modeling software and temporal analysis.

Andrade, Ricardo de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/09/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
O CAN (Controller Area Network) é um padrão no barramento de comunicação, amplamente difundido em aplicações industriais, particularmente em sistemas automotivos. Atualmente, um dos principais problemas no ramo automotivo é que esse barramento está com muitas mensagens no barramento, resultado da incorporação incremental de sistemas eletrônicos em automóveis, visto que há uma exigência maior de conectividade devido às exigências da sociedade e mercado. Como alternativa, vem sendo desenvolvida uma nova rede de comunicação, conhecida como CAN with Flexible Data-Rate (CAN-FD), que é um barramento com velocidade de transmissão de informação mais alta e maior capacidade de transporte de dados. Este projeto tem por objetivo principal explorar as funcionalidades da rede CAN-FD, através de simulações do trânsito de mensagens numa rede CAN-FD usando os dados de uma rede real CAN, e verificando a previsibilidade de ambas no âmbito de um protocolo que possa atender à demanda de sistemas complexos. A comparação é executada a partir de um conjunto de mensagens adicionadas na rede, para verificar os limites de transmissão de cada uma das redes, e os respectivos tempos de atraso das mensagens. Como um segundo estudo de caso...

Application of intelligent systems for specification of automotive equipments using LEDs

Ortega, A. V.; da Silva, I. N.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 18-25
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.99%
The advantages offered by the electronic component light emitting diode ( LED) have caused a quick and wide application of this device in replacement of incandescent lights. However, in its combined application, the relationship between the design variables and the desired effect or result is very complex and it becomes difficult to model by conventional techniques. This work consists of the development of a technique, through artificial neural networks, to make possible to obtain the luminous intensity values of brake lights using LEDs from design data. (C) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

On-chip CMOS wireless sensors interface for automotive applications

Carmo, J. P.; Mendes, P. M.; Couto, Carlos; Correia, J. H.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /09/2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
This paper describes a CMOS interface for short-range wireless sensor networks. The sensor interface is composed by the sensor readout and a transceiver in CMOS 0.18 µm process technology and a patch antenna at 5.7 GHz frequency, 50 MHz bandwidth and an efficiency of 18%. Automotive applications are the target of this wireless sensor interface.

A 2.4-GHz CMOS short-range wireless-sensor-network interface for automotive applications

Carmo, J. P.; Mendes, P. M.; Couto, Carlos; Correia, J. H.
Fonte: IEEE Transactions Publicador: IEEE Transactions
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/05/2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
This paper describes a CMOS interface for shortrange wireless sensor networks (CMOS-SRWSN interface). The sensor interface is composed of a sensor readout, electronics for processing and control, a memory, a radio-frequency CMOS transceiver for operation in the 2.4-GHz industrial, scientific, and medical bands, and a planar antenna. The receiver has a sensitivity of −60 dBm and consumes 6.3 mW from a 1.8-V supply. The transmitter delivers an output power of 0 dBm with a power consumption of 11.2 mW. The application of the CMOS-SRWSN interface is in the automotive industry for the reduction of cables and to support the information, communication, and entertainment systems in cars..

Caracterização experimental de comunicações powerline em automóveis

Silva, Pedro Samuel Nunes da
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
O crescimento em quantidade e complexidade dos sistemas electrónicos nos veículos conduziu a uma utilização em larga escala de arquitecturas distribuídas recorrendo a redes específicas como CAN, LIN, TTP/C e mais recentemente FlexRay. Nos últimos tempos uma tecnologia que tem sofrido uma grande evolução é a tecnologia Powerline, em que a comunicação se faz sobre os fios de alimentação. Aplicando esta tecnologia a redes de dados para automóveis será possível reduzir significativamente a cablagem existente nos automóveis. Os testes levados a cabo neste trabalho experimental tiveram como propósito principal averiguar a viabilidade desta tecnologia como substituta da tão usada rede CAN, focando no comportamento temporal. Foram efectuadas medidas temporais sobre o barramento CAN e sobre o barramento Powerline. As medidas no barramento Powerline foram efectuadas usando uma das soluções disponibilizadas pela empresa Israelita Yamar Electronics®, o modem transdutor DCB500. Com base nesta solução construiu-se um canal de comunicação Powerline sobre o qual foram efectuadas medidas de tempos de transmissão de pacotes de dados e efectuados alguns testes de arbitragem no acesso ao barramento, com e sem prioridades. Os resultados exibiram algumas características da tecnologia utilizada...

