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Identificação das variações do espectro do autismo; Variants autism spectrum identification

Barbosa, Milene Rossi Pereira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/10/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
O termo "Distúrbio do Espectro do Autismo" reflete uma tendência a valorizar a grande variedade clínica observada na prática diária e a possibilidade de existirem outros subtipos da patologia. A natureza clínica dos critérios de diagnóstico e a falta de instrumentos definidos e acessíveis para esse processo, em conjunto com a preocupação em não "rotular" a criança, contribuem para o atraso no diagnóstico. Para presente pesquisa, dividida em três estudos, foi utilizado o instrumento Differential Assessment of Autism and Other Developmental Disorders (DAADD) e traz como objetivos identificar as variações do Espectro do Autismo das crianças e adolescentes em atendimento no Laboratório de Investigação Fonoaudiológica nos Distúrbios do Espectro do Autismo da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, identificar os comportamentos das variações do Espectro do Autismo o instrumento com o Autism Behavior Checklist e por fim a partir dele, propor um instrumento reduzido. As análises permitem dizer que, quanto mais nova a criança, mais fácil se dá a diferenciação entre estar incluída no Espectro do Autismo e não estar, e quanto maior a idade da criança mais o DAADD identifica o diagnóstico diferencial dentro dos Distúrbios do Espectro do Autismo. O instrumento mostrou-se eficiente para o diagnóstico no espectro do autismo na comparação dos resultados apresentados no Autism Behavior Checklist pelo mesmo grupo de sujeitos...

Correlação entre a oralidade de crianças com distúrbios do espectro do autismo e o nível de estresse de seus pais; Correlation between verbal communication of children with autism spectrum disorders and the level stress of their parents

Segeren, Leticia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/03/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
O Distúrbio do Espectro do Autismo caracteriza-se como uma síndrome comportamental complexa, que compromete o processo do desenvolvimento ao longo da vida, ocorrendo uma grande variabilidade na intensidade e forma de expressão da sintomatologia, nas áreas que definem o seu diagnóstico. Pessoas com autismo necessitam de atenção especial durante toda a vida e é necessário voltar a atenção também para cuidador. O estresse parental da família de uma criança com autismo é significantemente maior do que o observado em famílias de crianças com desenvolvimento típico ou outras deficiências. A comunicação é um aspecto especialmente afetado nos quadros de autismo e pode ser potencializadora do estresse, sendo uma das primeiras preocupações dos pais. Assim foi indagado se, com relação à comunicação, o fato do filho com autismo não usar alguma fala para se comunicar teria relação com o aumento do nível de estresse dos pais. O Objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o nível de estresse de pais de crianças com autismo, verificando sua associação com a ausência de oralidade na comunicação de seus filhos. Participaram dessa pesquisa os pais de 75 crianças com autismo e pais de 100 crianças sem nenhuma queixa quanto ao desenvolvimento...

Autismo infantil : tradução e validação da CARS (childhood autism rating scale) para uso no Brasil

Pereira, Alessandra Marques
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
Introdução: O autismo infantil tornou-se um dos distúrbios mais estudados em neuropsiquiatria, tendo em vista a gravidade e o impacto que produz. Na ausência de um marcador biológico, seu diagnóstico permanece clínico, com base nos critérios da Associação Americana de Psiquiatria (DSM-IV). Ao longo de várias décadas, vários instrumentos foram desenvolvidos com base no DSM-IV, com objetivo de aperfeiçoar o diagnóstico do transtorno, assim como várias escalas que medem a gravidade dos sintomas também foram criadas. A Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) é uma das escalas mais utilizadas como instrumento para avaliar a gravidade do autismo. Objetivo: O presente estudo objetivou traduzir, adaptar e validar uma versão em português (do Brasil) da referida escala. Métodos:estudo transversal de amostra de conveniência de crianças e adolescentes com diagnóstico de autismo infantil, em acompanhamento regular no Ambulatório de Transtornos Invasivos do Desenvolvimento, do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre.Processo de tradução, adaptação transcultural e validação conforme proposto na literatura por Sperber. Foram utilizadas, além da versão traduzida da CARS (CARS-BR), a Escala de Avaliação de Traços Autísticos (ATA) e a Escala de Avaliação Global do Funcionamento (GAF). Foram empregados os testes de correlação de Pearson para comparação entre as diferentes escalas a fim de se estimar validade convergente (ATA) e validade discriminante (GAF)...

Findings on sensory deficits in autism: implications for understanding the disorder

Caminha,Roberta Costa; Lampreia,Carolina
Fonte: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.97%
Among the many lines of research related to autism, investigations of sensory dysfunction have recently gained attention. The objective of this article is to briefly review the main findings of sensory deficits in autism, raise possibilities of early identification research in the area, and discuss the significance of these sensory problems for the understanding of autism. A review of the scientific literature with regard to sensory problems in autism was performed. A review of autobiographical reports of high-functioning autistic individuals was also performed. This review showed that sensory problems have always been mentioned in the autism literature, but their relevance has been underestimated. Scientific research and autobiographical reports suggest a high prevalence of sensory problems in autism. Although not yet considered in the official diagnosis of autism, sensory problems appear to not only exert a considerable impact on the configuration of the disorder but also directly influence autistic persons in their daily lives. Such impairments may begin to be thought of as fundamental in autism. However, these characteristics deserve to be further investigated by researchers who are dedicated to the study of autism.

Sensory Features as Diagnostic Criteria for Autism: Sensory Features in Autism

Grapel, Jordan N.; Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Volkmar, Fred R.
Fonte: YJBM Publicador: YJBM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.97%
In this study, we examined the frequency of sensory-related issues as reported by parents in a large sample of school-age adolescents and adults with autism/autism spectrum disorder (ASD) [1] as compared to a group of individuals receiving similar clinical evaluations for developmental/behavioral difficulties but whose final diagnoses were not on the autism spectrum. In no comparison were the features examined predictive of autism or autism spectrum in comparison to the non-ASD sample. Only failure to respond to noises had sensitivity above .75 in the comparison of the broader autism spectrum group, but specificity was poor. While sensory issues are relatively common in autism/ASD, they are also frequent in other disorders. These results question the rationale for including sensory items as a diagnostic criterion for autism.

Use of Machine Learning to Shorten Observation-based Screening and Diagnosis of Autism

Kosmicki, Jack Alphonse; DeLuca, Todd; Harstad, Elizabeth Borges; Fusaro, Vincent Alfred; Wall, Dennis Paul
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.04%
The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS) is one of the most widely used instruments for behavioral evaluation of autism spectrum disorders. It is composed of four modules, each tailored for a specific group of individuals based on their language and developmental level. On average, a module takes between 30 and 60 min to deliver. We used a series of machine-learning algorithms to study the complete set of scores from Module 1 of the ADOS available at the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) for 612 individuals with a classification of autism and 15 non-spectrum individuals from both AGRE and the Boston Autism Consortium (AC). Our analysis indicated that 8 of the 29 items contained in Module 1 of the ADOS were sufficient to classify autism with 100% accuracy. We further validated the accuracy of this eight-item classifier against complete sets of scores from two independent sources, a collection of 110 individuals with autism from AC and a collection of 336 individuals with autism from the Simons Foundation. In both cases, our classifier performed with nearly 100% sensitivity, correctly classifying all but two of the individuals from these two resources with a diagnosis of autism, and with 94% specificity on a collection of observed and simulated non-spectrum controls. The classifier contained several elements found in the ADOS algorithm...