Resource reservation in automotive ethernet; Reserva de recursos em automotive ethernet

Almeida, André Rodrigues
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.35%
In recent years, automotive industry has undergone major changes, being able to highlight not only the growing development of electronic systems in increasingly and varied features and contexts, as well as to cope with its growing interaction between with the driver and the outside world. Due to the huge amount of traffic involved in these system communications, networking technologies used so far are starting to be less appealing and the industry began to consider alternatives, economically more competitive as is the case of Ethernet. The use of Ethernet technology in automotive domains faces some challenges, namely with time constraints compliance and well defined resource requirements. The emergence of AVB (Audio Video Bridging) protocols, is trying to tackle some of these problems of having dynamic Quality of Service management in automotive Ethernet networks. One example of such protocols is the signalling protocol (SRP Stream Reservation Protocol), which could be used for providing a resource reservation mechanism in an automotive Ethernet domain. To test the feasibility of such recent methods, simulation tools are of paramount importance. This work presents an implementation of the SRP (Stream Reservation Protocol) in Omnet++...

PLASMA – a high-performing and open platform for the integration of heterogeneous sensor networks

Manso, M.; Silva, Hugo Gonçalves; Bezzeghoud, Mourad
Fonte: ISBN: 978-989-20-2606-0 (2011). Publicador: ISBN: 978-989-20-2606-0 (2011).
Tipo: Aula
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
The use of sensors to capture disparate types of information from the environment has been increasing and they cover a wide range of applications, such as climate monitoring (e.g., seismic activity and climate), water quality monitoring, area surveillance, intelligent buildings, energy management, automotive industry and scientific purposes. Additionally, the Information Age has provided rapid and ubiquitous access to information produced by heterogeneous sources. Thus, the development of sensor networks has emerged as a way to exploit the Information Age capabilities into sensor applications. A major outcome of this combination is the capability to remotely receive and process sensor data (covering large areas) in real-time therefore allowing the development of new studies and algorithms aiming at anticipating and predicting (with high- reliability) events, such as storms (already state-of-the-art) and earthquakes (not yet possible). The developments in the scientific and industry communities were proficient in creating a large number of sensor networks that, nonetheless, (i) were designed to fit specific needs, (ii) were usually deployed in closed networks (not accessible to external parties), and/or (iii) do not interoperate with each-other...

Lightweight Dependable Adaptation for Wireless Sensor Networks

Casimiro, António; Marques, Luís
Fonte: Proceedings of the 30th IEEE International Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems Workshops Publicador: Proceedings of the 30th IEEE International Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems Workshops
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em 17/09/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
Achieving dependable and real-time operation in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a hard and open problem. This can be an obstacle for many applications, namely in the automotive and medical domains, particularly if safety-critical control is envisaged. To overcome the communication uncertainties that are intrinsic to wireless and dynamic environments, a generic approach is to constantly adapt to environment conditions. This requires appropriate solutions to characterize such conditions. This paper contributes with a lightweight solution for a dependable characterization of network QoS metrics, which is appropriate to support dependable adaptation in WSNs. The proposed solution offers probabilistic guarantees, building on non-parametric stochastic analysis to achieve fast and effective results. The paper also provides an evaluation of the solution.

Market developments in automotive retailing and after-sales sectors following the entry of the new Block Exemption Regulation

Gonçalves, Katia Harker
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.2%
Master in International Management; The new Block Exemption Regulation concerning the way in which vehicle manufacturers distribute their products in Europe took full effect on the 1st of October 2003. Three years on, relationships between manufacturers, dealers, and all other automotive industry players have started to show signs of change. Over these past three years dealership groups have consolidated, multi-branding increased, and the after-sales market has become stronger in relation to their rivals, the dealerships. However, in essence, the scale of change the European Commission, and consumers, hoped for has not yet occurred. Manufacturers continue to be the stronger party regarding the relationships they have with their dealership networks and the after-sales market. Though most opted for a selective dealership distribution network, aimed at giving dealerships more autonomy, the shift in power from the manufacturer to the dealer is barely visible. Additionally, the changes that have occurred are believed, by most, to be due to the continual saturation of the European Automotive market and the quantity of economies trying to recover from ongoing recession, and not due to the new Block Exemption Regulation itself. Yet...