Autworks: a Cross-Disease Network Biology Application for Autism and Related Disorders

Nelson, Tristan; Jung, Jae-Yoon; DeLuca, Todd; Hinebaugh, Byron Kent; St Gabriel, Kristian Che; Wall, Dennis Paul Paul
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%
Background: The genetic etiology of autism is heterogeneous. Multiple disorders share genotypic and phenotypic traits with autism. Network based cross-disorder analysis can aid in the understanding and characterization of the molecular pathology of autism, but there are few tools that enable us to conduct cross-disorder analysis and to visualize the results. Description: We have designed Autworks as a web portal to bring together gene interaction and gene-disease association data on autism to enable network construction, visualization, network comparisons with numerous other related neurological conditions and disorders. Users may examine the structure of gene interactions within a set of disorder-associated genes, compare networks of disorder/disease genes with those of other disorders/diseases, and upload their own sets for comparative analysis. Conclusions: Autworks is a web application that provides an easy-to-use resource for researchers of varied backgrounds to analyze the autism gene network structure within and between disorders.

Defining autism : contexts and contributors to the omission of atypical sensory/perceptual responses from the diagnosis of autism

Donnelly, David Richard (1954 - ); Douthit, Kathryn Z.
Fonte: University of Rochester. Publicador: University of Rochester.
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Margaret Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development, 2010.; Since first reported by Leo Kanner in 1943, there has been a rich literature within the fields of psychiatry and psychology regarding the identification, and treatment of individuals with autism. These reports have included competing hypotheses regarding the nature of the disorder. Among the debated characteristics of autism identified by numerous sources as relevant to the study of this disorder have been unusual or atypical sensory/perceptual responses (ASPRs). The attention to ASPRs changed dramatically after the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) (American Psychiatric Association, 1980). In it, ASPRs were not included among the diagnostic criteria for, or characteristics of, autism. To date, no clear account has been published describing the process by which the DSM-III criteria for autism were selected. This dissertation explores the events and people who shaped the diagnostic criteria for autism in DSM-III in a historical narrative, informed by the sociology of knowledge ((Bloor, 2007; Duffin, 1999), including Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962/1996). In doing so...

Novel method for combined linkage and genome-wide association analysis finds evidence of distinct genetic architecture for two subtypes of autism

Vieland, V.J.; Hallmayer, J.; Huang, Y.; Pagnamenta, A.T.; Pinto, D.; Khan, H.; Monaco, A.P.; Paterson, A.D.; Scherer, S.W.; Sutcliffe, J.S.; Szatmari, P.; The Autism Genome Project (AGP)
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.87%
Member of the Autism Genome Project Consortium: Astrid M. Vicente; The Autism Genome Project has assembled two large datasets originally designed for linkage analysis and genome-wide association analysis, respectively: 1,069 multiplex families genotyped on the Affymetrix 10 K platform, and 1,129 autism trios genotyped on the Illumina 1 M platform. We set out to exploit this unique pair of resources by analyzing the combined data with a novel statistical method, based on the PPL statistical framework, simultaneously searching for linkage and association to loci involved in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Our analysis also allowed for potential differences in genetic architecture for ASD in the presence or absence of lower IQ, an important clinical indicator of ASD subtypes. We found strong evidence of multiple linked loci; however, association evidence implicating specific genes was low even under the linkage peaks. Distinct loci were found in the lower IQ families, and these families showed stronger and more numerous linkage peaks, while the normal IQ group yielded the strongest association evidence. It appears that presence/absence of lower IQ (LIQ) demarcates more genetically homogeneous subgroups of ASD patients, with not just different sets of loci acting in the two groups...

Genome-wide linkage analyses of quantitative and categorical autism subphenotypes

Liu, X.Q.; Paterson, A.D.; Szatmari, P.; Autism Genome Project Consortium
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.9%
Member of the Autism Genome Project Consortium: Astrid Moura Vicente; The search for susceptibility genes in autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been hindered by the possible small effects of individual genes and by genetic (locus) heterogeneity. To overcome these obstacles, one method is to use autism-related subphenotypes instead of the categorical diagnosis of autism since they may be more directly related to the underlying susceptibility loci. Another strategy is to analyze subsets of families that meet certain clinical criteria to reduce genetic heterogeneity.

The Autism Simplex Collection: an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses

Buxbaum, J.D.; Bolshakova, N.; Brownfeld, J.M.; Anney, R.J.; Bender, P.; Bernier, R.; Cook, E.H.; Coon, H.; Cuccaro, M.; Freitag, C.M.; Hallmayer, J.; Geschwind, D; Klauck, S.M.; Nurnberger, J.I.; Oliveira, G.; Pinto, D.; Poustka, F.; Scherer, W.S.; Shih,
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/05/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for expanding and enhancing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples, in order to better understand causes of ASD. METHODS: In a unique public-private partnership, 13 sites with extensive experience in both the assessment and diagnosis of ASD embarked on an ambitious, 2-year program to collect samples for genetic and phenotypic research and begin analyses on these samples. The program was called The Autism Simplex Collection (TASC). TASC sample collection began in 2008 and was completed in 2010, and included nine sites from North America and four sites from Western Europe, as well as a centralized Data Coordinating Center. RESULTS: Over 1,700 trios are part of this collection, with DNA from transformed cells now available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) measures are available for all probands, as are standardized IQ measures, Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and physical measures (height, weight, and head circumference). At almost every site, additional phenotypic measures were collected...

Reducing ABA Litigation Through Autism-Centric Charter Schools: Legally Viable Or Vulnerable?

Decker, Janet R.
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
Thesis (Ph.D.) - Indiana University, School of Education, 2010; A recent study discovered that charter schools designed for children with autism or "autism-centric charter schools" comprise half of the total number of charter schools designed for children with disabilities. However, these unique charter schools may be vulnerable to legal challenges because they may be violating the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act's Least Restrictive Environment and Individual Education Program team decision-making requirements, as well as equal protection constitutional principles. At the same time, autism-centric charter schools may be one solution to reduce Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) litigation which is an increasing and divisive subset of autism-related lawsuits. Thus, this study examines whether federal and state law may need to evolve in order to meet the current policy needs of the increasing number of students with autism while also decreasing expensive litigation. First, the researcher provides an overview of the current literature examining the law and litigation relevant to autism-centric charter schools. Next, the study provides a summary of the findings gleaned from a uniquely comprehensive mixed-methods review of all the published...

Social Aspects of Autism in Conflict with NCLB

Doddridge, Jason
Fonte: Theresa A. Ochoa, School of Education, Indiana University Publicador: Theresa A. Ochoa, School of Education, Indiana University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 341797 bytes; application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%
Thank you to Jeanne Sept, Dean of Faculties,and Dean Geraldo Gonzalez and Sarah Baumgart at the School of Education, Indiana University.; Teaching children with autism presents an enormous challenge to educators. Professionals who have students with autism in their classrooms must decide how they will structure their curriculum to meet the special needs of these students. Current research suggests that educators should focus on developing the social behaviors of children with autism. In fact, much of the research on teaching autism does not focus on strategies and theories for teaching students specific subjects. Instead, most articles suggest that social learning serves as a foundation for all other learning in the education system. This type of research and philosophy seemed to be making headway in America's schools until the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001(NCLB). This powerful piece of federal legislation intends to level the playing field for all demographic groups, including special education groups. Contrary to its own goals, the NCLB actually places students with autism at a disadvantage because of its emphasis on academic standards and goals at the expense of social aspects of education for students with autism. Under NCLB...

Early detection and intervention for infants at risk of autism spectrum disorders

Regehr, Kaleigh.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.97%
Autism is a developmental disorder that is characterized by abnonnal social interactions and communications as well as repetitive and restricted activities and interests. There is evidence of a genetic component, as 5% of younger siblings are diagnosed if their older sibling has been diagnosed. Autism is generally not diagnosed until age 3 at the earliest, yet it has been shown that early intervention for children with autism can greatly increase their functioning. Because of this, it is important that symptoms of autism are identified as early as possible so that diagnosis can occur as soon as possible to allow these children the earliest intervention. This thesis was divided into two parts. The first looked at the psychometrics of two proposed measures, the Parent Observation Checklist (POC), administered monthly, and the Infant Behavior Summary Evaluation (mSE), administered bimonthly, to see if they can be used with the infant population to identify autistic symptoms in infants who are at high risk for autism or related problems because they have an older sibling with autism. Study 1 reported acceptable psychometric properties of both the POC and IBSE in terms of test-retest reliability, internal consistency, construct validity and predictive validity. These results provide preliminary evidence that parent report measures can help to detect early symptoms of ASD in infants. The POC was shown to differentiate infants who were diagnosed from a matched group that was not diagnosed by 3 years of age. The second part of this thesis involved a telephone interview of parents who reported developmental and/or behavior problems in their high-risk infants that may be early signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). During the interview...