The Architecture of Transaction Networks: A Comparative Analysis of Hierarchy in Two Sectors

Luo, Jianxi; Baldwin, Carliss Young; Whitney, Daniel E.; Magee, Christopher L.
Fonte: Oxford Journals Publicador: Oxford Journals
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.33%
Many products are manufactured in networks of firms linked by transactions, but comparatively little is known about how or why such transaction networks differ. This article investigates the transaction networks of two large sectors in Japan at a single point in time. In characterizing these networks, our primary measure is “hierarchy,” defined as the degree to which transactions flow in one direction, from “upstream” to “downstream.” Our empirical results show that the electronics sector exhibits a much lower degree of hierarchy than the automotive sector because of the presence of numerous inter-firm transaction cycles. These cycles, in turn, reveal that a significant group of firms have two-way “vertically permeable boundaries”: (i) they participate in multiple stages of an industry’s value chain, hence are vertically integrated, but also (ii) they allow both downstream units to purchase intermediate inputs from and upstream units to sell intermediate goods to other sector firms. We demonstrate that the 10 largest electronics firms had two-way vertically permeable boundaries while almost no firms in the automotive sector had adopted that practice.

Erkennung von Fahrmanövern mit objektorientierten Bayes-Netzen in Autobahnszenarien; Object-oriented Bayesian networks for driving maneuver recognition in highway scenarios

Kasper, Dietmar
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
Die Steigerung der Verkehrssicherheit ist seit langer Zeit das Ziel der Automobilhersteller. Dazu wurden in vergangenen Jahren viele Fahrerassistenzsysteme entwickelt, die das Fahren sicherer oder komfortabler machen. Bei den bereits zur Verfügung stehenden Assistenzsystemen ist noch ein großer Verbesserungspotenzial vorhanden. Ein vom Fahrer nicht nachvollziehbares Warnen in unterschiedlichen Situationen ist nur eines der Probleme bei der Entwicklung von Fahrerassistenzsystemen. Um eine größere Kundenakzeptanz zu erreichen, muss die vorliegende Situation von Assistenzsystemen besser interpretiert werden können. Dies erfordert nicht nur die Verbesserung der eingesetzten Sensorik zur Umfeld-Erfassung, sondern auch den Einsatz neuer Techniken, unter anderem die Anwendung von Methoden der künstlichen Intelligenz. Durch die Entwicklung eines Verständnisses für eine vorliegende Situation kann das Verhalten eines Assistenzsystems an diese angepasst werden. Dadurch wird die Kundenakzeptanz erhöht, was dem Ziel der Entwicklung entspricht. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Entwicklung eines neuen Ansatzes zur Erkennung von unterschiedlichen Fahrmanövern in einem Autobahnszenario für alle Verkehrsteilnehmer. Das in dieser Arbeit entwickelte Klassifikationssystem dient zur Unterstützung eines ACC-Systems und Erhöhung des Fahrkomforts. Dabei wurden die Erkennungsleistung und die Umsetzbarkeit des Klassifikationssystems in einem Versuchsträger evaluiert. Zur Klassifikation von Fahrmanövern wird in dieser Arbeit der Ansatz der objektorientierten Bayes-Netze bevorzugt. Das Bayes-Netz-Modell ist hierarchisch in logischen Schichten strukturiert...

INTEGRATED DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF LOGISTIC NETWORKS: ORIENTED PLACEMENT OF THE ORDER PENETRATION POINT

Klingebiel, Katja; Hellingrath, Bernd; Pires, Sílvio; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe
Fonte: Brazilian Association for Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ABEPRO) Publicador: Brazilian Association for Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (ABEPRO)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Peer-reviewed Article; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/11/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
The placement of the order penetration point (OPP) is a key decision in automotive supply chains since the product will be differentiated according to the customers’ requirements only after the OPP. From a marketing perspective variety proliferation is encouraged. Yet, competition has shifted from individual firms to global supply chains and under given market uncertainty the significance of supply chain flexibility is increasing. Upstream however, the expansion of outsourcing, supplier rationalization and lean production practices has yielded substantial progress in terms of supply chain efficiency. In order to economically operate the supply chain, the positioning of order penetration points is vital to inflict as much downstream process and product flexibility to be amenable to changing market demand and to guarantee as much upstream stability to allow for accurate and risk-controlled planning of cost-efficient supply chain processes. This paper identifies and analyses the main factors related to OPP problems and presents a method for OPP positioning under a supply chain perspective, integrating the influence of product diversity and supply chain flexibility over a complete product life-cycle systematically.