Tradução e validação da entrevista Autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R) para diagnóstico de autismo no Brasil

Becker, Michele Michelin
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.99%
Introdução: O autismo é uma síndrome comportamental que vem sendo muito estudada nas últimas décadas. Apesar de muitos progressos em seu entendimento e da associação indiscutível com distúrbios biológicos, ainda hoje não há um marcador biológico que o defina, sendo o seu diagnóstico clínico com base nos critérios da Associação Americana de Psiquiatria (DSM-IV-TR). Desde a década de 1980, questionários, escalas e critérios têm sido criados com o objetivo de tentar uniformizar o diagnóstico e a avaliação de crianças autistas. A entrevista Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) é uma das baterias mais detalhadas para o diagnóstico de autismo e considerada um dos métodos padrão-ouro para diagnóstico de autismo na literatura internacional. Objetivo: Traduzir e adaptar a Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) para a língua portuguesa e validá-la como instrumento diagnóstico de autismo no Brasil. Métodos: Após ser traduzida e adaptada à língua portuguesa pelo método de retrotradução, a entrevista foi aplicada em amostra de conveniência de 20 pacientes autistas e 17 pacientes com retardo mental sem autismo, pareados por idade, tendo por objetivo a avaliação de suas propriedades psicométricas. As entrevistas foram codificadas por dois pesquisadores independentes para a obtenção da consistência externa entre observadores. A validade interna foi calculada pelo coeficiente de fidedignidade de Crombach. A validade de critério foi mensurada através do cálculo de sensibilidade e especificidade...

Dental caries experience, oral health status and treatment needs of dental patients with autism

Jaber,Mohamed Abdullah
Fonte: Faculdade De Odontologia De Bauru - USP Publicador: Faculdade De Odontologia De Bauru - USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%
OBJECTIVES: Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether children with autism have higher caries prevalence, higher periodontal problems, or more treatment needs than children of a control group of non-autistic patients, and to provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services to autistic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 61 patients with autism aged 6-16 years (45 males and 16 females) attending Dubai and Sharjah Autism Centers were selected for the study. The control group consisted of 61 non-autistic patients chosen from relatives or friends of autistic patients in an attempt to have matched age, sex and socioeconomic status. Each patient received a complete oral and periodontal examination, assessment of caries prevalence, and caries severity. Other conditions assessed were dental plaque, gingivitis, restorations and treatment needs. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test of significance were used to compare groups. RESULTS: The autism group had a male-to-female ratio of 2.8:1. Compared to controls, children with autism had significantly higher decayed, missing or filled teeth than unaffected patients and significantly needed more restorative dental treatment. The restorative index (RI) and Met Need Index (MNI) for the autistic children were 0.02 and 0.3...

The ?Reading the Mind in the Eyes? test: Complete absence of typical sex difference in ~400 men and women with autism

Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bowen, Daniel C.; Holt, Rosemary J.; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Lombardo, Michael V.; Smith, Paula; Lai, Meng-Chuan
Fonte: PLoS Publicador: PLoS
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from PLoS via http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136521; The ?Reading the Mind in the Eyes? test (Eyes test) is an advanced test of theory of mind. Typical sex difference has been reported (i.e., female advantage). Individuals with autism show more difficulty than do typically developing individuals, yet it remains unclear how this is modulated by sex, as females with autism have been under-represented. Here in a large, non-male-biased sample we test for the effects of sex, diagnosis, and their interaction. The Eyes test (revised version) was administered online to 395 adults with autism (178 males, 217 females) and 320 control adults (152 males, 168 females). Two-way ANOVA showed a significant sex-by-diagnosis interaction in total correct score (F(1,711) = 5.090, p = 0.024, ?p2 = 0.007) arising from a significant sex difference between control males and females (p < 0.001, Cohen?s d = 0.47), and an absence of a sex difference between males and females with autism (p = 0.907, d = 0.01); significant case-control differences were observed across sexes, with effect sizes of d = 0.35 in males and d = 0.69 in females. Group-difference patterns fit with the extreme-male-brain (EMB) theory predictions. Eyes test-Empathy Quotient and Eyes test-Autism Spectrum Quotient correlations were significant only in females with autism (r = 0.35...

Sex/Gender Differences and Autism: Setting the Scene for Future Research

Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Auyeung, Bonnie; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
This is the final published version. It first appeared at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890856714007254#.; Objective: The relationship between sex/gender differences and autism has attracted a variety of research ranging from clinical and neurobiological to etiological, stimulated by the male bias in autism prevalence. Findings are complex and do not always relate to each other in a straightforward manner. Distinct but interlinked questions on the relationship between sex/gender differences and autism remain underaddressed. To better understand the implications from existing research and to help design future studies, we propose a 4-level conceptual framework to clarify the embedded themes. Method: We searched PubMed for publications before September 2014 using search terms ??sex OR gender OR females? AND autism.? A total of 1,906 articles were screened for relevance, along with publications identified via additional literature reviews, resulting in 329 articles that were reviewed. Results: Level 1, ?Nosological and diagnostic challenges,? concerns the question, ?How should autism be defined and diagnosed in males and females?? Level 2, ?Sex/gender-independent and sex/gender-dependent characteristics...

Validation of existing diagnosis of autism in mainland China using standardised diagnositc instruments

Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Zhixiang, Zhang; Matthews, Fiona E.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol
Fonte: SAGE Publicador: SAGE
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06%
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available via SAGE at http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362361314556785; Research to date in mainland China has mainly focused on children with autistic disorder rather than Autism Spectrum Conditions and the diagnosis largely depended on clinical judgment without the use of diagnostic instruments. Whether children who have been diagnosed in China before meet the diagnostic criteria of Autism Spectrum Conditions is not known nor how many such children would meet these criteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate children with a known diagnosis of autism in mainland China using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview?Revised to verify that children who were given a diagnosis of autism made by Chinese clinicians in China were mostly children with severe autism. Of 50 children with an existing diagnosis of autism made by Chinese clinicians, 47 children met the diagnosis of autism on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule algorithm and 44 children met the diagnosis of autism on the Autism Diagnostic Interview?Revised algorithm. Using the Gwet?s alternative chance-corrected statistic, the agreement between the Chinese diagnosis and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule diagnosis was very good (AC1 = 0.94...

Dental caries experience, oral health status and treatment needs of dental patients with autism

Jaber, Mohamed Abdullah
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%
OBJECTIVES: Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether children with autism have higher caries prevalence, higher periodontal problems, or more treatment needs than children of a control group of non-autistic patients, and to provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services to autistic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 61 patients with autism aged 6-16 years (45 males and 16 females) attending Dubai and Sharjah Autism Centers were selected for the study. The control group consisted of 61 non-autistic patients chosen from relatives or friends of autistic patients in an attempt to have matched age, sex and socioeconomic status. Each patient received a complete oral and periodontal examination, assessment of caries prevalence, and caries severity. Other conditions assessed were dental plaque, gingivitis, restorations and treatment needs. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test of significance were used to compare groups. RESULTS: The autism group had a male-to-female ratio of 2.8:1. Compared to controls, children with autism had significantly higher decayed, missing or filled teeth than unaffected patients and significantly needed more restorative dental treatment. The restorative index (RI) and Met Need Index (MNI) for the autistic children were 0.02 and 0.3...