Trade and Production Fragmentation : Central European Economies in European Union Networks of Production and Marketing

Kaminski, Bartlomiej; Ng, Francis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Developments driven by trade liberalization and tehcnological progress mean that old development strategies, based on state intervention and trade protection, no longer work. Global competition has brought a growing emphasis on product standards, rapid innovation, adaptability, and speedy response. Technology has made possible the fragmentation of production. Firms that become part of global production and distribution networks do not have to be foreign-owned, as many multinationals contract out the delivery of services and products. Foreign involvement facilitates the transfer of managerial and technological know-how, so firms benefit from becoming part of a network. Small producers, rather than servicing small local markets, can supply large firms abroad. Foreign participation--through outsourcing or direct investments--may offer direct access to a parent company's global networks. Becoming part of a multinational's production and distribution network is a cheap way to market products. But the unprecedented globalization of the production process has brought the integration of trade and the disintegration of production...

Accounting, trust and the government in labour-management negotiations: The crisis in the Canadian automotive industry

Kenno, Staci
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.43%
This thesis investigates the role of accounting information in the automotive industry restructuring of 2008 and 2009 in Canada. The crisis in the automotive industry led to government-funded restructurings for two of the top manufacturers in North America, effectively adding the government as a third party to the negotiations. Following a series of negotiations that occurred between AutoCo and UnionA, I conduct a case study that examines the individual actors’ use of accounting inscriptions in negotiations, as well as explore the dynamic interaction between accounting and trust at the negotiation table. The use of actor network theory highlights the individual actors, their actor-networks, accounting inscriptions and the continuous translation process inherent in labour-management negotiations. Accounting inscriptions are shown to play a central role in negotiations, particularly as a forum for bringing the actor-networks together. Furthermore, I explicate the notion of tactical trust, as it emphasizes the assessment, monitoring, and adjustment inherent in decisions to trust actors within dynamic business contexts. I also investigate the roles that the Canadian government played throughout the restructuring of the automotive industry. Through an in-depth case study of the restructuring from its antecedents through to outcomes...

Energy Constrained Link Adaptation For Multi-hop Relay Networks

ZHAO, XIAO
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a widely researched technology that has applications in a broad variety of fields ranging from medical, industrial, automotive and pharmaceutical to even office and home environments. It is composed of a network of self-organizing sensor nodes that operate in complex environments without human intervention for long periods of time. The energy available to these nodes, usually in the form of a battery, is very limited. Consequently, energy saving algorithms that maximize the network lifetime are sought-after. Link adaptation polices can significantly increase the data rate and effectively reduce energy consumption. In this sense, they have been studied for power optimization in WSNs in recent research proposals. In this thesis, we first examine the Adaptive Modulation (AM) schemes for flat-fading channels, with data rate and transmit power varied to achieve minimum energy consumption. Its variant, Adaptive Modulation with Idle mode (AMI), is also investigated. An Adaptive Sleep with Adaptive Modulation (ASAM) algorithm is then proposed to dynamically adjust the operating durations of both the transmission and sleep stages based on channel conditions in order to minimize energy consumption. Furthermore...

Performance evaluation of a cooperative reputation system for vehicular delay-tolerant networks

Dias, João A.F.F.; Rodrigues, Joel; Shu, Lei; Ullah, Sana
Fonte: SpringerOpen Publicador: SpringerOpen
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
In the last decade, both scientific community and automotive industry enabled communications among vehicles in different kinds of scenarios proposing different vehicular architectures. Vehicular delay-tolerant networks (VDTNs) were proposed as a solution to overcome some of the issues found in other vehicular architectures, namely, in dispersed regions and emergency scenarios. Most of these issues arise from the unique characteristics of vehicular networks. Contrary to delay-tolerant networks (DTNs), VDTNs place the bundle layer under the network layer in order to simplify the layered architecture and enable communications in sparse regions characterized by long propagation delays, high error rates, and short contact durations. However, such characteristics turn contacts very important in order to exchange as much information as possible between nodes at every contact opportunity. One way to accomplish this goal is to enforce cooperation between network nodes. To promote cooperation among nodes, it is important that nodes share their own resources to deliver messages from others. This can be a very difficult task, if selfish nodes affect the performance of cooperative nodes. This paper studies the performance of a cooperative reputation system that detects...

A Simulation Environment and preliminary evaluation for Automotive CAN-Ethernet AVB Networks

Kawahara, Keigo; Matsubara, Yutaka; Takada, Hiroaki
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/09/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.46%
Ethernet is being considered as the backbone network protocol for next-generation automotive control networks. In such networks, Controller Area Network (CAN) messages related to automotive control can be sent from a CAN network to other sub-networks via the backbone Ethernet bus and, if the CAN messages have real-time constraints, these have to be guaranteed. This paper presents a simulation environment for CAN--Ethernet Audio Video Bridging (AVB) mixed networks based on OMNeT++. We use Ethernet AVB, which can guarantee network bandwidth, to improve the real-time property of CAN messages through the backbone Ethernet bus. To simulate the networks, we also developed a CAN--Ethernet AVB gateway (GW) model. To verify the efficacy of our model, we measured the latency of CAN messages sent from a CAN bus to an Ethernet AVB node via the backbone Ethernet AVB bus in both bandwidth-guaranteed and best-effort queue scenarios. The results indicate that the latency of Ethernet AVB frames containing CAN messages is minimized and limited by the bandwidth-guaranteed mechanism of Ethernet AVB.; Comment: Published in: A. F\"orster, C. Sommer, T. Steinbach, M. W\"ahlisch (Eds.), Proc. of 1st OMNeT++ Community Summit, Hamburg, Germany, September 2...

Development and Testing of Automotive Ethernet-Networks together in one Tool - OMNeT++

Wunner, Patrick; May, Stefan; May, Stefan; Dengler, Sebastian
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/09/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
In this paper, the network simulation framework OMNeT++ is used for development and testing of automotive Ethernet-Networks. Therefore OMNeT++ is extended by the INET framework. It is augmented by an implementation of the protocol SOME/IP (-SD) and an connector to the middleware Gamma V. The middleware is used to configure the network by initialization. Additionally data, which is sent over the network, can be changed on the fly. The contribution of this work regards three main aspects: First, the use of OMNeT++ for network development in automotive industry. Second, the employment of an existing simulation model and using it as restbus simulation for Hardware in the Loop (HiL) testing or rapid prototyping. Finally, the implementation of SOME/IP(-SD) into OMNeT++.; Comment: Published in: A. F\"orster, C. Sommer, T. Steinbach, M. W\"ahlisch (Eds.), Proc. of 1st OMNeT++ Community Summit, Hamburg, Germany, September 2, 2014, arXiv:1409.0093, 2014

DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS AMONG ORGANIZATIONS: EVIDENCES FROM A STUDY IN AN AUTOMOTIVE SUPPLY CHAIN; DIFUSÃO DE INOVAÇÕES ENTRE ORGANIZAÇÕES: EVIDÊNCIAS DE UM ESTUDO NA CADEIA AUTOMOBILÍSTICA

Santos, Pedro Ferraz Andrade Augusto; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/09/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
In addition to increasing the individual firm innovation capabilities, there should also be a concern in spreading the innovations across organizational networks, in order to enhance their impact on the system’s performance as a whole. This study aims to analyze the diffusion of innovations among members of a supply chain of the automotive industry. Given the challenges that involve the management of innovation in organizations embedded in supply chains, this study soughs, by conducting a case study in eight companies of the automotive sector, to understand and describe how the phenomenon of the diffusion of innovations occurs among members of the supply chain actors and which relational and structural aspects have influence over the process. Building effective channels for the occurrence of the diffusion depends on the articulation between intra and interorganizational factors, which will determine the degree of participation of each member in the practices established by the assembler for that purpose, which concentrates the diffusion flows identified, given its central position in the system. These channels, however, remain restricted to the group formed by the first-tier suppliers, which demonstrate higher levels of capabilities and greater integration with the assembler...